Martin, L. R. & Friedman, H. S. (2004). Nonverbal communication and health care. In R.E. Riggio & R. S. Feldman (Eds.), Applications of Nonverbal Communication. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Abstract: Nonverbal communication – the use of dynamic but non-language messages such as facial expressions, gestures, gaze, touch, and vocal cues -- is especially important when emotions, identities, and status roles are significant, as well as in situations where verbal communications are untrustworthy, ambiguous, or otherwise difficult to interpret. The importance of nonverbal cues is thus central in the health arena.
Friedman, H.S. (2001). Paradoxes of Nonverbal Detection, Expression, and Responding: Points to PONDER. In J.A. Hall & F. J. Bernieri (eds.), Interpersonal Sensitivity: Theory and Measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 351-362.
Ponder a number of puzzling paradoxes of interpersonal
sensitivity. In various situations, it appears that a tremendous
amount of important interpersonal knowledge is being rapidly
communicated, mostly nonverbally. Yet we usually do not
understand how this occurs. On the other hand, there is a great
deal of misinformation and misunderstanding in face-to-face human
relations. Here too we often cannot decipher precisely what is
going wrong. Such matters undoubtedly involve the sounds, gestures,
touches, odors, and faces of spreading emotion. They are fertile
grounds for the future study of nonverbal sensitivity in particular,
and interpersonal sensitivity in general.
Friedman, H. S. & Riggio, R. E. (1999).
Individual differences in ability to encode complex emotions. Personality
and Individual Differences, 27, 181-194.
Based on past theory and research, three complex affective
communications, sympathy (compassion), pride and seduction, were
selected for focused study. 62 undergraduates (mean age 20.6 yrs) were
measured on relevant personality variables and were videotaped while
attempting to encode both basic emotional expressions and the three
complex affects. Groups of raters rated the success of each attempted
portrayal. Other raters judged the facial expressions employed.
Analyses revealed the characteristics of successful senders as well as
the errors made by unsuccessful communicators. Significant positive
intercorrelations between Subjects' abilities to encode each of the
complex affects and correlations between encoding complex and basic
emotional messages suggested that there may be a general ability to
express affect. Correlations between the personality measures and
encoding ability showed that dominant and exhibitionistic Subjects and
emotionally expressive female Subjects and male Subjects who were good
'social actors', were better encoders of complex affect. These results
have implications for understanding the emotional subtleties of social
life and the differential social success of various individuals.
DePaulo, B.M. & Friedman, H.S. (1997). Nonverbal
Communication. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (eds.) Handbook
of Social Psychology, 4th edition.
To understand fully the role of nonverbal communication in social
psychology, it is important to analyze the perception side and the
expression side, and then examine social factors that can undermine
veridicality--self-perception and the interpersonal process of
deception. Finally, the analysis must be taken to more complex levels
interaction and mutuality, involving social influence, attraction,
interpersonal expectations and conversations. This is therefore the
followed in this chapter.... After discussing the roots of nonverbal
research, this chapter discusses: nonverbal cues in person perception;
expressiveness and personal charisma; self-presentation; deception;
social influence; attraction; expectancy communication; and
Joan S.; Friedman, Howard S. Sex differences in nonverbal
Emotional expression, personality, and impressions. Journal of
Behavior, 1993 Summer, v17 (n2):103-117.
Administered a comprehensive set of emotion-relevant personality
to 40 female and 39 male undergraduates, who were also videotaped in 3
situations. The situations included engaging in natural social
describing a past emotional experience, and posing various emotions.
were judged by sets of naive observers as to emotion communicated and
impression. Expressive females, who appeared friendly and dominant in
interaction, were found to have a hostile/aggressive personality.
females also tended to look angry/disgusted when describing happy and
experiences. Findings suggest that nonverbally skilled, charismatic
may often possess a dominant/aggressive but self-controlled
in a new twist on the theory that sex differences in expressiveness
in part from the oppression of women in society.
S.; Miller-Herringer, Terry. Nonverbal display of emotion in public and
in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal
of Personality & Social Psychology, 1992 Nov, v61 (n5):766-775.
Individual differences in the expression and regulation of emotion are
important components of social skill. The present study focused on the
concealing of spontaneous expressions of happiness after winning in a
situation against peers. In a repeated measures design, spontaneous
behaviors in response to triumph were secretly videotaped when Subjects
( N = 38) were alone in a room and when they were with 2 fellow
(confederates). Edited tapes were analyzed by naive raters and trained
coders. As predicted, the social context strongly influenced the
behaviors of Subjects, providing support for a social inhibition
More important, the self-monitoring construct (M. Snyder, 1987) was
in explaining individual differences in expressive regulation, with
self-monitors being successful at hiding their happiness when
they did so in particular ways. Low self-monitors did not conceal their
emotions. Other findings with regard to personality and sex differences
were also uncovered.
S.; Tucker, Joan S. Language and deception. IN: Handbook of
and social psychology.; Howard Giles, W. Peter Robinson, Eds. John
Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England. 1990. p. 257-270.
(from the chapter) it is useful to think of deception as part of a
negotiated social reality; deception involves an actor who has various
feelings, motivations, expressions, and styles that affect the
cues that he or she gives off to a perceiver; the perceiver, in turn,
various perceptual and cognitive processes to draw inferences about the
actor and responds to the actor based on these inferences; as the
responses feed back to the actor, the cycle of communication and
negotiation continues... accuracy levels; perceived and actual cues to
deception; a model of deception; a skills approach to understanding the
S.; Riggio, Ronald E.; Casella, Daniel F. Nonverbal skill, personal
and initial attraction. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,
1988 Mar, v14 (n1):203-211.
Administered measures of nonverbal expressiveness, self-monitoring, and
extraversion, including the Eysenck Personality Inventory, to 54
Subjects were surreptitiously videotaped while entering a laboratory
meeting new people and were rated by a separate group of 30
on scales of likability and physical attractiveness. Results indicate
emotionally expressive, extraverted, and physically attractive Subjects
were evaluated more favorably in these initial encounters than were
scoring low on these dimensions. The relationships between
and initial likability were independent of the effects of physical
Results suggest that conceptions of overall attractiveness need to move
beyond the physical qualities to include dynamic, emotional aspects.
E.; Friedman, Howard S. Impression formation: The role of expressive
Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1986 Feb, v50
35 female and 27 male undergraduates completed the Personality Research
Form, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Self-Monitoring Scale.
were also assessed on posed emotional sending ability and on physical
Subjects were then videotaped while giving a spontaneous "explanation."
Trained coders measured 5 separate nonverbal cue factors displayed by
Subjects in the videotapes. Groups of untrained judges viewed the tapes
and rated their impressions of the Subjects on scales of likability,
effectiveness, and expressivity-confidence. Males who were nonverbally
skilled and extraverted tended to display more outwardly focused and
expressive behaviors, and made more favorable impressions on judges,
did males who scored low on the measures of nonverbal skills and
Females who were nonverbally skilled displayed more facial
which led to more favorable initial impressions. It is suggested that
sex differences may reflect basic differences in the acquisition and
of expressive nonverbal cues by males and females.
S.; Friedman, Howard S.; Harris, Monica J. Individual differences in
style as a mediator of expectancy communication. Journal of
Behavior, 1985 Winter, v9 (n4):229-238.
Examined the role of nonverbal expressiveness and self-monitoring as
in the communication of teachers' expectations for student performance
to a 3rd party observer. 32 female undergraduates were recruited to be
videotaped while teaching a brief lesson to a high school student who
presented as either very bright and motivated or not. Videotapes
only the teacher were later shown to undergraduate observers who were
for their impressions of the student being taught. It was hypothesized
that teachers who were nonverbally expressive would communicate their
to the observers and would elicit from them responses similar to their
own. On the other hand, unexpressive teachers would not communicate
expectations, eliciting observer responses unrelated to their own. The
predictions were supported; however, it was found that spontaneous
interacted with self-monitoring in determining expectancy
E.; Widaman, Keith F.; Friedman, Howard S. Actual and perceived
sending and personality correlates. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior,
1985 Summer, v9 (n2):69-83.
Investigated the relationship between 68 undergraduate's ability to
express 6 basic emotions and their perceived success at expressing
emotions. Subjects completed a number of standardized personality
and were videotaped while attempting to portray the emotions.
following the videotaping, Subjects rated their perceived success in
emotional-sending task. 69 undergraduate observers then judged the
videotapes to determine Subjects' actual sending abilities. Analysis
that actual and perceived emotional-sending were distinct factors.
correlations between the traditional personality measures and the
and perceived sending factors also supported this distinction. Findings
have important implications for the construction of standardized
of individual differences in nonverbal communication skills.
S.; Hall, Judith A.; Harris, Monica J. Type A behavior, nonverbal
style, and health. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,
1985 May, v48 (n5):1299-1315.
60 42-64 yr old males at high risk for coronary heart disease were
in terms of their expressive style, specific nonverbal cues,
and health. As assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey, half the
were Type A's (coronary-prone) and half were Type B's
To provide a more refined grouping, Subjects were further classified on
the basis of scores on a self-report measure of nonverbal
Videotapes of the Subjects were extensively rated and coded in terms of
their judged appearance, the actual audio and video nonverbal cues
and the words said (transcript). Two groups of Type A's were found: one
that was repressed, tense, and illness-prone, and another that was
talkative, in control, and charismatic. Furthermore, in addition to the
expected healthy Type B's, a subgroup of Type B's was found who were
repressed, and tense; had an external locus of control; and may have
illness prone. A refined conception of the Type A behavior pattern is
necessary in light of these findings. Implications for improving the
of the Type A construct and understanding the link between psychosocial
factors and disease are discussed.
E.; Friedman, Howard S. Individual differences and cues to deception. Journal
of Personality & Social Psychology, 1983 Oct, v45 (n4):899-915.
In an extension of previous studies on deception and deception
the present study investigated the relations among individual
behavioral cues displayed when deceiving and telling the truth, and the
perceptions of naive observers. 63 undergraduates were measured on the
Self-Monitoring Scale, the Affective Communication Test, the
Research Form, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, their acting ability,
and their overall appearance. They were then videotaped while deceiving
and while telling the truth, and their verbal and nonverbal cues were
and coded. Their success at creating an honest appearance was assessed
by showing edited videotapes of their faces or their bodies to naive
(176 undergraduates), with and without sound. Behavioral cues validly
truthfulness from deception, but these valid cues were not necessarily
used or were incorrectly used by the judges. Comparison of the facial
body conditions suggested explanations for the relative inaccuracy of
judges. Individual differences were related to the overall display of
cues, to variance in the display of cues from deceptive to truthful
to overall perceptions of truthfulness, and to successful deception.
E.; Friedman, Howard S. The interrelationships of self-monitoring
personality traits, and nonverbal social skills. Journal of
Behavior, 1982 Fall, v7 (n1):33-45.
Examined the interrelationships of several standardized measures of
skills and personality in 2 studies. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates took
the Personality Research Form--Form A, the ACT Assessment, the Eysenck
Personality Inventory, and a self-monitoring scale; Subjects also
in a videotaped attempt to send each of 6 possible emotions. Subjects
then asked to describe pictures by either lying or telling the truth.
Study 2, 82 undergraduates took the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability
Scale, the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Rotter Internal-External
Locus of Control Scale, the ACT Assessment, a self-esteem inventory, a
sensitivity to nonverbal communications test, and a self-monitoring
The self-monitoring factor Acting was positively correlated with
dominance, exhibition, and Machiavellianism. The self-monitoring factor
Other-Directedness was positively related to social recognition,
Machiavellianism, and manifest anxiety; and negatively related to
social desirability, achievement and endurance. Self-monitoring
the ability to send emotional displays and knowledge of social rules
S.; Riggio, Ronald E. Effect of individual differences in nonverbal
on transmission of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1981
Winter, v6 (n2):96-104.
Tested the possibility that individual differences in nonverbal
may function as a mediating factor in the transmission of emotion
social comparison. In a quasiexperimental design involving 27 highly
undergraduates and 54 unexpressive undergraduates (as measured by the
Communication Test), small groups consisting of 1 expressive Subject
2 unexpressive Subjects were created in which the Subjects sat facing
other without talking for 2 min. Self-report measures of mood indicated
that the feelings of unexpressive Subjects were influenced by
Subjects but the feelings of expressive Subjects were relatively
to be influenced by unexpressive Subjects. Findings have implications
the role of nonverbal communication in the emotional side of group
E.; Friedman, Howard S.; DiMatteo, M. Robin. Nonverbal greetings:
of the situation and personality. Personality & Social
Bulletin, 1981 Dec, v7 (n4):682-689.
Investigated the effects of various situational and personality
on the display of nonverbal greetings. 30 female and 23 male graduates
and undergraduates served as Subjects. Five other females and 5 other
served as confederates. The sex of the greeting interactants, level of
acquaintanceship, and the topic to be discussed were systematically
in a number of role-played greeting situations. 49 observers then rated
these role-played greetings in terms of intimacy and the type of
displayed. Greetings between role-played friends were judged more
than greetings between acquaintances. In addition, Subjects who scored
higher on standardized measures of nonverbal skills were more intimate
overall in their greeting displays.
S.; Riggio, Ronald E.; Segall, Daniel O. Personality and the enactment
of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1980 Fall, v5
Investigated the meaning of personality traits for social interaction
exploring the personality correlates of abilities to pose emotions.
framework focuses on individual differences in socioemotional skills.
male and 37 female undergraduates were videotaped while attempting to
7 basic emotions nonverbally (i.e., using standard content
and sending success was measured by showing edited videotapes to
Hypothesized relationships between "acting" ability and scores
on the Personality Research Form and the Eysenck Personality Inventory
were than examined. Findings have implications for predicting
strengths and weaknesses in social interaction as a function of certain
personality traits and for understanding person perception.
S.; DiMatteo, M. Robin; Mertz, Timothy I. Nonverbal communication on
news: The facial expressions of broadcasters during coverage of a
election campaign. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin,
1980 Sep, v6 (n3):427-435.
Examined the facial expressions of 5 network TV news anchorpersons
their coverage of the 1976 presidential election campaign. The
for systematic yet subtle nonverbal communication in the news was
through a "nonverbal content analysis" in which the facial expressions
that accompanied the uttering of the candidates' names were studied.
differences were found in the perceived positiveness of the facial
of broadcasters as a function of the candidates.
S.; Prince, Louise M.; Riggio, Ronald E.; DiMatteo, M. Robin.
and assessing nonverbal expressiveness: The Affective Communication
Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1980 Aug, v39
577 undergraduates participated in an investigation of the concept of
emotional expressiveness. Subjects were administered a 13-item
Affective Communication Test (ACT) and a battery of other tests,
the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety
Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, and Coopersmith
Inventory. Results show the ACT to be a reliable and valid measure of
differences in expressiveness/charisma, which is (a) a likely element
social influence in face-to-face interaction, (b) a logical extension
past approaches to a basic element of personality (exhibition), and (c)
a valuable construct in approaching current problems in nonverbal
DiMatteo, M. Robin;
Friedman, Howard S.; Taranta, Angelo. Sensitivity to bodily nonverbal
as a factor in practitioner-patient rapport. Journal of Nonverbal
1979 Fall, v4 (n1):18-26.
Tested the relationship between physicians' nonverbal sensitivity and
satisfaction of their patients. In Exp I, 40 physicians were given a
test of nonverbal sensitivity (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity) and
by their patients. Exp II was a replication using 31 different
Most noteworthy for research in therapeutic interaction, the present
contained 3 methodological advances: (1) the use of actual patients'
of satisfaction with treatment, (2) the extension of research from
to medical settings, and (3) the use of a standardized test of
decoding skill. Physicians' skill at reading the emotion conveyed
the nonverbal channel of body movement was found to be significantly
with their interpersonal success with patients in the clinical setting.
S. The interactive effects of facial expressions of emotion and verbal
messages on perceptions of affective meaning. Journal of
Social Psychology, 1979 Sep, v15 (n5):453-469.
The influence of facial expressions of emotion on perceptions of
sentence meaning was investigated by pairing happy, angry, surprised,
sad faces of "teachers" with sentences of varying affective tone.
95 high school students judged the overall meaning communicated by
paired stimuli. The design allowed exploration of unique facial-verbal
combination effects, overall cue integration effects, and sex
Clear effects of cue combinations emerged. Perceived sincerity was a
of the consistency of evaluative (positivity) but not dominance cues.
subtleties of cue combination were clarified through open-ended
measures. Also, as expected, females were more sensitive than males to
verbal-nonverbal cue conflict in perceptions of sincerity. Findings are
discussed in regard to the need for a firm empirical base upon which to
integrate verbal and nonverbal research traditions in the communication
of affective meaning.
S. The relative strength of verbal versus nonverbal cues. Personality
& Social Psychology Bulletin, 1978 Winter, v4 (n1):147-150.
A caveat is issued regarding simplistic comparisons of the potency of
vs nonverbal cues. To illustrate the danger, data are reported from a
in which 95 high school students judged the meaning communicated by
face-sentence pairings. Results show that judgments were highly
on the nature of the questions asked. On a global positivity question,
the nonverbal cues (i.e., facial expressions) had a greater impact than
C.; Friedman, Howard S.; Perlick, Deborah; Hoyt, Michael E. Some
of gaze on subjects motivated to seek or to avoid social comparison. Journal
of Experimental Social Psychology, 1978 Jan, v14 (n1):69-87.
In a conceptual replication and extension of I. Sarnoff and P. G.
(see PA, Vol 36:4HK56S) study, 88 female undergraduates were motivated
to seek (fear arousal) or avoid (embarrassment arousal) social
They were then required to affiliate with another person who either
social comparison by gazing directly at the Subjects or discouraged it
by averting his or her gaze. This other person was either an
reference person (similar state) or irrelevant for social comparison
As predicted, fear Subjects liked a companion who looked at them and
less tense in his or her presence, while embarrassed Subjects preferred
the person who looked away. This interaction occurred only in the
reference person condition, a result consistent with an explanation
on social comparison processes.
Nonverbal Communication Research
Journal Articles and Other Published Writings
Friedman Home Page
Psychology Home Page