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For answers please also refer to the following references:

Dafni, Amots; Kevan, Peter G.; and Husband, Brian C.  2005.  Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest, Ltd.

Fægri, K. and L. van der Pijl. 1979. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Glover, Beverly J.  2007.  Understanding Flowers and Flowering: anIntegrated Approach, Oxford University Press, pp. 127.

Richards, A. J. (ed.).  1978.  The Pollination of Flowers by Insects.  Academic Press, New York.  214 p.






1.  Describe a normal winter cluster of bees. What is the minimum temperature maintained?

2.  Discuss the winter cluster -- response to temperature and age of bees.

3.  Enumerate a number of the conditions that result in weak colonies.

4.  List the factors that make for successful wintering of a colony of bees.


5.  Explain how a lack of pollen may result in Spring Dwindling. Name several other conditions that may bring it


6.  Name some of the advantages of winter packing and describe two methods.


7.  Of what particular use is pollen in the hive?  How may the supply be supplemented?  When might it be well to add

          a supplement, under certain conditions?  What is pollen trapping?

8.  Summarize the subject of Colony Standards for Overwintering Productive colonies.

9.  What recent conclusions have been reached in regards to heavy packing of bees for winter?

10.  Write a paragraph on winter losses due to starvation.  Thoroughly digest this topic.  How much honey should be

          left in each hive in northern areas?



1.  Briefly summarize the topic, Planting for Bee Pasture.


2.  Describe the factors Controlling Nectar Secretion.

3.  Discuss Orchard Pollination: The Relative benefits to the beekeeper and the orchardist.

4.  Discuss the value of the honeybee as an agent of pollination. Why are they more necessary in an apple orchard

          now than they were 80 years ago?

5.  Enumerate some of the crops that require or benefit by insect pollination. To what extent does the alfalfa seed crop

          benefit from honeybee pollination in the American West?

6.  Review the Effects of Insecticides, the toxic principle and the necessary cautions in their application..

7.  What modern agricultural practices have contributed to the disappearance of most of our native agents of


8.  Which is the most attractive to bees -- alfalfa or sweet clover?  Why?  What is meant by Competition Among


9.  In what respects is pollination a community problem?