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For answers please also refer to the following references:

Dafni, Amots; Kevan, Peter G.; and Husband, Brian C.  2005.  Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest, Ltd.

Fægri, K. and L. van der Pijl. 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Glover, Beverly J.  2007.  Understanding Flowers and Flowering: anIntegrated Approach, Oxford University Press, pp. 127.

Richards, A. J. (ed.).  1978.  The Pollination of Flowers by Insects.  Academic Press, New York.  214 p.






1.  Discuss the head of a bee as a part of a commercial beekeeper's equipment, emphasizing the most important parts.

          Draw a sketch of the mechanism employed by the bee in extracting nectar from a flower -- the sucking pump.

2.  What are the functions respectively of the antennae, mandibles, proboscis, the sucking pump, the salivary system,

          and the brood food glands?

3.  To what part of the bee's body are the legs and wings attached? What internal organs does it contain? Which legs

          and which segments makeup the pollen baskets?

4.  What part of the bee's body is known as the abdomen? Name the principle organs that it contains? Note the honey

          stomach, and the tracheal systems, in particular.

5.  Mention some important facts about the wax Glands, the scent gland, and also the sting.

6.  Draw a sketch of the alimentary canal running lengthwise through the body. Label the essential parts. What is the

          function of the Malpighian tubules?

7.  Contrast the blood circulation of the honeybee with that or the mammals.

8.  Compare the mechanism of respiration in bees with that in higher animals.


9. Comment intelligently on some phase of the Sensory and Nervous System. Is it essentially a dorsal or a ventral nervous system?

10.  Make a drawing of the female reproductive organs and explain the fertilization of the eggs.





1.  Comment briefly on the uses of beeswax in ancient times and the competition it has had during the 20th Century.

2.  Discuss a number of the many Uses that have been made of Beeswax. List some uses of beeswax during World War


3.  Explain how beeswax is obtained from cappings, and from old combs and slumgum.

4.  How often should colonies ordinarily be requeened?


5.  Make a list of the various sources of crude beeswax, and emphasize the importance of a careful collection of the


6.  What is the approximate ratio of wax and honey at present produces? About what portion of the wax used in North

          America is produced there?  From what countries is beeswax imported?




1. Comment on Injury Caused by Insecticides.

2.  Discuss the need of bees in agriculture and the deadly effects of chemicals on bees in America.

3.  Explain why bees may work newly opened blossoms in the field that have recently been dusted or sprayed with


4.  Give proof that parathion is more dangerous to bee keeping than either of the other phosphates.

5.  Name several plants whose nectar or pollen is poisonous to bees.


6.  Name some of the undesirable conditions resulting from the chemical control of weeds; and prescribe some


7.  List three chemicals used as insecticides that are harmful to bees; also one hydrocarbon which may largely be used


8.  Should insect pollinators be given consideration with regard to the kind of chemical and time of application that

          should be used for insect control? Why?

9.  Summarize the subject of Poisoning by Insecticides and list a few of the chemicals now being used which have resulted in

          serious poisoning of adult bees.

10.  What part is played by pollen when colonies are injured by insecticidal dusts; and what steps should be taken to

          protect hives from the practice?





1.  Discuss briefly the Bee Louse, Ants and Termites as enemies of bees. Which of the Minor Enemies of Bees is most

          likely to be found locally?


2.  Explain the best methods of precaution and diagnosis of each.

3.  Name the causative organism and state some of the symptoms of each disease and it treatment.

4.  Name the causative organisms of each. How is each spread?

5.  Name the chief brood diseases that are common in American apiaries. Give ways to distinguish between them.

6.  Report on four other adult bee diseases ~f less importance, making some worthwhile statement about each.

7.  Summarize the story of the Wax Moth; where found, the nature and extent of its damaging, and its control.

8.  Which is probably the most widespread of all adult bee diseases? Where and under what conditions is it most

          frequently found?


9.  Write a comprehensive treatment of American Foul Brood and its control.


10.  What role has the Africanized Bee invasion in North America played in European honeybee hive management?


11.  What are some explanations for the rapid decline of honeybee colonies in North America since the year 2000?