FILE: <insect4.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU ]

 

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151a (148b). Prosternum with a groove to receive proboscis; proboscis with 3 segments (Figs.A-B) (general predators) .......... A ....... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Reduviidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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151b. Prosternum without a groove; proboscis usually with 4 segments (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Nabidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

Major Families of Adult Predatory & Parasitic Coleoptera:

 

153

152a (27a, 51b, 54a & 73b). Head not prolonged into a beak; gular sutures (= longitudinal sutures demarking sclerite on ventral side of head) double, at least anteriorly and posteriorly

 

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152b. Head usually prolonged into a beak; gular sutures fused or lacking; antennae not elbowed; elytra cover base of pygidium (= last dorsal segment of abdomen) (Figs.A-C) (predators of Coccidae) ....... A ...... ( Coleoptera) Anthribidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

154

153a (152a). First abdominal sternite divided by the hind coxal cavities ......... (Coleoptera) (Adephaga) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

158

153b. First abdominal sternite not interrupted by hind coxal cavities ........... (Coleoptera) (Polyphaga) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

155

154a (153a). Abdomen with 6 or more visible sternites; antennae filiform

 

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154b. Abdomen with only 4 visible sternites; antennae very much thickened apically, clavate or laminate (Fig.A) (predators of ants)... ..... A ....... (Coleoptera) Paussidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

156

155a (154a). Eyes entire, not divided; antennae elongated, slender ......... (Coleoptera) Caraboidea)

 

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155b. Eyes divided, appear as 2 pairs; antennae short and somewhat clubbed; front legs elongated and slender (Figs.A-B) (predators of aquatic arthropods). ...... A ........ ( Coleoptera) (Gyrinoidea) Gyrinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

157

156a (155a). Metasternum with a distinct transverse suture demarking a triangular antecoxal suture

 

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156b. Metasternum without a transverse suture or antecoxal sclerite; body smooth and hard; hind legs flattened and fringed with long hairs (Figs.A-C) (predators of aquatic arthropods) ...... A ......... (Coleoptera) Dytiscidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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157a (156a). Antennae inserted on front above base of mandibles; clypeus extends laterally beyond the base of antennae; often brightly colored insects (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...... A ...... (Coleoptera) Cicindelidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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157b. Antennae inserted on side of head between base of mandible and eye; clypeus does not extend laterally beyond base of antennae; most are dark, shiny and flattened (Figs.A-F) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Carabidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

159

158a (153b). Antennae usually not clubbed, but if so, segments are not lamellate

 

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158b. Antennae with the last 3-7 segments enlarged, club-like; body heavy, oval or elongated and usually convex (Figs.A-F) (considered predators of grasshopper egg pods). ..,,,. A ..... (Coleoptera) Scarabaeidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

160

159a (158a). Hind tarsi with 4 segments, front and middle tarsi with 5 segments

 

166

159b. Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as fore and middle tarsi

 

161

160a (159a). Front coxal cavities closed behind

 

162

160b. Front coxal cavities open behind

 

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161a (160a). Abdominal sternites freely movable (%% only; also refer to couplet 182); abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Figs.A-D) (predators) ........ A ..,,, (Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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161b. First 2-4 abdominal sternites somewhat fused or immovable; eyes usually notched; most are black or brownish (Figs.A-H) (predators) .......... (Coleoptera) Tenebrionidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

163

162a (160b). Head very much and abruptly constricted behind eyes

 

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162b. Head not much and suddenly constricted behind eyes ....... Coleoptera (Coleoptera) Pythidae (= Salpingidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

164

163a (162a). Prothorax usually rounded on sides, without a sharp lateral margin

 

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163b. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin; body somewhat humpbacked, with head bent down; abdomen pointed apically, extending beyond tips of elytra (Figs.A-B) (may be predators) ....... .A ........ (Coleoptera) Mordellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

165

164a (163a). Base of prothorax narrower than elytra

 

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164b. Base of prothorax as wide as elytra; antennae pectinate (= comb-like); abdomen blunt (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Rhipiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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165a (164a). Hind coxae large and prominent; elytra soft and flexible; pronotum narrower than either head or elytra (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Meloidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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165b. Hind coxae transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis), not prominent; head constricted behind eyes; ant-like in appearance (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Anthicidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

167

166a (159b). Maxillary palpi much shorter than antennae

 

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166b. Maxillary palpi as long as, or longer than, antennae; short clubbed antennae; body oval (Figs.A-B) (general predators ....... A ........ (Coleoptera) Hydrophilidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

168

167a (166a). Elytra cover most of abdomen, not short

 

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167b. Elytra short, exposing much of abdomen; 6-7 visible abdominal sterna; well-developed hind wings, folded when at rest (Figs.A-F) (general predators & some parasitoids of Diptera ....... A .... (Coleoptera) Staphylinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> <Identification>

 

169

168a (167a). Tarsi with 5 segments on at least one pair of legs, usually on all legs

 

191

168b. All tarsi with less than 5 segments

 

170

169a (168a). Abdomen with at least 6 sternites

 

178

169b. Abdomen with 5 or less sternites

 

171

170a (169a). Front coxae conical, large and prominent

 

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170b. Front coxae globular, small and not prominent; body louse-like, brownish (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... A ......... (Coleoptera) Leptinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

172

171a (170a). Abdomen with 6 sternites visible

 

175

171b. Abdomen with 7-8 sternites visible

 

173

172a (171a). Hind coxae not grooved

 

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172b. Hind coxae grooved for reception of femora; orange antennae (also see couplet 189) (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of cicadas) ..... A ......... (Coleoptera) Rhipiceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

174

173a (172a). Hind coxae prominent, at least internally

 

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173b. Hind coxae flat, not prominent; body pubescent and often brightly colored (also see couplet 188) (Figs.A-I) (general predators) ....... A ...... (Coleoptera) Cleridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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174a (173a). Tibial spurs large; body often brightly colored and relatively large (Figs.A-G) (general predators) ....... A ....... (Coleoptera) Silphidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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174b. Tibial spurs small, indistinct (general predators)......... (Coleoptera) Melyridae (Malachiidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

176

175a (171b). Middle coxae touching each other

 

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175b. Middle coxae separated, not touching each other; net-like lines on elytra (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ....... A ........ (Coleoptera) Lycidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

177

176a (175a). Antennae inserted on the upper part of the front or at the base of its anterior lobe.

 

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176b. Antennae inserted at the side of front, before eye (Fig.A) (general predators) ........ A ......... (Coleoptera) Drilidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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177a (176a). Head almost completely covered by prothorax; many species with illuminescent organs (Figs.A-B) (predators of snails) ......... A .......... (Coleoptera) Lampyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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177b. Head not at all covered by prothorax; no light producing organs (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...... (Coleoptera) Cantharidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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177c. Head not covered by prothorax, adult females often wingless & luminescent (Figs.A-B) (glow worms; larvae predaceous on other arthropods) ....... (Coleoptera) Phenogodidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

179

178a (169b). Front coxae globular or transverse

 

189

178b. Front coxae somewhat conical and prominent

 

180

179a (178a). Front coxae transverse, somewhat cylindrical

 

184

179b. Front coxae globular

 

181

180a (179a). Hind coxae grooved to receive femora.

 

182

180b. Hind coxae flat, not grooved

 

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181a (180a). Front coxae without a distinctly separated side piece; some species with enlarged hind femora (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ....... A ......... (Coleoptera) Helodidae

 

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181b. Front coxae with a distinct side piece (trochantin); body pubescent (Fig.A) (general predators). ... (Coleoptera) Dascillidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

183

182a (180b). Tarsi somewhat dilated, 1st segment not shortened

 

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182b. Tarsi slender, the metatarsus very short; body oval or elliptical; pronotum rather closely joined to base of elytra (Fig.A) (general predators) ..... A ....... (Coleoptera) Ostomatidae <Habits>; <Adults & <Juveniles>

 

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183a (182a). Maxillae with only a single lobe (Figs.A-E) (general predators) ....... A ........ Coleoptera) Nitidulidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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183b. Maxillae with both an inner and an outer lobe; abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Fig.A) (also see couplet 160) .......... (Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

185

184a (179b). Prosternum without a median process.

 

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184b. Prosternum prolonged behind into a median process that is received into the mesosternum; posterior corners of pronotum prolonged posteriorily into sharp points; able to click and jump (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........ A ...... (Coleoptera) Elateridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

186

185a (184a). Hind coxae not in contact with each other, although they may be close together in some species

 

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185b. Hind coxae in contact with each other; body oval, shining and convex, usually brownish (Figs.A-B) (predators of aphids) ........ A ......... (Coleoptera) Phalacridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

187

186a (185a). Elytra entire, covering the pygidium

 

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186b. Elytra short, cut off square at apex, leaving at least 2 segments of abdomen exposed (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ...... A ....... (Coleoptera) Histeridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

188

187a (186a). Antennae with 10-11 segments; body flattened

 

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187b. Antennae with only 2 segments (Fig.A) (general predators) ..... A .... (Coleoptera) Ectrephidae

 

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188a (187a). Maxillae covered by corneous plates (Fig.A) (often included in Cucujidae) ....... A .... (Coleoptera) Cucujidae (old Passandridae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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188b. Maxillae exposed (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Cucujidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

190

189a (178b). Hind coxae dilated into plates which are grooved to receive femora

 

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189b. Hind coxae not grooved; body pubescent and often brightly colored (also see couplet 172) (Figs.A-I). ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Cleridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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190a (189a). Antennae short with last 3 segments much enlarged forming a strong club; median ocellus present (Figs.A-F) (general predators) ........ A ..... (Coleoptera) Dermestidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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190b. Antennae not club-shaped; orange in color (also see couplet 171) (Figs.172b-A-C) ......... (Coleoptera) Rhipiceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

192

191a (168b). Tarsi with 3 segments

 

193

191b. Tarsi with 4 segments

 

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192a (191a). Second segment of tarsi dilated; body small, oval, convex and brightly colored (Fig.A) (predators of Homoptera) .......... A ..... (Coleoptera) Coccinellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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192b. Second segment of tarsi not dilated (Fig.A) ....... (Coleoptera) Lathridiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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193a (191b). Abdominal sternites all free and movable; body hairy, often brightly colored (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Mycetophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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193b. Abdominal sternites Nos. 1-4 firmly united; body hard, shiny (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Colydiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Neuroptera:

 

195

194a (16a, 49a, 50a, 68a, 71a & 84a). Head hypognathous (= head and mouthparts projecting downward); hind wing not folded fan-like when at rest

 

196

194b. Head prognathous (= head and mouthparts directed forward); hind wing folded fan-like when not in use ........... (Neuroptera) (Sialodea) <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]

 

197

195a (194a). Antennae usually filiform (= thread-like); ovipositor not exserted ........... (Neuroptera) (Planipennia) <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]

 

216

195b. Antennae setiform; ovipositor exserted.......... (Neuroptera) (Raphidiodea)

 

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196a (194b). Ocelli absent; 4th segment of tarsi bilobed (Figs.A-B) ..... A ... (Neuroptera) .. Sialidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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196b. With 3 ocelli present; 4th segment of tarsi not bilobed (Fig.A) ....... (Neuroptera) Corydalidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

198

197a (195a). Veins and usually cross veins abundant; wings without whitish powder

 

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197b. Veins and crossveins less in number; wings covered with whitish powder (Fig.A) (mite predators) ...... A ......... (Neuroptera) Coniopterigidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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198a (197a). Large moth-like species; costal area of fore wing not broad; head small and closely set on prothorax; antennae long, filiform (= thread-like), with 40-50 segments (Figs.A & C) ....... A ..... (Neuroptera) Ithonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

199

198b. Not as previously described

 

200

199a (198b). Antennae never enlarged apically, moniliform (= bead-like), filiform (= thread- like), or rarely pectinate (= comb-like)

212

199b. Antennae at least thickly cylindrical, usually enlarged towards apex

 

201

200a (199a). Hind wings not longer than fore wings, the 2 pairs similar in form and venation

 

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200b. Hind wings greatly elongated and ribbon-like, often with widened, spoon-like ends .... A ... (Figs.A-C) ...,.. (Neuroptera) Nemopteridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

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