FILE: <insect2.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU ]

 

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51a (50b). Abdomen with a pair of hooks, usually on anal prolegs, at posterior end and without long lateral processes (but at times with finger-like gills); tarsi with 1 claw; usually living in cases (Figs.A-F) [caddisfly larvae] ..... A ...... Trichoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

152

51b. Abdomen with 4 hooks at posterior end or none, and with or without long lateral processes; tarsi with 1-2 claws (Fig.A); not living in cases [beetle larvae].......... Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

53

52a (44b). Mouthparts usually withdrawn into head and not obvious; abdomen with stylelike appendages on some segments or with a forked appendage near end of abdomen; usually <7 mm long

 

54

52b. Mouthparts usually distinct, mandibulate or haustellate (= for sucking); abdomen without appendages as described previously; size variable

 

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53a (52a). Antennae long, with many segments; abdomen with at least 9 segments and with stylelike appendages on ventral side of some segments; without a forked appendage near end of abdomen, but with well developed cerci (Figs.A-C) ..... A ......... Diplura (in Class Entognatha)

 

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53b. Antennae short, with 6 or less segments; abdomen with 6 or less segments and usually with a forked appendage near posterior end (Figs.A-G) [springtails]............ Collembola (in Class Entognatha)

 

152

54a (52b). Body larviform ( = shaped like a worm or larva), thorax and abdomen not differentiated; compound eyes present [larviform beetles] ............. Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

55

54b. Body shape variable, but if larviform, then without compound eyes

 

56

55a (54b). Compound eyes usually present; body shape variable, but usually not worm-like; wing pads often present [adults & nymphs]

 

65

55b. Compound eyes and wing pads absent, body usually worm-like in shape [larvae]

 

57

56a (55a). Tarsi with 5 segments

 

59

56b. Tarsi with 4 or less segments

 

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57a (56a). Mouthparts prolonged ventrally into a snout-like process (Fig.A); body somewhat A .......cylindrical and usually <15 mm long (Fig.A) [wingless scorpionflies].... Mecoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

58

57b. Mouthparts not as previously described; body shape and size variable

 

217

58a. (57b). Antennae with 5 segments; Texas (some && twisted-winge parasitoids;Mengeidae] .... Strepsiptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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58b. Antennae with >5 segments; widely distributed (Figs.A-G) [rock crawlers, walking A sticks & some cockroaches.......... Orthoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

60

59a (56b). Cerci like forceps; tarsi with 3 segments

 

61

59b. Cerci absent or, if present, not like forceps; tarsi variable

 

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60a (59a). Antennae more than 1/2 as long as body; cerci short; western U.S.A. [Timemidae] ........ Orthoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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60b. Antennae usually less than 1/2 as long as body; cerci long (Fig.A); widely distributed A [earwigs] ........ Dermaptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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61a (59b). Tarsi with 3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi enlarged (Figs.A-B) [webspinners] ............... Embioptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

62

61b. Tarsi with 2-4 segments, basal segment of front tarsi not enlarged

 

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62a (61b). Appearance like grasshoppers, with hind legs enlarged and fitted for jumping; length usually >15 mm (Figs.A-E) [grasshoppers] .. A ..... Orthoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

63

62b. Not like grasshoppers, hind legs usually not as previously described; length <10 mm

 

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63a (62b). Tarsi with 4 segments; pale, soft bodies, wood- or ground-inhabiting insects A (Figs.A-E) [termites] ........ Isoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

64

63b. Tarsi with 2-3 segments; color and habits variable

 

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64a (63b). Cerci present, 1 segmented, and terminating in a long bristle; antennae with 9 segments and moniliform (Figs.A-C); compound eyes and ocelli absent (= simple yes); tarsi with 2 segments .... A .......... Zoraptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

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64b. Cerci absent; antennae with 13 or more segments and usually hair-like (Fig.A); compound eyes and 3 ocelli usually present; tarsi with 2-3 segments [psocids ........ Psocoptera (= Corrodentia) <General Characteristics, #2>; <Adults, #2> & <Juveniles, #2> [Latest Classification]

 

66

65a (55b). Ventral prolegs (= fleshy abdominal legs) present on 2 or more abdominal segments (Figs.A-B) ..... A.

 

68

65b. Abdominal prolegs absent or on terminal segment only

 

227

66a (65a). Have 5 pairs prolegs (on abdominal segments 3-6 & 10) or fewer (Fig. A), the prolegs with tiny hooks (crochets); several (usually 6) ocelli on each side of head [caterpillars] ............. Lepidoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

67

66b. Have 6 or more pairs of abdominal prolegs, the prolegs without crochets; ocelli number variable

 

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67a (66b). Ocelli, 7 or more, on each side of head; prolegs on segments 1-8 or 3-8, usually faint pointed structures (Fig.A) [scorpionfly larvae] ........ A ...... Mecoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

118

67b. Ocellus (one) on each side of head; prolegs fleshy and not pointed, usually on abdominal segments 2-8 & 10, sometimes on 2-7 or 2-6 & 10 (Figs.A-B) [sawfly larvae] ..... Hymenoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

194

68a (65b). Mandible and maxilla on each side united to form a sucking jaw that is often long (Figs.A-B); tarsi with 2 claws; labrum absent or fused with head capsule; maxillary A palps absent [Planipennia: lacewing & antlion larvae] .......... Neuroptera <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]

 

69

68b. Mandibles and maxillae not as previously described; tarsi with 1-2 claws; labrum and maxillary palps usually present

 

70

69a (68b). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along mid ventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or a bit flattened

 

72

69b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded

 

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70a (69a). Tarsi with 1 claw [some beetle larvae] ........ Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

71

70b. Tarsi with 2 claws

 

194

71a (70b). Distinct labrum (= upper lip) and clypeus (= hardened plate on lower face between frons and labium) present [Raphidiodea: snakefly larvae] ....... Neuroptera <General Characateristics> [Latest Classification]

 

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71b. Labrum absent or fused with head capsule [most Adephaga: beetle larvae] ..... Coleoptera

 

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72a (69b). Front legs noticeably smaller than other pairs; middle and hind legs projecting laterally much more than front legs; a small group of ocelli (usually 3) on each side of head behind bases of antennae; tarsal claws absent; length <5 mm; usually found in moss [Boreidae larvae] ......... Mecoptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

73

72b. Legs not as previously described, front and middle legs ca. same size and position; ocelli variable; tarsi with 1-3 claws; size and habitat variable

 

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73a (72b). Tarsi with 1-2 claws; abdomen usually without caudal filaments; antennae variable [beetle larvae] ...... Coleoptera

 

217

73b. Tarsi usually with 3 claws; abdomen with 2 caudal filaments ca. 1/3rd as long as body (Fig.A); antennae usually short with 3 segments [triungulin (= active 1st instar) larvae A of some beetles, Meloidae, and twisted-winged parasitoids]............ Coleoptera ..... 152 and ....... Strepsiptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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74a (28b). Aquatic [fly larvae] ....... Diptera <General Characteristics>; <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

75

74b. Terrestrial or parasitic (not aquatic)

 

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75a (74b). Sessile, plant feeding; body covered by a scale or waxy substance; mouthparts for sucking, long and thread-like [female scales] ........ Homoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

76

75b. Not the same as previously described

 

222

76a (75b). Head and thorax almost fused, and abdominal segmentation indistinct (Fig.A); ...... A internal parasitoids of other insects [female twisted-winged parasitoids] ....... Strepsiptera <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

77

76b. Head not fused with thorax, body segmentation distinct; habitat variable

 

78

77a (76b). Head distinct, sclerotized, and usually pigmented and exserted

 

85

77b. Head indistinct, incompletely or not at all sclerotized, sometimes retracted into thorax

 

79

78a (77a). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along midventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or slightly flattened

 

82

78b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded

 

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79a (78a). Terminal abdominal segment with a pair of short pointed processes; several long setae on each body segment (Fig.A) [flea larvae]... A ..... Siphonaptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

80

79b. Not exactly as previously described

 

227

80a (79b). Labium with a protruding spinneret (= silk-producing structure); antennae arising from membranous area at bases of mandibles; mandibles well developed, opposable; body usually slightly flattened; ventral prolegs usually with crochets; mostly leaf miners in leaves, bark, or fruits [moth larvae] ....... Lepidoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

81

80b. Labium without a spinneret; antennae, if present, arising from head capsule; prolegs without crochets

 

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81a (80b). Mouthparts distinctly mandibulate, with opposable mandibles; spiracles usually present on thorax and 8 abdominal segments; body shape variable [beetle larvae] ..... Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

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81b. Mouthparts as previously described or with mouth hooks somewhat parallel and moving vertically; spiracles variable, but usually not as previously described; body elongated [Nematocera & some Brachycera fly larvae] ....... Diptera <General Characteristics>; <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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82a (78b). Abdominal segments usually with 1 or more longitudinal folds laterally or lateroventrally; body C-shaped, scarabaeiform (Fig.A); 1 pair of spiracles on thorax and usually 8 pairs on abdomen [beetle larvae, white grubs] ........ A ..... Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

83

82b. Abdominal segments without longitudinal folds, or if present, then spiracles not as previously described

 

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83a (82b). Head with adfrontal areas (= pair of narrow oblique sclerites on head) (as in Fig.A); labium with a projecting spinneret; if present, antennae arise from membranous area at base of mandibles; often 1 or more ocelli (usually 6) on each side of head; ventral prolegs, if present, with crochets [moth larvae] ........ Lepidoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

84

83b. Head without adfrontal areas, and labium without a spinneret; antennae and ocelli not as previously described; prolegs, if present, without crochets

 

118

84a (83b). Mandibles not heavily sclerotized and not brush-like; spiracles usually present on thorax and most abdominal segments, the posterior pair not enlarged; larvae occur in plant tissues as phytophagous parasites, or in cells constructed by adults [Apocrita] ...... Hymenoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification] [Illustrations = Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 15, 16, 20. 39, 41. 48, 50. 54, 56, 57, 59. 61, 63. 75, 78, 79, 82, 84, 86, 90, 95. 98, 101. 108, 110 y 112. 116]

 

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84b. Mandibles usually brush-like; spiracles usually not as previously described-- if present on several abdominal segments, the posterior pair is much larger than the rest; occur in wet places, in plant tissues, or as internal parasites (Fig.A) A [fly larvae, mainly Nematocera] ......... Diptera <General Characteristics>; <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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85a (77b). Mouthparts mandibulate, with opposable mandibles and maxillae; antennae usually present [beetle larvae] ........ Coleoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

86

85b. Mouthparts reduced or modified, with only the mandibles opposable, or with parallel mouth hooks present; antennae usually absent

 

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86a (85b). Body behind "head" (first body segment) consisting of 13 segments; full grown larvae usually with a sclerotized ventral plate ("breast bone") located ventrally behind head [Cecidomyiidae larvae ] ........ Diptera <General Characteristics>; <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

87

86b. Body with fewer segments than previously described; no "breast bone"

 

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87a (86b). Mouthparts consist of 1-2 (if 2 then parallel, not opposable) median, dark colored, down curved mouth hooks [Cyclorrhapha maggots ] .......... Diptera <General Characteristics>; <Juveniles> [Latest Classification]

 

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87b. Mandibles opposable, but at times reduced, without mouth hooks as described previously [Apocrita larvae] ......... Hymenoptera <General Characteristics> [Latest Classification]

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Diptera

(for muscoid flies see Figs C-D wing venation)

 

89

88a (8a, 29a & 38b). Antennae moniliform, 6-39 segments, longer than thorax

 

94

88b. Antennae with 3-4 segments, ring-like segments may be present; antennae shorter than thorax

 

90

89a (88a). Costa (= longitudinal wing vein) extends completely around wing, occasionally weakened behind

 

92

89b. Costa does not reach to or extend only slightly beyond wing tip

 

91

90a (89a). Mesonotal suture (= dorsal sclerite of mesothorax) transverse, not V-shaped

 

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90b. Mesonotum with an entire V-shaped suture; females with long sclerotized ovipositor (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of aquatic or semiaquatic arthropods) A ....... (Diptera) Tipulidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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91a (90a). Ocelli present and/or venation reduced; eyes meet above antennae; wing not scaly (Figs.A-C) A (larvae are predators of Homoptera & mites) ......... (Diptera) Cecidomyiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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91b. Ocelli absent; probosis extends far beyond clypeus; wing venation strong; wing veins and margin covered with scales, usually also on body (Figs.A-G) (larvae of some species are predators of aquatic arthropods) ............ (Diptera) Culicidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

93

92a (89b). Ocelli absent

 

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92b. Ocelli present; tibiae with apical spurs; discal cell in wing (= enlarged cell in basal or central part of wing) absent (Figs.A-C) A (larvae spin webs & feed on entrapped arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Mycetophilidae (Mycetophagidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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93a (92a). Head rounded behind, mouthparts piercing; metanotum short and rounded, without a longitudinal groove (Fig.A) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators) .................. (Diptera) Ceratopogonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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93b. Head flat behind, mouthparts without mandibles, not piercing ;metanotum long, with a median longitudinal groove (Figs.A-B) (most are predators, one species parasitizes mayflies) ........... (Diptera) Chironomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

95

94a (88b). Empodium (= pad or bristlelike structure at apex of last tarsal segment between the claws) developed lobelike, the 3 pads almost equal

 

99

94b. Empodium hair-like or absent

 

96

95a (94a). Third antennal segment compound, composed of ring-like segments

 

97

95b. Third antennal segment simple, frequently bearing an elongated style or arista

 

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96a (95a). Tegula (= scale-like structure overlying front wing base) large and conspicuous female abdomen large (Figs.A-F) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators of aquatic arthropods) ........... (Diptera) Tabanidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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96b. Tegula small or vestigial; tibial spurs usually absent (Figs.A-F) (larvae are predators of arthropods in several habitats) ........... (Diptera) Stratiomyiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

98

97a. Tegula small or vestigal

 

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97b. Tegula large, covering haltere; head very small, positioned low down and composed almost entirely of compound eyes; body humpbacked (Fig.A) A (parasitoids of spiders) ...... (Diptera) Acroceridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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98a (97a). Tibiae without apical spurs; wing venation intricate with many veins ending before wing tip (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers).... A .... (Diptera) Nemestrinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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98b. At least middle tibia with apical spurs; antennae have long terminal style; wing venation normal, not complex (Figs.A-B) (both adults and larvae are predators of other arthropods) ......... (Diptera) Rhagionidae (Leptidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

100

99a (94b). Wing with 2 or more submarginal cells (vein R-4+5 forked); 3-4 posterior cells

 

106

99b. Wing with only one submarginal cell or none at all (vein R-4+5 not forked)

 

101

100a (99a). Front strongly concave at vertex

 

102

100b. Front not concave between eyes, vertex flat or convex

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