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151a (148b). Prosternum with a groove to receive proboscis; proboscis with 3 segments (Figs.A-B) (general predators) .......... A ....... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Reduviidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



151b. Prosternum without a groove; proboscis usually with 4 segments (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Nabidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Major Families of Adult Predatory & Parasitic Coleoptera:



152a (27a, 51b, 54a & 73b). Head not prolonged into a beak; gular sutures (= longitudinal sutures demarking sclerite on ventral side of head) double, at least anteriorly and posteriorly



152b. Head usually prolonged into a beak; gular sutures fused or lacking; antennae not elbowed; elytra cover base of pygidium (= last dorsal segment of abdomen) (Figs.A-C) (predators of Coccidae) ....... A ...... ( Coleoptera) Anthribidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



153a (152a). First abdominal sternite divided by the hind coxal cavities ......... (Coleoptera) (Adephaga) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]



153b. First abdominal sternite not interrupted by hind coxal cavities ........... (Coleoptera) (Polyphaga) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]



154a (153a). Abdomen with 6 or more visible sternites; antennae filiform



154b. Abdomen with only 4 visible sternites; antennae very much thickened apically, clavate or laminate (Fig.A) (predators of ants)... ..... A ....... (Coleoptera) Paussidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



155a (154a). Eyes entire, not divided; antennae elongated, slender ......... (Coleoptera) Caraboidea)



155b. Eyes divided, appear as 2 pairs; antennae short and somewhat clubbed; front legs elongated and slender (Figs.A-B) (predators of aquatic arthropods). ...... A ........ ( Coleoptera) (Gyrinoidea) Gyrinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



156a (155a). Metasternum with a distinct transverse suture demarking a triangular antecoxal suture



156b. Metasternum without a transverse suture or antecoxal sclerite; body smooth and hard; hind legs flattened and fringed with long hairs (Figs.A-C) (predators of aquatic arthropods) ...... A ......... (Coleoptera) Dytiscidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



157a (156a). Antennae inserted on front above base of mandibles; clypeus extends laterally beyond the base of antennae; often brightly colored insects (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...... A ...... (Coleoptera) Cicindelidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



157b. Antennae inserted on side of head between base of mandible and eye; clypeus does not extend laterally beyond base of antennae; most are dark, shiny and flattened (Figs.A-F) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Carabidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



158a (153b). Antennae usually not clubbed, but if so, segments are not lamellate



158b. Antennae with the last 3-7 segments enlarged, club-like; body heavy, oval or elongated and usually convex (Figs.A-F) (considered predators of grasshopper egg pods). ..,,,. A ..... (Coleoptera) Scarabaeidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



159a (158a). Hind tarsi with 4 segments, front and middle tarsi with 5 segments



159b. Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as fore and middle tarsi



160a (159a). Front coxal cavities closed behind



160b. Front coxal cavities open behind



161a (160a). Abdominal sternites freely movable (%% only; also refer to couplet 182); abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Figs.A-D) (predators) ........ A ..,,, (Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



161b. First 2-4 abdominal sternites somewhat fused or immovable; eyes usually notched; most are black or brownish (Figs.A-H) (predators) .......... (Coleoptera) Tenebrionidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



162a (160b). Head very much and abruptly constricted behind eyes



162b. Head not much and suddenly constricted behind eyes ....... Coleoptera (Coleoptera) Pythidae (= Salpingidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



163a (162a). Prothorax usually rounded on sides, without a sharp lateral margin



163b. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin; body somewhat humpbacked, with head bent down; abdomen pointed apically, extending beyond tips of elytra (Figs.A-B) (may be predators) ....... .A ........ (Coleoptera) Mordellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



164a (163a). Base of prothorax narrower than elytra



164b. Base of prothorax as wide as elytra; antennae pectinate (= comb-like); abdomen blunt (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Rhipiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



165a (164a). Hind coxae large and prominent; elytra soft and flexible; pronotum narrower than either head or elytra (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Meloidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



165b. Hind coxae transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis), not prominent; head constricted behind eyes; ant-like in appearance (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Anthicidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



166a (159b). Maxillary palpi much shorter than antennae



166b. Maxillary palpi as long as, or longer than, antennae; short clubbed antennae; body oval (Figs.A-B) (general predators ....... A ........ (Coleoptera) Hydrophilidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



167a (166a). Elytra cover most of abdomen, not short



167b. Elytra short, exposing much of abdomen; 6-7 visible abdominal sterna; well-developed hind wings, folded when at rest (Figs.A-F) (general predators & some parasitoids of Diptera ....... A .... (Coleoptera) Staphylinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> <Identification>



168a (167a). Tarsi with 5 segments on at least one pair of legs, usually on all legs



168b. All tarsi with less than 5 segments



169a (168a). Abdomen with at least 6 sternites



169b. Abdomen with 5 or less sternites



170a (169a). Front coxae conical, large and prominent



170b. Front coxae globular, small and not prominent; body louse-like, brownish (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... A ......... (Coleoptera) Leptinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



171a (170a). Abdomen with 6 sternites visible



171b. Abdomen with 7-8 sternites visible



172a (171a). Hind coxae not grooved



172b. Hind coxae grooved for reception of femora; orange antennae (also see couplet 189) (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of cicadas) ..... A ......... (Coleoptera) Rhipiceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



173a (172a). Hind coxae prominent, at least internally



173b. Hind coxae flat, not prominent; body pubescent and often brightly colored (also see couplet 188) (Figs.A-I) (general predators) ....... A ...... (Coleoptera) Cleridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



174a (173a). Tibial spurs large; body often brightly colored and relatively large (Figs.A-G) (general predators) ....... A ....... (Coleoptera) Silphidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



174b. Tibial spurs small, indistinct (general predators)......... (Coleoptera) Melyridae (Malachiidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



175a (171b). Middle coxae touching each other



175b. Middle coxae separated, not touching each other; net-like lines on elytra (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ....... A ........ (Coleoptera) Lycidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



176a (175a). Antennae inserted on the upper part of the front or at the base of its anterior lobe.



176b. Antennae inserted at the side of front, before eye (Fig.A) (general predators) ........ A ......... (Coleoptera) Drilidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



177a (176a). Head almost completely covered by prothorax; many species with illuminescent organs (Figs.A-B) (predators of snails) ......... A .......... (Coleoptera) Lampyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



177b. Head not at all covered by prothorax; no light producing organs (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...... (Coleoptera) Cantharidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



177c. Head not covered by prothorax, adult females often wingless & luminescent (Figs.A-B) (glow worms; larvae predaceous on other arthropods) ....... (Coleoptera) Phenogodidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



178a (169b). Front coxae globular or transverse



178b. Front coxae somewhat conical and prominent



179a (178a). Front coxae transverse, somewhat cylindrical



179b. Front coxae globular



180a (179a). Hind coxae grooved to receive femora.



180b. Hind coxae flat, not grooved



181a (180a). Front coxae without a distinctly separated side piece; some species with enlarged hind femora (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ....... A ......... (Coleoptera) Helodidae



181b. Front coxae with a distinct side piece (trochantin); body pubescent (Fig.A) (general predators). ... (Coleoptera) Dascillidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



182a (180b). Tarsi somewhat dilated, 1st segment not shortened



182b. Tarsi slender, the metatarsus very short; body oval or elliptical; pronotum rather closely joined to base of elytra (Fig.A) (general predators) ..... A ....... (Coleoptera) Ostomatidae <Habits>; <Adults & <Juveniles>



183a (182a). Maxillae with only a single lobe (Figs.A-E) (general predators) ....... A ........ Coleoptera) Nitidulidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



183b. Maxillae with both an inner and an outer lobe; abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Fig.A) (also see couplet 160) .......... (Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



184a (179b). Prosternum without a median process.



184b. Prosternum prolonged behind into a median process that is received into the mesosternum; posterior corners of pronotum prolonged posteriorily into sharp points; able to click and jump (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........ A ...... (Coleoptera) Elateridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



185a (184a). Hind coxae not in contact with each other, although they may be close together in some species



185b. Hind coxae in contact with each other; body oval, shining and convex, usually brownish (Figs.A-B) (predators of aphids) ........ A ......... (Coleoptera) Phalacridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



186a (185a). Elytra entire, covering the pygidium



186b. Elytra short, cut off square at apex, leaving at least 2 segments of abdomen exposed (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ...... A ....... (Coleoptera) Histeridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



187a (186a). Antennae with 10-11 segments; body flattened



187b. Antennae with only 2 segments (Fig.A) (general predators) ..... A .... (Coleoptera) Ectrephidae



188a (187a). Maxillae covered by corneous plates (Fig.A) (often included in Cucujidae) ....... A .... (Coleoptera) Cucujidae (old Passandridae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



188b. Maxillae exposed (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Cucujidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



189a (178b). Hind coxae dilated into plates which are grooved to receive femora



189b. Hind coxae not grooved; body pubescent and often brightly colored (also see couplet 172) (Figs.A-I). ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Cleridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



190a (189a). Antennae short with last 3 segments much enlarged forming a strong club; median ocellus present (Figs.A-F) (general predators) ........ A ..... (Coleoptera) Dermestidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



190b. Antennae not club-shaped; orange in color (also see couplet 171) (Figs.172b-A-C) ......... (Coleoptera) Rhipiceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



191a (168b). Tarsi with 3 segments



191b. Tarsi with 4 segments



192a (191a). Second segment of tarsi dilated; body small, oval, convex and brightly colored (Fig.A) (predators of Homoptera) .......... A ..... (Coleoptera) Coccinellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



192b. Second segment of tarsi not dilated (Fig.A) ....... (Coleoptera) Lathridiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



193a (191b). Abdominal sternites all free and movable; body hairy, often brightly colored (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ........ A ........ (Coleoptera) Mycetophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



193b. Abdominal sternites Nos. 1-4 firmly united; body hard, shiny (Figs.A-B) (general predators) ......... (Coleoptera) Colydiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Neuroptera:



194a (16a, 49a, 50a, 68a, 71a & 84a). Head hypognathous (= head and mouthparts projecting downward); hind wing not folded fan-like when at rest



194b. Head prognathous (= head and mouthparts directed forward); hind wing folded fan-like when not in use ........... (Neuroptera) (Sialodea) <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]



195a (194a). Antennae usually filiform (= thread-like); ovipositor not exserted ........... (Neuroptera) (Planipennia) <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]



195b. Antennae setiform; ovipositor exserted.......... (Neuroptera) (Raphidiodea)



196a (194b). Ocelli absent; 4th segment of tarsi bilobed (Figs.A-B) ..... A ... (Neuroptera) .. Sialidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



196b. With 3 ocelli present; 4th segment of tarsi not bilobed (Fig.A) ....... (Neuroptera) Corydalidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



197a (195a). Veins and usually cross veins abundant; wings without whitish powder



197b. Veins and crossveins less in number; wings covered with whitish powder (Fig.A) (mite predators) ...... A ......... (Neuroptera) Coniopterigidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



198a (197a). Large moth-like species; costal area of fore wing not broad; head small and closely set on prothorax; antennae long, filiform (= thread-like), with 40-50 segments (Figs.A & C) ....... A ..... (Neuroptera) Ithonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



198b. Not as previously described



199a (198b). Antennae never enlarged apically, moniliform (= bead-like), filiform (= thread- like), or rarely pectinate (= comb-like)


199b. Antennae at least thickly cylindrical, usually enlarged towards apex



200a (199a). Hind wings not longer than fore wings, the 2 pairs similar in form and venation



200b. Hind wings greatly elongated and ribbon-like, often with widened, spoon-like ends .... A ... (Figs.A-C) ...,.. (Neuroptera) Nemopteridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


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