FILE: <insect2.key.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU ]


For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification






E. F. Legner, University of California, Riverside

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This key is in a form commonly used in North America. If the statement is true, proceed to the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to the "b" portion of the couplet. Numbers in parentheses refer to the previous couplet or couplets read. Details on families may be found in <Principal Groups>. See MORPHOLOGY to learn about insect structure. [For less powerful connections, please try <insect1.htm> ] -- The Class Entognatha is included herein Citations


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(For References, please refer to <Biology References> & <General References> [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library]


Navigate directly to: Coleoptera Diptera Hemiptera Lepidoptera Neuroptera


Strepsiptera Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea Pteromalidae Subfamiliea)



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1a. Adults have well-developed wings



1b. Adults wingless or with wings vestigial or rudimentary (nymphs, larvae & some adults)



2a (1a). Wings membranous, not hardened or leathery



2b. Front wings hardened or leathery, at least at base (Figs.A-E); hind wings, if present, usually membranous . . . A



3a (3a). Only 1 pair of wings



3b. Two pairs of wings



4a (3a). Body shaped like a grasshopper; pronotum ( = dorsal plate or sclerite of prothorax) extends back over abdomen and is pointed apically; hind legs enlarged (Figs.A-F) [pygmy grasshoppers... A.. Orthoptera



4b. Body not shaped like a grasshopper; pronotum not as previous; hind legs not so enlarged.



5a (4b). Antennae with at least 1 segment bearing along lateral process; front wings minute, hind wings like a fan (Figs.A-B); minute insects [male twisted-winged parasitoids) A Strepsiptera



5b. Does not fit previous description exactly


6a (5b). Abdomen with 1-3 thread-like or bristle-like caudal (= tail) filaments; mouthparts vestigia



6b. Abdomen without thread-like or bristle-like caudal filaments; mouthparts almost always developed, mandibulate (= chewing) or for sucking



7a (6a). Antennae long and conspicuous; abdomen terminates in one long style (rarely 2); wings with a single forked vein (Fig.A); halteres (= knobbed modified hind wings) present and usually terminating in a hooklike bristle; minute insects, usually <5 mm in length [male scale insects] ...... A.,,,,,,..Homoptera



7b. Antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen with 2-3 thread-like caudal filaments; wings with numerous veins and cells; halteres absent; usually >5 mm in length (Fig. A) [mayflies] ......Ephemeroptera



8a (6b). Tarsi almost always with 5 segments; mouthparts for sucking; hind wings knob-like, reduced to halteres (Figs.A-E); body lightly sclerotized (= hardened) [flies]..... A. .Diptera



8b. Tarsi with 2-3-segments; mouthparts variable; hind wings reduced or absent, not haltere-like



9a (8b). Mouthparts mandibulate (Figs.A-E)[psocids]...... A ...Psocoptera (Corrodentia)



9b. Mouthparts for sucking (Figs.A-C) [some planthoppers & leafhoppers] .........Homoptera



10a (3b). Wings mostly or entirely covered with scales (Fig. A); mouthparts usually in the form of a coiled proboscis (Fig.B); antennae with many segments (Figs.C-G) [butterflies & moths] .......A. ..... Lepidoptera



10b. Wings not covered with scales; mouthparts not a coiled proboscis, antennae variable



11a (10b). Wings long and narrow, veinless or with only 1-2 veins, and fringed with long hairs (Fig.A); tarsi with 1-2 segments, the last segment swollen; minute insects, usually <5 mm in length (Figs.A-D) [thrips]....... A..........Thysanoptera



11b. Wings not as previously described , or if wings are somewhat linear, then the tarsi have more than 2 segments



12a (11b). Front wings relatively large and usually triangular; hind wings small and usually rounded, the wings at rest held together above the body; wings usually with many veins and cells; antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen with 2-3 thread-like caudal filaments (Fig.A); delicate, soft-bodied insects (Fig.B) [mayflies]... A........ Ephemeroptera



12b. Not as previously described



13a (12b). Tarsi with 5 segments



13b. Tarsi with 4 or less segments



14a (13a). Front wings obviously hairy; mouthparts usually very much reduced except for the palps; antennae usually as long as body or longer; somewhat soft-bodied insects (Figs.A-F) [caddis flies.... A.......Trichoptera



14b. Front wings not hairy, at the most with microscopic hairs; mandibles well developed; antennae shorter than body



15a (14b). Body quite hard, wasplike insects; clypeus not elongated; the abdomen often constricted at base, 1st abdominal segment fused to thorax; fore wings distinctly larger than hind wings and with fewer veins; front wings with 20 or less cells (Figs.A-F)[sawflies, bees and wasps]....... A.........Hymenoptera



15b. Body soft, not wasplike, the abdomen not constricted at base; hind wings about the same size as front wings and usually with about as many veins; front wings frequently with more than 20 cells



16a (15b). Costal area of front wings (= area just behind anterior margin) nearly always with numerous cross veins per pair of longitudinal veins (Fig.A), or if not (Fig.B) then hind wings shorter than front wings; mouthparts not prolonged ventrally into a beak (Figs.C-G) [lacewings, dobsonflies, antlions] ... A.........Neuroptera



16b. Costal area of front wings with not more than 2-3 cross veins per pair of longitudinal veins (Fig.A); mouthparts prolonged ventrally to form a beak-like process (Figs.B-D [scorpionflies]..........Mecoptera


17a (13b). Hind wings as long as front wings and of the same shape or wider at base, the wings at rest held above the body or extended out (never held flat over abdomen); wings with many veins and cells; antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen long and slender (Figs.A-B); tarsi with 3 segments; length 20-85 mm [dragonflies, damselflies) A ....Odonata



17b. Not as previously described



18a (17b). Mouthparts for sucking



18b. Mouthparts mandibulate (= chewing)



19a (18a). Beak arises from front part of head (Figs.A-E) [gnat bugs..Hemiptera /Heteroptera ...A



19b. Beak arises from hind part of head (Fig.A) [cicadas, some hoppers, aphids, some psyllids and whiteflies] ...Homoptera



20a (18b). Tarsi with 4 segments; front and hind wings similar in size, shape and venation (Figs.A-E) cerci tiny or absent [termites]..... A.......Isoptera



20b. Tarsi with 3 or less segments; hind wings usually shorter than front wings; cerci either present or absent



21a (20b). Hind wings with anal area nearly always enlarged and forming a lobe, which is \ folded like a fan at rest; venation varying from normal to very dense, the front wings usually with several cross veins between Cu-1 and M and between Cu-1 and Cu-2 (Fig. A); cerci present and often fairly long; mostly 10 mm or more in length; nymphs aquatic, and adults usually near water (Figs.A-F) [stoneflies] .... A...... Plecoptera



21b. Hind wings without an enlarged anal area and not folded at rest; venation normal or reduced, with no extra cross veins; short cerci present or absent; mostly 10 mm in length or less; nymphs not aquatic and adults not regularly near water


22a (21b). Tarsi with 3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi enlarged A ....(Figs.A-B) [webspinners].Embioptera



22b. Tarsi with 2-3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi not enlarged



23a (22b). Cerci present; tarsi with 2 segments; wing venation reduced (Figs.A-D); moniliform (= bead-like) antennae with 9 segments ..... A........ Zoraptera



23b. Cerci absent; tarsi with 2-3 segments; wing venation not much reduced (Figs.A-D) ;antennae not moniliform, usually long and hairlike, with 13 or more segments ...... Psocoptera (= Corrodentia)



24a (2b). Mouthparts for sucking, beak elongated and usually segmented (Figs.A-B)...... A



24b. Mouthparts mandibulate



25a (24a). Beak arises from front of head (Fig.A); basal portion of fore wing usually thickened and leathery, but membranous at tip, the tips overlapping at rest (Fig.B) A [true bugs] .....Hemiptera / Heteroptera



25b. Beak arises from hind part of head, often appearing to begin at base of front legs; front wings of uniform texture throughout, the tips not, or only slightly, overlapping at rest [leafhoppers & some psyllids] .......Homoptera



26a (24b). Abdominal cerci like forceps (Fig.A); front wings short, leaving most of abdomen exposed; tarsi with 3 segments (Fig.A) [earwigs] ..... A........ Dermaptera



26b. Abdominal cerci not like forceps, or if cerci appear as such, then front wings cover most of abdomen; tarsi variable



27a (26b). Front wings entirely leathery and without veins and usually meet in a straight line down middle of back; antennae generally with 11 or fewer segments and have diverse shapes (Figs.A-I); hind wings narrow, usually longer than front wings when unfolded, and with few veins (Figs.J-O) [beetles].... A....... Coleoptera



27b. Front wings with veins and either held like a roof over abdomen or overlapping over abdomen when at rest; antennae generally with >12 segments; hind wings broad, usually shorter than front wings, and with many veins (Fig.A), usually folded like a fan at rest [crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches and preying mantids].......Orthoptera



28a (1b). Body usually insect-like, with segmented legs and usually segmented antennae



28b. Body generally worm-like, body regions (except possibly head) not well differentiated, and segmented thoracic legs absent; antennae present or absent



29a (28a). Front wings present but rudimentary; hind wings absent or represented by halteres;tarsi almost always with 5 segments [some flies].........Diptera



29b. Wings entirely absent or with 4 rudimentary wings and no halteres; tarsi variable



30a (29b). Antennae absent; length 1.5 mm or less (Fig.A); usually occur in soil or leaf litter. A ....... Protura (in Class Entognatha)



30b. Antennae usually present (sometimes small); size and habitat variable..........



31a (30b). Ectoparasites of birds, mammals, or honey bees and usually found on the host; body somewhat leathery and usually flattened dorsoventrally or laterally



31b. Free-living (not ectoparasitic), terrestrial or aquatic



32a (31a). Tarsi with 5 segments; antennae short and usually concealed in grooves on head; mouthparts for sucking



32b. Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments; antennae and mouthparts variable



33a (32a). Body flattened laterally; usually jumping insects, with rather long legs (Fig.A) A [fleas] ......Siphonaptera



33b. Body flattened dorsoventrally; not jumping insects, legs usually short (Fig.A) [louse flies, bat flies & bee lice].........Diptera



34a (32b). Antennae decidedly longer than head; tarsi 3-segmented (Fig.A) [bed bugs and A bat bugs] .......Hemiptera / Heteroptera



34b. Antennae not longer than head; tarsi with 1 segment



35a (34b). Head as wide as or wider than prothorax; mouthparts mandibulate; parasites of birds (with 2 tarsal claws) and mammals (with 1 small tarsal claw) (Figs.A-D) A [chewing lice] Mallophaga



35b. Head usually more narrow than prothorax; mouthparts haustellate (= for sucking); parasites of mammals with 1 large tarsal claw (Figs.A-B) [sucking lice] Phthiraptera (= Anoplura)



36a (31b). Mouthparts for sucking, with a conical or elongated beak enclosing stylets



36b. Mouthparts mandibulate (sometimes hidden in head), not beaklike


37a (36a). Tarsi with 5 segments; maxillary or labial palps ( = segmented processes) present



37b. Tarsi with 4 or fewer segments; palps small or absent



38a (37a). Body covered with scales; beak usually in the form of a coiled tube; antennae long and with many segments [wingless moths] .......... Lepidoptera



38b. Body not covered with scales; beak not coiled; antennae variable, but often short, with 3 or less segments [wingless flies] ............Diptera



39a (37b). Mouthparts in the form of a cone located basally on ventral side of head; palps present but short; body elongated, usually <5 mm in length; antennae about as long as head and prothorax combined, not bristle-like, and 4-9 segmented; tarsi 1-2 segments, often without claws (Fig.A) [thrips....... A ....... Thysanoptera



39b. Mouthparts as an elongated segmented beak; palps absent; other characters variable



40a (39b). Beak arises from front part of head; antennae with 4-5 segments and not bristle-like; tarsi usually with 3 segments; abdomen without cornicles (= dorsal tubular structures on posterior abdomen ) [true bugs]. ... A. Hemiptera / Heteroptera



40b. Beak arises from rear of head; antennae either with >5 segments (and tarsi with 2 segments) or bristle-like (and tarsi with 3 segments); abdomen often with a pair of cornicles (Fig.A) [aphids, hoppers, etc.]...... Homoptera



41a (36b). Abdomen very constricted at base; antennae often elbowed; tarsi with 5 segments; bodies hard, ant-like [ants & wingless wasps ........Hymenoptera



41b. Abdomen not very constricted at base; antennae not elbowed; tarsi variable



42a (41b). Abdomen with 3 long thread-like caudal filaments and with style-like appendages on some abdominal segments (Fig.A); mouthparts mandibulate, but often somewhat A retracted into head; body almost always covered with scales; terrestrial [bristletails]



42b. Abdomen with only 2 thread-like caudal filaments or none; if with 3 [mayfly nymphs] then aquatic; other characters variable



43a (42a). Compound eyes large and usually contiguous; body somewhat cylindrical, with thorax arched; ocelli present; middle and hind coxae often with styli; abdominal styli (= bristlelike processes) on segments 2-9 (Fig.A).... A......Class: Insecta; Subclass Monocondylia: Order: Arachaeognatha......Microcoryphia



43b. Compound eyes small and widely separated or absent; body somewhat flattened dorsoventrally, thorax not arched; ocelli present or absent; middle and hind coxae without styli; abdominal segments 1-6 (sometimes 7) without styli (Fig.A) [silverfish]........Thysanura



44a (42b). Aquatic insects, often with tracheal gills (= protruding externally at spiracles)



44b. Terrestrial insects, without tracheal gills



45a (44a). Nymphs; compound eyes and usually wing pads present



45b. Larvae; compound eyes and wing pads absent



46a (45a). Prehensile labium (= lower lip), folded under head at rest, and when extended much longer than head (Figs.A-G) [dragonfly and damselfly nymphs]...... A.........Odonata



46b. Labium normal, not as previously described



47a (46b). Having 3 caudal filaments; tarsi with 1 claw; gills located on lateral margins of abdominal terga (= dorsal plates or sclerites) and usually leaflike or plate-like A... (Figs.A-C) [mayfly nymphs].... .....Ephemeroptera



47b. With 2 caudal filaments; tarsi with 2 claws; gills mostly present, somewhat fingerlike, usually located on underside of thorax (Figs.A-D) [stonefly nymphs]..........Plecoptera



48a (45b). Having 5 pairs of prolegs (= fleshy abdominal legs) on ventral side of abdomen, the prolegs with tiny hooks (crochets) [aquatic caterpillars) ............Lepidoptera



48b. Abdominal segments without prolegs or with only one terminal pair



49a (48b). Mouthparts with 2 slender and elongated structures, longer than head; antennae long and slender, or least 1/3rd as long as body; tarsi with 1 claw (Fig.A); live in freshwater sponges [Sisyridae larvae]... A................. Neuroptera



49b. Mouthparts, and usually also antennae, short and not as described previously



50a (49b). Tarsi with 2 claws; abdomen with long slender lateral processes and a long slender terminal process (Figs A & B) [Sialidae] or with slender lateral processes and a pair of hooklike structures apically (Fig. C.) [Corydalidae, fishfly and alderfly larvae ...... A.........Neuroptera



50b. Tarsi with 1-2 claws; if with 2, then abdomen not as described previously



51a (50b). Abdomen with a pair of hooks, usually on anal prolegs, at posterior end and without long lateral processes (but at times with finger-like gills); tarsi with 1 claw; usually living in cases (Figs.A-F) [caddisfly larvae]..... A........Trichoptera



51b. Abdomen with 4 hooks at posterior end or none, and with or without long lateral processes; tarsi with 1-2 claws (Fig.A); not living in cases [beetle larvae].......... Coleoptera



52a (44b). Mouthparts usually withdrawn into head and not obvious; abdomen with stylelike appendages on some segments or with a forked appendage near end of abdomen; usually <7 mm long



52b. Mouthparts usually distinct, mandibulate or haustellate (= for sucking); abdomen without appendages as described previously; size variable



53a (52a). Antennae long, with many segments; abdomen with at least 9 segments and with stylelike appendages on ventral side of some segments; without a forked appendage near end of abdomen, but with well developed cerci (Figs.A-C) ... A ......... Diplura (in Class Entognatha)



53b. Antennae short, with 6 or less segments; abdomen with 6 or less segments and usually with a forked appendage near posterior end (Figs.A-G) [springtails]............ Collembola (in Class Entognatha)



54a (52b). Body larviform ( = shaped like a worm or larva), thorax and abdomen not differentiated; compound eyes present [larviform beetles] .............Coleoptera



54b. Body shape variable, but if larviform, then without compound eyes



55a (54b). Compound eyes usually present; body shape variable, but usually not worm-like; wing pads often present [adults & nymphs]



55b. Compound eyes and wing pads absent, body usually worm-like in shape [larvae]



56a (55a). Tarsi with 5 segments



56b. Tarsi with 4 or less segments



57a (56a). Mouthparts prolonged ventrally into a snout-like process (Fig.A); body somewhat A .......cylindrical and usually <15 mm long (Fig.A) [wingless scorpionflies].... Mecoptera



57b. Mouthparts not as previously described; body shape and size variable



58a (57b). Antennae with 5 segments; Texas (some && twisted-winge parasitoids;Mengeidae] .... Strepsiptera



58b. Antennae with >5 segments; widely distributed (Figs.A-G) [rock crawlers, walking A sticks & some cockroaches..........Orthoptera



59a (56b). Cerci like forceps; tarsi with 3 segments



59b. Cerci absent or, if present, not like forceps; tarsi variable



60a (59a). Antennae more than 1/2 as long as body; cerci short; western U.S.A. [Timemidae] ........ Orthoptera



60b. Antennae usually less than 1/2 as long as body; cerci long (Fig.A); widely distributed A [earwigs] .......... Dermaptera



61a (59b). Tarsi with 3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi enlarged (Figs.A-B) [webspinners] ............... Embioptera



61b. Tarsi with 2-4 segments, basal segment of front tarsi not enlarged



62a (61b). Appearance like grasshoppers, with hind legs enlarged and fitted for jumping; length usually >15 mm (Figs.A-E) [grasshoppers] A..... Orthoptera



62b. Not like grasshoppers, hind legs usually not as previously described; length <10 mm



63a (62b). Tarsi with 4 segments; pale, soft bodies, wood- or ground-inhabiting insects A (Figs.A-E) [termites]........Isoptera



63b. Tarsi with 2-3 segments; color and habits variable



64a (63b). Cerci present, 1 segmented, and terminating in a long bristle; antennae with 9 segments and moniliform (Figs.A-C); compound eyes and ocelli absent (= simple yes); tarsi with 2 segments.... A..........Zoraptera



64b. Cerci absent; antennae with 13 or more segments and usually hair-like (Fig.A); compound eyes and 3 ocelli usually present; tarsi with 2-3 segments [psocids........Psocoptera (= Corrodentia)



65a (55b). Ventral prolegs (= fleshy abdominal legs) present on 2 or more abdominal segments (Figs.A-B)..... A.



65b. Abdominal prolegs absent or on terminal segment only



66a (65a). Have 5 pairs prolegs (on abdominal segments 3-6 & 10) or fewer (Fig. A), the prolegs with tiny hooks (crochets); several (usually 6) ocelli on each side of head [caterpillars] ............. Lepidoptera



66b. Have 6 or more pairs of abdominal prolegs, the prolegs without crochets; ocelli number variable



67a (66b). Ocelli, 7 or more, on each side of head; prolegs on segments 1-8 or 3-8, usually faint pointed structures (Fig.A) [scorpionfly larvae]........ A.......... Mecoptera



67b. Ocellus (one) on each side of head; prolegs fleshy and not pointed, usually on abdominal segments 2-8 & 10, sometimes on 2-7 or 2-6 & 10 (Figs.A-B) [sawfly larvae] .....Hymenoptera



68a (65b). Mandible and maxilla on each side united to form a sucking jaw that is often long (Figs.A-B); tarsi with 2 claws; labrum absent or fused with head capsule; maxillary A palps absent [Planipennia: lacewing & antlion larvae] .............Neuroptera



68b. Mandibles and maxillae not as previously described; tarsi with 1-2 claws; labrum and maxillary palps usually present



69a (68b). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along mid ventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or a bit flattened



69b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded



70a (69a). Tarsi with 1 claw [some beetle larvae].............. Coleoptera



70b. Tarsi with 2 claws



71a (70b). Distinct labrum (= upper lip) and clypeus (= hardened plate on lower face between frons and labium) present [Raphidiodea: snakefly larvae] ............... Neuroptera



71b. Labrum absent or fused with head capsule [most Adephaga: beetle larvae]..... Coleoptera



72a (69b). Front legs noticeably smaller than other pairs; middle and hind legs projecting laterally much more than front legs; a small group of ocelli (usually 3) on each side of head behind bases of antennae; tarsal claws absent; length <5 mm; usually found in moss [Boreidae larvae] .............. Mecoptera



72b. Legs not as previously described, front and middle legs ca. same size and position; ocelli variable; tarsi with 1-3 claws; size and habitat variable



73a (72b). Tarsi with 1-2 claws; abdomen usually without caudal filaments; antennae variable [beetle larvae]...... Coleoptera



73b. Tarsi usually with 3 claws; abdomen with 2 caudal filaments ca. 1/3rd as long as body (Fig.A); antennae usually short with 3 segments [triungulin (= active 1st instar) larvae A of some beetles, Meloidae, and twisted-winged parasitoids]............ Coleoptera ..... 152 and ....... Strepsiptera....217



74a (28b). Aquatic [fly larvae]..........Diptera



74b. Terrestrial or parasitic (not aquatic)



75a (74b). Sessile, plant feeding; body covered by a scale or waxy substance; mouthparts for sucking, long and thread-like [female scales]............... Homoptera



75b. Not the same as previously described



76a (75b). Head and thorax almost fused, and abdominal segmentation indistinct (Fig.A); A internal parasitoids of other insects [female twisted-winged parasitoids]............ Strepsiptera.



76b. Head not fused with thorax, body segmentation distinct; habitat variable



77a (76b). Head distinct, sclerotized, and usually pigmented and exserted



77b. Head indistinct, incompletely or not at all sclerotized, sometimes retracted into thorax



78a (77a). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along midventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or slightly flattened



78b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded



79a (78a). Terminal abdominal segment with a pair of short pointed processes; several long setae on each body segment (Fig.A) [flea larvae]... A............. Siphonaptera



79b. Not exactly as previously described



80a (79b). Labium with a protruding spinneret (= silk-producing structure); antennae arising from membranous area at bases of mandibles; mandibles well developed, opposable; body usually slightly flattened; ventral prolegs usually with crochets; mostly leaf miners in leaves, bark, or fruits [moth larvae] ...............Lepidoptera



80b. Labium without a spinneret; antennae, if present, arising from head capsule; prolegs without crochets



81a (80b). Mouthparts distinctly mandibulate, with opposable mandibles; spiracles usually present on thorax and 8 abdominal segments; body shape variable [beetle larvae] ..... Coleoptera



81b. Mouthparts as previously described or with mouth hooks somewhat parallel and moving vertically; spiracles variable, but usually not as previously described; body elongated [Nematocera & some Brachycera fly larvae]............Diptera



82a (78b). Abdominal segments usually with 1 or more longitudinal folds laterally or lateroventrally; body C-shaped, scarabaeiform (Fig.A); 1 pair of spiracles on thorax and usually 8 pairs on abdomen [beetle larvae, white grubs].......... A......... Coleoptera



82b. Abdominal segments without longitudinal folds, or if present, then spiracles not as previously described



83a (82b). Head with adfrontal areas (= pair of narrow oblique sclerites on head) (as in Fig.A); labium with a projecting spinneret; if present, antennae arise from membranous area at base of mandibles; often 1 or more ocelli (usually 6) on each side of head; ventral prolegs, if present, with crochets [moth larvae]..........Lepidoptera



83b. Head without adfrontal areas, and labium without a spinneret; antennae and ocelli not as previously described; prolegs, if present, without crochets



84a (83b). Mandibles not heavily sclerotized and not brush-like; spiracles usually present on thorax and most abdominal segments, the posterior pair not enlarged; larvae occur in plant tissues as phytophagous parasites, or in cells constructed by adults [Apocrita] ..Hymenoptera



84b. Mandibles usually brush-like; spiracles usually not as previously described-- if present on several abdominal segments, the posterior pair is much larger than the rest; occur in wet places, in plant tissues, or as internal parasites (Fig.A) A [fly larvae, mainly Nematocera] ............... Diptera



85a (77b). Mouthparts mandibulate, with opposable mandibles and maxillae; antennae usually present [beetle larvae] .......... Coleoptera



85b. Mouthparts reduced or modified, with only the mandibles opposable, or with parallel mouth hooks present; antennae usually absent



86a (85b). Body behind "head" (first body segment) consisting of 13 segments; full grown larvae usually with a sclerotized ventral plate ("breast bone") located ventrally behind head [Cecidomyiidae larvae]............ Diptera



86b. Body with fewer segments than previously described; no "breast bone"



87a (86b). Mouthparts consist of 1-2 (if 2 then parallel, not opposable) median, dark colored, down curved mouth hooks [Cyclorrhapha maggots].............. Diptera



87b. Mandibles opposable, but at times reduced, without mouth hooks as described previously [Apocrita larvae] ................ Hymenoptera


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Diptera

(for muscoid flies see Figs C-D wing venation)



88a (8a, 29a & 38b). Antennae moniliform, 6-39 segments, longer than thorax



88b. Antennae with 3-4 segments, ring-like segments may be present; antennae shorter than thorax



89a (88a). Costa (= longitudinal wing vein) extends completely around wing, occasionally weakened behind



89b. Costa does not reach to or extend only slightly beyond wing tip



90a (89a). Mesonotal suture (= dorsal sclerite of mesothorax) transverse, not V-shaped



90b. Mesonotum with an entire V-shaped suture; females with long sclerotized ovipositor (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of aquatic or semiaquatic arthropods) A ....... ( Diptera) Tipulidae



91a (90a). Ocelli present and/or venation reduced; eyes meet above antennae; wing not scaly (Figs.A-C) A (larvae are predators of Homoptera & mites) ......... (Diptera) Cecidomyiidae



91b. Ocelli absent; probosis extends far beyond clypeus; wing venation strong; wing veins and margin covered with scales, usually also on body (Figs.A-G) (larvae of some species are predators of aquatic arthropods).................(Diptera) Culicidae



92a (89b). Ocelli absent



92b. Ocelli present; tibiae with apical spurs; discal cell in wing (= enlarged cell in basal or central part of wing) absent (Figs.A-C) A (larvae spin webs & feed on entrapped arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Mycetophilidae



93a (92a). Head rounded behind, mouthparts piercing; metanotum short and rounded, without a longitudinal groove (Fig.A) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators) .................. (Diptera) Ceratopogonidae



93b. Head flat behind, mouthparts without mandibles, not piercing ;metanotum long, with a median longitudinal groove (Figs.A-B) (most are predators, one species parasitizes mayflies) ........... (Diptera) Chironomidae



94a (88b). Empodium (= pad or bristlelike structure at apex of last tarsal segment between the claws) developed lobelike, the 3 pads almost equal



94b. Empodium hair-like or absent



95a (94a). Third antennal segment compound, composed of ring-like segments



95b. Third antennal segment simple, frequently bearing an elongated style or arista



96a (95a). Tegula (= scale-like structure overlying front wing base) large and conspicuous female abdomen large (Figs.A-F) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators of aquatic arthropods) ........... (Diptera) Tabanidae



96b. Tegula small or vestigial; tibial spurs usually absent (Figs.A-F) (larvae are predators of arthropods in several habitats) ............... (Diptera) Stratiomyiidae



97a. Tegula small or vestigal



97b. Tegula large, covering haltere; head very small, positioned low down and composed almost entirely of compound eyes; body humpbacked (Fig.A) A (parasitoids of spiders) .......... (Diptera) Acroceridae



98a (97a). Tibiae without apical spurs; wing venation intricate with many veins ending before wing tip (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers).... A. .... (Diptera) Nemestrinidae



98b. At least middle tibia with apical spurs; antennae have long terminal style; wing venation normal, not complex (Figs.A-B) (both adults and larvae are predators of other arthropods) ............ (Diptera) Rhagionidae



99a (94b). Wing with 2 or more submarginal cells (vein R-4+5 forked); 3-4 posterior cells



99b. Wing with only one submarginal cell or none at all (vein R-4+5 not forked)



100a (99a). Front strongly concave at vertex



100b. Front not concave between eyes, vertex flat or convex



101a (100a). Three ocelli present; palpi normally prominent; proboscis adapted for piercing (Figs.A-E); top of head hollowed out between eyes; abdomen tapering or oval; lobe A (alula) usually at base of wing (both larvae & adults are predators) ... (Diptera) .. Asilidae



101b. One ocellus or none present; antennae with 4 segments; palpi vestigial; proboscis with fleshy labellae (= exposed tip of labium); large flies (Figs.A-C) (both larvae & adults are predators) ............ (Diptera) Mydaidae



102a (100b). Costa continues around wing



102b. Costa reaches only to wing apex; 4th vein (M-1) ends before wing tip; 3 posterior cells (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of larvae of Coleoptera).. A..... (Diptera) Scenopinidae



103a (102a). Wing has 5 posterior cells



103b. Wing has at most 4 posterior cells



104a (103a). Fourth vein (M-1) ends beyond apex of wing (Figs.A-C) (larvae & adults are A predators of other arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Therevidae



104b. Fourth vein (M-1) ends before apex of wing (Fig.A) (both adults & larvae are predators of other arthropods; rare in arid regions of western North America) ..... (Diptera) Apioceridae



105a (103b). Anal cell open or closed near wing margin; antennal style short, never longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually hairy, stocky and somewhat humpbacked; brown or grayish flies (Figs.A-C) (parasitize a variety of immature arthropods; most common in southwestern United States)....... A......... (Diptera) Bombyliidae



105b. Anal cell short and closed far from wing margin; anal vein does not reach wing margin; antennal style (= bristle) usually longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually bare, slender and black (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ....................... (Diptera) Empididae



106a (99b). Wing normal, not obviously rounded apically; venation normal



106b. Wing rounded apically; veins very well developed anteriorly; antennae appear one- segmented with long arista (= bristle on apical segment); long hind legs and flattened femora; body humpbacked (Fig.A) (parasitoids of ant pupae, larvae & pupae of Lepidoptera & Hymenoptera; some species are predators ... A ............. (Diptera) Phoridae



107a (106a). Spurious vein (= vein-like thickening of wing membrane between 2 true veins) in wing absent; anal cell usually short



107b. Spurious vein in wing present; anal cell long, closed near wing margin; body brightly colored; they resemble bees or wasps) (Figs.A-E) (predators of Homoptera) A .......... (Diptera) Syrphidae



108a (107a). Frontal lanule (= crescent-shaped sclerite above base of antennae) completely absent



108b. Frontal lunule present as a crescent-shaped sclerite above antennae



109a (108a). Head normal, not exceptionally large; front and face usually wide



109b. Head large, hemispherical; front and face narrow; probosis small and soft; body stocky and humpbacked, brown or grayish (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of treehoppers & leafhoppers) ..A... (Diptera) Pipunculidae



110a (109a). Crossvein r-m located beyond basal 1/4th of wing; anal cell pointed apically; proboscis usually rigid; body not metallic; %% genitalia terminal, not folded under abdomen (Fig.A); relatively slender and usually black flies (adults and larvae are A ..predaceous on smaller insects) (please also refer to couplet 105)............ (Diptera) Empididae



110b. Crossvein r-m located in basal 1/4th of wing; 2nd basal and discal cells united; anal cell when present rounded apically; body usually metallic; %% genitalia frequently folded forward under abdomen (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Dolichopodidae



111a (108b). Second antennal segment with a lateral subdorsal longitudinal seam; thorax with a complete transverse suture; calypter (= lobe at wing base) large



111b. Second antennal segment without a longitudinal seam; thorax without a complete transverse suture; calypter small or rudimentary



112a (111a). Hypopleural bristles (rather vertical row usually above hind coxae) present



112b. Hypopleural bristles absent; 3rd (R-5) and 4th (M-1) veins almost parallel at wing tip or 4th vein bends forward; undersurface of scutellum with fine erect hairs (Figs.A-B) A (predators of dipterous larvae)....(Diptera) Anthomyiidae



113a (112a). Postscutellum developed; hypopleura with strong bristles; eyes usually bare; body of && large, variously colored, but usually blackish (Figs.A-G) (parasitoids of many types of insects)..... A ....... (Diptera) Tachinidae



113b. Postscutellum not developed; hypopleura with a row of bristles



114a (113b). Body usually gray with 3 black stripes on mesonotum, bare but not metallic; usually 4 notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose (= featherlike) in basal half A (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers & other arthropods) .... (Diptera) Sarcophagidae



114b. Body usually metallic, usually 2 (rarely 3) notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose beyond basal half (Figs.A-D) (generally predaceous...... (Diptera) Calliphoridae



115a (111b). Proboscis shorter than head; head never broader than thorax; first posterior cell not quite narrowed apically



115b. Proboscis longer than head, slender and rigit, often folding; head wider than thorax; first posterior cell narrowed or closed apically; abdomen clavate (= club-like), bent downward at apex (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of wild bees)..... A. ....... (Diptera) Conopidae



116a (115a). Costa broken at humeral crossvein; wings without pattern; postcellar bristle divergent, if absent, arista is also absent (Fig.A)...... A......... (Diptera) Agromyzidae



116b. Eyes oval horizontally, 2X as long as high; costa not broken; postocellar bristles converge or are absent, if absent, arista present; body grayish with yellowish markings on lateral thorax and abdomen and on front (Fig.A) (predators of mites & Homoptera)............ (Diptera) Chamaemyidae


[Skip couplet 117a/117b]


Parasitic and Predatory Hymenoptera



118a (15a, 41a, 67b & 84a). Last sternite (= ventral plate) of female abdomen divided longitudinally; ovipositor issues from anterior to tip of abdomen and has a pair of exserted sheathes capable of covering ovipositor tip; hind wing usually without lobes



118b. Last sternite of && abdomen not divided longitudinally; ovipositor (or sting) issues from the tip of abdomen and without a pair of exserted sheathes; hind wing often with an anal lobe



119a (118a). Wing venation well developed; stigma (= thickening of wing membrane along costal border) well developed; hind trochanter with 2 segments........Hymenoptera)........... (Ichneumonoidea & Evanioidea)



119b. Wing venation reduced; stigma absent or poorly developed; trochanter with 1 segment



120a (119a). Costal cell absent; antennae with 16 or more segments (Figs.A-B)... Wing Types ..... A. ....... (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea)



120b. Costal cell present; antennae with fewer than 16 segments; abdomen short with long petiole arising on propodeum (= posterior part of thorax that is actually 1st abdominal segment), far above bases of hind coxae (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of cockroach egg capsules) ........... (Hymenoptera) (Evanioidea) Evaniidae



121a (120a). Wing with one or no recurrent veins; propodeum not prolonged beyond hindcoxae



121b. Wing with 2 recurrent veins (= transverse veins posterior to cubital vein) or the abdomen is 3X the body length (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of numerous insect orders ) A ........ (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae



122a (121a). Abdominal terga 2 & 3 not fused (Fig.A) (parasitoids of aphids) .(Hymenoptera) A ....... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Aphidiinae)



122b. Abdominal terga 2 & 3 fused or the cubitus (= longitudinal vein just posterior to medial) in fore wing arises from the radial cell (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of many kinds of hosts, excluding aphids) ..........(Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae



123a (119b). Pronotum extends to tegula; antennae not geniculate (= elbow-shaped) ; body often compressed .............. (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea)



123b. Pronotum does not reach tegula; prepectus (= area along anterior ventral margin of mesepisternum outlined by a suture) present; antennae geniculate, with one or more proximal segments of flagellum often reduced to ring-like segments; abdominal segment behind propodeum always in form of a petiole, although not always clear......(Hymenoptera) (Chalcidoidea)



124a (123a). Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 2 or 3 and never more than one short tergite in front of the largest tergite



124b. Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 4, 5 or 6, with at least 2, 3 or 4 short tergites behind petiole and preceding the largest tergite; abdomen very compressed laterally; ovipositor curved under "membranous flap" (Fig.A) (parasitoids of sawflies A in family Siricidae)........... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Ibaliidae



125a (124a). Tergite 2 longest and usually forming at least 1/2 the abdomen; radial cell open (except in Charips) and petiole without enlarged ring bearing longitudinal striations (gall-formers and hyperparasitoids in aphids). If radial cell is closed and petiole has striated ring, then tergites 2 & 3 are fused into a single saddle-shaped tergite that covers entire abdomen (Figs.A-C) (Synergus inquilines in oak galls)........ A .. (Hymeoptera) (Cynipoidea) Cynipidae [also see fly-par.htm ]



125b. Tergite 2 clearly forming less than 1/2 of abdomen; radial cell closed; petiole with slightly enlarged ring structure bearing longitudinal striations; mesopleura without spines or scratches (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Diptera) ....... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Figitidae [also see fly-par.htm ]



126a (118b). Pronotum almost reaches or does reach tegula, but lacks a rounded lobe on lateral margin



126b. Pronotum short, does not reach tegula, with lateral rounded lobe; body hairs not branched (Figs.A-L)...... A. ....... (Hymenoptera) (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae



127a (126a). Venation of fore wing well developed; hind wing with veins or a basal lobe



127b. Venation of fore wing reduced; hind wing not lobed...(Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea)



128a (127a). Venation of hind wing reduced, lacking closed cells ..(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea)



128b. Venation of hind wing not reduced, with at least one closed cell



129a (128a). Antennae with 12-13 segments; tarsi normal



129b. Antennae with 10 segments; fore tarsi of females often pincer-like (Figs.A-C)... (parasitoids of leafhoppers) ....A......(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Dryinidae



130a (129a). Abdomen with 3 or less visible tergites (4 in male Parnopes); abdominal sternites concave; body metallic green or blue (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of wasps) ....... A. ........... (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Chrysididae



130b. Abdomen with 6 (females) or 7 (males) tergites; sternites convex; body not metallic (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Coleoptera & Lepidoptera)............ (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Bethylidae



131a (128b). Petiole without nodes or node-like swellings



131b. Petiole medially with nodes or node-like swellings; antennae geniculate (Figs.A-E) (general predators)....... A....... (Hymenoptera) (Formicoidea) Formicidae



132a (131a). First discoidal cell shorter than submedian cell; fore wings rarely folded



132b. First discoidal cell much longer than submedian cell; fore wings when at rest folded longitudinally (Figs.A-D) (general predators)...... A....(Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) Vespidae



133a (132a). Mesopleuron not divided by an oblique suture; hind femur does not extend to tip of abdomen



133b. Mesopleuron divided by an oblique suture; hind femur extends to tip of abdomen; mid tibia with 2 apical spurs (Figs.A-D) (parasitoids of spiders) ...... A.........(Hymenoptera) (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae



134a (133a). Mesosternum and metasternum separate, not forming a single large plate; wings without wrinkles



134b. Mesosternum and metasternum form a flat plate divided by a sinuous transverse suture; fore wing with fine longitudinal wrinkles beyond the closed cells (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae)...... A........(Hymenoptera) (Scolioidea) Scoliidae



135a (134a). Mesosternum simple, without appendages



135b. Mesosternum with 2 laminae which overlay or project between the bases of the middle coxae, extending to midline; spur on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae)..... A..... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) .. Tiphiidae



136a (135a). Body bare or nearly so; hind wing with a prominent separated lobe at the anal angle (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of bees). ... A...... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) Sapygidae



136b. Body almost always obviously hairy; hind wing of %% without a lobe at the anal angle; 2 spurs on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera .......... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) Mutillidae



137a (127b). Antennae inserted near clypeus



137b. Antennae inserted near middle of face on a shelf-like protuberance; fore wing with stigma (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Diptera).... A..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae [also see fly-par.htm ]



138a (137a). Abdomen sharply margined at sides



138b. Abdomen rounded laterally; marginal vein usually stigmated (Fig.A) (parasitoids of insects in several orders...A....(Hymenoptera) (Ceraphronoidea) Ceraphronidae



139a (138a). Fore wing with a marginal and stigmal vein (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of insect eggs) ......A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae



139b. Fore wing without marginal and stigmal veins (Figs.A-C) (most parasitoids of Diptera & Homoptera) ...... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Platygastridae


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Hemiptera / Heteroptera:



140a. (19a & 40a). Antennae short, usually concealed.....(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) suborder Cryptocerata (= aquatic bugs)



140b. Antennae longer than previously described, at least as long as head, not concealed .(Hemiptera Heteroptera) suborder Gymnocerata (= terrestrial bugs)



141a (140a). Hind tarsi with claws



141b. Hind tarsi without claws, hind tarsi only flattened (Fig.A) (general predators) ..A...... Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Notonectidae



142a (141a). Membrane of hemelytra without veins



142b. Membrane of hemelytra (= front wings) with veins (Fig.A) (predators of other aquatic arthropods) . A...... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Belostomatidae



143a (142a). Eyes strongly protruding; toad-like (Fig.A) (general predators)....A......... Hmiptera / Heteroptera) ........Gelastocoridae



143b. Eyes flattened to form one smooth surface with head (Fig.A) (general predators)(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) ---.... Naucoridae



144a (140b). Fore legs relatively short and slender compared to other legs; tarsal claws anteapical (especially obvious on fore legs)



144b. Fore legs not noticeably shorter than other legs; if so, then fore legs thick and modified for grasping; tarsal claws apical



145a (144a). Hind femora extend well beyond apex of abdomen; middle legs arise closer to hind than to fore legs (Fig.A) (general predators) ........ A.......(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Gerridae



145b. Hind femora extend little if any beyond apex of abdomen; if middle legs arise close to hind legs than to fore legs, then fore tarsi have only 1 segment (Fig.A) (general predators) .......... Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Vellidae



146a (144b). Antennae with 4 segments



146b. Antennae with 5 segments (Figs.A-D) (mostly phytophagous, but some species are general predators)........ A....... emiptera / Heteroptera) Pentatomidae



147a (146a). Absence of pad-like arolium at base of each tarsal claw, of if present, fore legs are modified for grasping prey (raptorial)



147b. Pad-like arolium present; membrane of hemelytron with only 4-5 veins (Figs.A-B) (predatory & phytophagous)..... A.......(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Lygaeidae



148a (147a). Fore legs not raptorial; without a presternal groove



148b. Fore legs not raptorial



149a (148a). Proboscis with 3 segments; cuneus absent; ocelli present



149b. Proboscis with 4 segments; cuneus present; ocelli absent (Figs.A-C) (a few general predatory species) .....A....... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Miridae



150a (149a). Hemelytra with a cuneus (= triangular apical part of thickened portion of wing); 0.5-5.0 mm. long (Figs.A-C) (general predators) .... A....(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Anthocoridae



150b. Hemelytra without a cuneus; length variable; membrane of hemelytra with 4-5 closed cells (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Saldidae



151a (148b). Prosternum with a groove to receive proboscis; proboscis with 3 segments (Figs.A-B) (general predators).......... A........(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Reduviidae



151b. Prosternum without a groove; proboscis usually with 4 segments (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...........(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Nabidae


Major Families of Adult Predatory & Parasitic Coleoptera:



152a (27a, 51b, 54a & 73b). Head not prolonged into a beak; gular sutures (= longitudinal sutures demarking sclerite on ventral side of head) double, at least anteriorly and posteriorly



152b. Head usually prolonged into a beak; gular sutures fused or lacking; antennae not elbowed; elytra cover base of pygidium (= last dorsal segment of abdomen) (Figs.A-C) (predators of Coccidae)....... A. ......(Coleoptera) Anthribidae



153a (152a). First abdominal sternite divided by the hind coxal cavities ......... (Coleoptera) (Adephaga)



153b. First abdominal sternite not interrupted by hind coxal cavities............. (Coleoptera) (Polyphaga)



154a (153a). Abdomen with 6 or more visible sternites; antennae filiform



154b. Abdomen with only 4 visible sternites; antennae very much thickened apically, clavate or laminate (Fig.A) (predators of ants)... ..... A........(Coleoptera) Paussidae



155a (154a). Eyes entire, not divided; antennae elongated, slender......... (Coleoptera) Caraboidea)



155b. Eyes divided, appear as 2 pairs; antennae short and somewhat clubbed; front legs elongated and slender (Figs.A-B) (predators of aquatic arthropods). ......A.........(Coleoptera) (Gyrinoidea) Gyrinidae



156a (155a). Metasternum with a distinct transverse suture demarking a triangular antecoxal suture



156b. Metasternum without a transverse suture or antecoxal sclerite; body smooth and hard; hind legs flattened and fringed with long hairs (Figs.A-C) (predators of aquatic arthropods)...... A.........(Coleoptera) Dytiscidae



157a (156a). Antennae inserted on front above base of mandibles; clypeus extends laterally beyond the base of antennae; often brightly colored insects (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........A.......(Coleoptera) Cicindelidae



157b. Antennae inserted on side of head between base of mandible and eye; clypeus does not extend laterally beyond base of antennae; most are dark, shiny and flattened (Figs.A-F) (general predators)......... (Coleoptera) Carabidae



158a (153b). Antennae usually not clubbed, but if so, segments are not lamellate



158b. Antennae with the last 3-7 segments enlarged, club-like; body heavy, oval or elongated and usually convex (Figs.A-F) (considered predators of grasshopper egg pods). ...... .A.... (Coleoptera) Scarabaeidae



159a (158a). Hind tarsi with 4 segments, front and middle tarsi with 5 segments



159b. Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as fore and middle tarsi



160a (159a). Front coxal cavities closed behind



160b. Front coxal cavities open behind



161a (160a). Abdominal sternites freely movable (%% only; also refer to couplet 182); abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Figs.A-D) (predators)........A(Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae



161b. First 2-4 abdominal sternites somewhat fused or immovable; eyes usually notched; most are black or brownish (Figs.A-H) (predators).......... (Coleoptera) Tenebrionidae



162a (160b). Head very much and abruptly constricted behind eyes



162b. Head not much and suddenly constricted behind eyes .......(Coleoptera) Pythidae



163a (162a). Prothorax usually rounded on sides, without a sharp lateral margin



163b. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin; body somewhat humpbacked, with head bent down; abdomen pointed apically, extending beyond tips of elytra (Figs.A-B) (may be predators) ........A........(Coleoptera) Mordellidae



164a (163a). Base of prothorax narrower than elytra



164b. Base of prothorax as wide as elytra; antennae pectinate (= comb-like); abdomen blunt (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) .........A........Coleoptera) Rhipiphoridae



165a (164a). Hind coxae large and prominent; elytra soft and flexible; pronotum narrower than either head or elytra (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........A........ (Coleoptera) Meloidae



165b. Hind coxae transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis), not prominent; head constricted behind eyes; ant-like in appearance (Figs.A-B) (general predators)......... Coleoptera