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101a (100a). Three ocelli present; palpi normally prominent; proboscis adapted for piercing (Figs.A-E); top of head hollowed out between eyes; abdomen tapering or oval; lobe .... A ..... (alula) usually at base of wing (both larvae & adults are predators) ... (Diptera) .. Asilidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



101b. One ocellus or none present; antennae with 4 segments; palpi vestigial; proboscis with fleshy labellae (= exposed tip of labium); large flies (Figs.A-C) (both larvae & adults are predators) ............ (Diptera) Mydaidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



102a (100b). Costa continues around wing



102b. Costa reaches only to wing apex; 4th vein (M-1) ends before wing tip; 3 posterior cells (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of larvae of Coleoptera) ..... A .... (Diptera) Scenopinidae <Habits>; Adults> & <Juveniles>



103a (102a). Wing has 5 posterior cells



103b. Wing has at most 4 posterior cells



104a (103a). Fourth vein (M-1) ends beyond apex of wing (Figs.A-C) (larvae & adults are predators of other arthropods) ......... A ..... (Diptera) Therevidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



104b. Fourth vein (M-1) ends before apex of wing (Fig.A) (both adults & larvae are predators of other arthropods; rare in arid regions of western North America) ..... (Diptera) Apioceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



105a (103b). Anal cell open or closed near wing margin; antennal style short, never longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually hairy, stocky and somewhat humpbacked; brown or grayish flies (Figs.A-C) (parasitize a variety of immature arthropods; most common in southwestern United States) ....... A ........ (Diptera) Bombyliidae



105b. Anal cell short and closed far from wing margin; anal vein does not reach wing margin; antennal style (= bristle) usually longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually bare, slender and black (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ............ (Diptera) Empididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



106a (99b). Wing normal, not obviously rounded apically; venation normal



106b. Wing rounded apically; veins very well developed anteriorly; antennae appear one- segmented with long arista (= bristle on apical segment); long hind legs and flattened femora; body humpbacked (Fig.A) (parasitoids of ant pupae, larvae & pupae of Lepidoptera & Hymenoptera; some species are predators ... A ........ (Diptera) Phoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



107a (106a). Spurious vein (= vein-like thickening of wing membrane between 2 true veins) in wing absent; anal cell usually short



107b. Spurious vein in wing present; anal cell long, closed near wing margin; body brightly colored; they resemble bees or wasps) (Figs.A-E) (predators of Homoptera) A .......... (Diptera) Syrphidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



108a (107a). Frontal lanule (= crescent-shaped sclerite above base of antennae) completely absent



108b. Frontal lunule present as a crescent-shaped sclerite above antennae



109a (108a). Head normal, not exceptionally large; front and face usually wide



109b. Head large, hemispherical; front and face narrow; probosis small and soft; body stocky and humpbacked, brown or grayish (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of treehoppers & leafhoppers) . A .. (Diptera) Pipunculidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



110a (109a). Crossvein r-m located beyond basal 1/4th of wing; anal cell pointed apically; proboscis usually rigid; body not metallic; %% genitalia terminal, not folded under abdomen (Fig.A); relatively slender and usually black flies (adults and larvae are A ..predaceous on smaller insects) (please also refer to couplet 105)............ (Diptera) Empididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



110b. Crossvein r-m located in basal 1/4th of wing; 2nd basal and discal cells united; anal cell when present rounded apically; body usually metallic; %% genitalia frequently folded forward under abdomen (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Dolichopodidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



111a (108b). Second antennal segment with a lateral subdorsal longitudinal seam; thorax with a complete transverse suture; calypter (= lobe at wing base) large



111b. Second antennal segment without a longitudinal seam; thorax without a complete transverse suture; calypter small or rudimentary



112a (111a). Hypopleural bristles (rather vertical row usually above hind coxae) present



112b. Hypopleural bristles absent; 3rd (R-5) and 4th (M-1) veins almost parallel at wing tip or 4th vein bends forward; undersurface of scutellum with fine erect hairs (Figs.A-B) A ...... (predators of dipterous larvae)....(Diptera) Anthomyiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



113a (112a). Postscutellum developed; hypopleura with strong bristles; eyes usually bare; body of && large, variously colored, but usually blackish (Figs.A-G) (parasitoids of many types of insects) ........ A ...... (Diptera) Tachinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



113b. Postscutellum not developed; hypopleura with a row of bristles



114a (113b). Body usually gray with 3 black stripes on mesonotum, bare but not metallic; usually 4 notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose (= featherlike) in basal half A .... (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers & other arthropods) .... (Diptera) Sarcophagidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



114b. Body usually metallic, usually 2 (rarely 3) notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose beyond basal half (Figs.A-D) (generally predaceous ....... (Diptera) Calliphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



115a (111b). Proboscis shorter than head; head never broader than thorax; first posterior cell not quite narrowed apically



115b. Proboscis longer than head, slender and rigit, often folding; head wider than thorax; first posterior cell narrowed or closed apically; abdomen clavate (= club-like), bent downward at apex (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of wild bees) ....... A ....... (Diptera) Conopidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



116a (115a). Costa broken at humeral crossvein; wings without pattern; postcellar bristle divergent, if absent, arista is also absent (Fig.A) ...... A ......... (Diptera) Agromyzidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



116b. Eyes oval horizontally, 2X as long as high; costa not broken; postocellar bristles converge or are absent, if absent, arista present; body grayish with yellowish markings on lateral thorax and abdomen and on front (Fig.A) (predators of mites & Homoptera) ............ (Diptera) Chamaemyidae (Ochthiphilidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


[Skip couplet 117a/117b]


Parasitic and Predatory Hymenoptera



118a (15a, 41a, 67b & 84a). Last sternite (= ventral plate) of female abdomen divided longitudinally; ovipositor issues from anterior to tip of abdomen and has a pair of exserted sheathes capable of covering ovipositor tip; hind wing usually without lobes



118b. Last sternite of && abdomen not divided longitudinally; ovipositor (or sting) issues from the tip of abdomen and without a pair of exserted sheathes; hind wing often with an anal lobe



119a (118a). Wing venation well developed; stigma (= thickening of wing membrane along costal border) well developed; hind trochanter with 2 segments........ Hymenoptera) ........ (Ichneumonoidea [Figs. 26, 27, 28 y 29] & Evanioidea) [Figs. 1, 15, 21, 22 y 24)]



119b. Wing venation reduced; stigma absent or poorly developed; trochanter with 1 segment



120a (119a). Costal cell absent; antennae with 16 or more segments (Figs.A-B)... Wing Types ..... A ....... (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea) <Overview>



120b. Costal cell present; antennae with fewer than 16 segments; abdomen short with long petiole arising on propodeum (= posterior part of thorax that is actually 1st abdominal segment), far above bases of hind coxae (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of cockroach egg capsules) ........... (Hymenoptera) (Evanioidea) Evaniidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 22)



121a (120a). Wing with one or no recurrent veins; propodeum not prolonged beyond hindcoxae



121b. Wing with 2 recurrent veins (= transverse veins posterior to cubital vein) or the abdomen is 3X the body length (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of numerous insect orders ) A ........ (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea ) Ichneumonidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & <Adults-3>; & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 26).*



122a (121a). Abdominal terga 2 & 3 not fused (Fig.A) (parasitoids of aphids) .(Hymenoptera) ... A ....... (Ichneumonoidea ) Braconidae (Aphidiinae) (Figs. 27, 28, 29) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



122b. Abdominal terga 2 & 3 fused or the cubitus (= longitudinal vein just posterior to medial) in fore wing arises from the radial cell (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of many kinds of hosts, excluding aphids) ..........( Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea ) Braconidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & <Adults-3>



123a (119b). Pronotum extends to tegula; antennae not geniculate (= elbow-shaped) ; body often compressed .......... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) <Overview> [See Subfamilies]



123b. Pronotum does not reach tegula; prepectus (= area along anterior ventral margin of mesepisternum outlined by a suture) present; antennae geniculate, with one or more proximal segments of flagellum often reduced to ring-like segments; abdominal segment behind propodeum always in form of a petiole, although not always clear......(Hymenoptera) (Chalcidoidea) <Overview>; <General References>



124a (123a). Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 2 or 3 and never more than one short tergite in front of the largest tergite



124b. Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 4, 5 or 6, with at least 2, 3 or 4 short tergites behind petiole and preceding the largest tergite; abdomen very compressed laterally; ovipositor curved under "membranous flap" (Fig.A) (parasitoids of sawflies A in family Siricidae)........... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Ibaliidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 44)



125a (124a). Tergite 2 longest and usually forming at least 1/2 the abdomen; radial cell open (except in Charips) and petiole without enlarged ring bearing longitudinal striations (gall-formers and hyperparasitoids in aphids). If radial cell is closed and petiole has striated ring, then tergites 2 & 3 are fused into a single saddle-shaped tergite that covers entire abdomen (Figs.A-C) (Synergus inquilines in oak galls) ........ A .... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Cynipidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> > [also Figs. 42, 50 & fly-par.htm



125b. Tergite 2 clearly forming less than 1/2 of abdomen; radial cell closed; petiole with slightly enlarged ring structure bearing longitudinal striations; mesopleura without spines or scratches (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Diptera) ....... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Figitidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles ] [also (Figs. 43, 48 & fly-par.htm ]



126a (118b). Pronotum almost reaches or does reach tegula, but lacks a rounded lobe on lateral margin



126b. Pronotum short, does not reach tegula, with lateral rounded lobe; body hairs not branched (Figs.A-L) ...... A ....... (Hymenoptera) (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (= previously under Sphecoidea) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 97)



127a (126a). Venation of fore wing well developed; hind wing with veins or a basal lobe



127b. Venation of fore wing reduced; hind wing not lobed...( Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) <Overview>



128a (127a). Venation of hind wing reduced, lacking closed cells ..(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea = Chrysidoidea) <Overview>



128b. Venation of hind wing not reduced, with at least one closed cell



129a (128a). Antennae with 12-13 segments; tarsi normal



129b. Antennae with 10 segments; fore tarsi of females often pincer-like (Figs.A-C)... (parasitoids of leafhoppers) ...... A .....(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea = Chrysidoidea) Dryinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 58, 71 y 103)



130a (129a). Abdomen with 3 or less visible tergites (4 in male Parnopes); abdominal sternites concave; body metallic green or blue (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of wasps) ....... A ........... (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea = Chrysidoidea) Chrysididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>(+ Cleptidae <Habits>); (also Fig. 73)



130b. Abdomen with 6 (females) or 7 (males) tergites; sternites convex; body not metallic (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Coleoptera & Lepidoptera) ............ (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea = Chrysidoidea) Bethylidae (also Figs. 75 & 79)



131a (128b). Petiole without nodes or node-like swellings



131b. Petiole medially with nodes or node-like swellings; antennae geniculate (Figs.A-E) (general predators)....... A ....... (Hymenoptera) (Formicoidea = now in Vespoidea) Formicidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly in Formicoidea <Overview>] (also Figs. 78 & 82)



132a (131a). First discoidal cell shorter than submedian cell; fore wings rarely folded



132b. First discoidal cell much longer than submedian cell; fore wings when at rest folded longitudinally (Figs.A-D) (general predators) ...... A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) Vespidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 80)



133a (132a). Mesopleuron not divided by an oblique suture; hind femur does not extend to tip of abdomen



133b. Mesopleuron divided by an oblique suture; hind femur extends to tip of abdomen; mid tibia with 2 apical spurs (Figs.A-D) (parasitoids of spiders) ...... A...... (Hymenoptera) (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae (= Psammocharidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly in Tiphioidea = <Overview> = Vespoidea] (also Figs. 83 & 98)



134a (133a). Mesosternum and metasternum separate, not forming a single large plate; wings without wrinkles



134b. Mesosternum and metasternum form a flat plate divided by a sinuous transverse suture; fore wing with fine longitudinal wrinkles beyond the closed cells (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae) ...... A ...... (Hymenoptera) (Scolioidea) Scoliidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly in Scolioidea <Overview>] [ formerly in Pompiloidea <Overview>] (also Figs. 89 & 116).



135a (134a). Mesosternum simple, without appendages



135b. Mesosternum with 2 laminae which overlay or project between the bases of the middle coxae, extending to midline; spur on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae) ..... A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) .... Tiphiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 96 & 101)



136a (135a). Body bare or nearly so; hind wing with a prominent separated lobe at the anal angle (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of bees). ...... A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) Sapygidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 95)



136b. Body almost always obviously hairy; hind wing of %% without a lobe at the anal angle; 2 spurs on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera .......... (Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) Mutillidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>] (also Figs. 84 & 108)



137a (127b). Antennae inserted near clypeus



137b. Antennae inserted near middle of face on a shelf-like protuberance; fore wing with stigma (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Diptera) ...... A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Fig. 20) [also see fly-par.htm ]



138a (137a). Abdomen sharply margined at sides



138b. Abdomen rounded laterally; marginal vein usually stigmated (Fig.A) (parasitoids of insects in several orders ..... A .... (Hymenoptera) (Ceraphronoidea) Ceraphronidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 16)



139a (138a). Fore wing with a marginal and stigmal vein (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of insect eggs) ........ A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 32e)



139b. Fore wing without marginal and stigmal veins (Figs.A-C) (most parasitoids of Diptera & Homoptera) ...... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Platygastridae (= Platygasteridae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 23)


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Hemiptera / Heteroptera:



140a. (19a & 40a). Antennae short, usually concealed ..... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) suborder Cryptocerata (= aquatic bugs) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]



140b. Antennae longer than previously described, at least as long as head, not concealed .( Hemiptera/Heteroptera) suborder Gymnocerata (= terrestrial bugs) <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]



141a (140a). Hind tarsi with claws



141b. Hind tarsi without claws, hind tarsi only flattened (Fig.A) (general predators) .. A ...... Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Notonectidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



142a (141a). Membrane of hemelytra without veins



142b. Membrane of hemelytra (= front wings) with veins (Fig.A) (predators of other aquatic arthropods) ..... A ...... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Belostomatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



143a (142a). Eyes strongly protruding; toad-like (Fig.A) (general predators) .... A ......... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) ....... Gelastocoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



143b. Eyes flattened to form one smooth surface with head (Fig.A) (general predators) ( Hemiptera/Heteroptera) .,,,... Naucoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



144a (140b). Fore legs relatively short and slender compared to other legs; tarsal claws anteapical (especially obvious on fore legs)



144b. Fore legs not noticeably shorter than other legs; if so, then fore legs thick and modified for grasping; tarsal claws apical



145a (144a). Hind femora extend well beyond apex of abdomen; middle legs arise closer to hind than to fore legs (Fig.A) (general predators) ........ A ..... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Gerridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



145b. Hind femora extend little if any beyond apex of abdomen; if middle legs arise close to hind legs than to fore legs, then fore tarsi have only 1 segment (Fig.A) (general predators) .......... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Vellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



146a (144b). Antennae with 4 segments



146b. Antennae with 5 segments (Figs.A-D) (mostly phytophagous, but some species are general predators)........ A ......(Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Pentatomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



147a (146a). Absence of pad-like arolium at base of each tarsal claw, of if present, fore legs are modified for grasping prey (raptorial)



147b. Pad-like arolium present; membrane of hemelytron with only 4-5 veins (Figs.A-B) (predatory & phytophagous) ..... A .......(Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Lygaeidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



148a (147a). Fore legs not raptorial; without a presternal groove



148b. Fore legs not raptorial



149a (148a). Proboscis with 3 segments; cuneus absent; ocelli present



149b. Proboscis with 4 segments; cuneus present; ocelli absent (Figs.A-C) (a few general predatory species) ....... A ....... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Miridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



150a (149a). Hemelytra with a cuneus (= triangular apical part of thickened portion of wing); 0.5-5.0 mm. long (Figs.A-C) (general predators) .... A .... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Anthocoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



150b. Hemelytra without a cuneus; length variable; membrane of hemelytra with 4-5 closed cells (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... (Hemiptera/Heteroptera) Saldidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



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