File:  <slavic0.htm>                                                                                                                                                                         <Archeology Index    <Home>


              [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]







          Some linguists have suggested that elements of Basque words can be detected in many East European names and words. In the following analysis of a number of Ukrainian, Russian and Polish names I searched for the Basque element and found that all Slavic names are agglutinated using Basque vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) roots with frequent use of VCCV endings and with the vowels interlocking. This form of word agglutination was done with what I called the "VCV vowel interlocking formula". For more information, see the Ogam Script and book "Linguistic Archaeology".





          A large number of names end in -ski, so let us look at the suffix "-ski", an ending common to Polish, Ukrainian, Serbian and Russian family names. The suffix "-ski" can have many meanings in Basque. The reader must keep in mind that the English "s" in Basque is spelled as "z" while the letter "s" in Basque is pronounced as a soft "sh". This means that the Slavic suffix "-ski" may have originated from "-ski or -zki". These two suffixes have a number of meanings in Basque:


aski   revenge, sufficient, frequently
azki   N.A.
eski   stairs, ladder, to offer
ezki   linden tree, irritable, small bell, belltower, bellringer
iski    pin, needlecase, weapon, joke, mockery
izki    shrimp, letter of alphabet, to write
oski   shoes, cobbler, coward, afraid
ozki   susceptible to the cold
uski   N.A.
uzki   anus, get lost!, remains, leftovers
Some examples of -ski names:

The "v" in Slavic names is always represented by a "b" in Basque, the "c" by a "k".

bog     bog     boga            rower, boatman
oli     oli  
  oliodura        anointed, holy
ub.     ubi  
  ubil            whirlpool
.ski    iski 
  iskirio         mockery, joke

(They made) a mockery of the holy boatman in the whirlpool. This refers to the annual voluntary
sacrifice of a young man in the whirlpool of Corryvreckan.


.g. ega     egarri          strong desire
.zo azo     -azo            to bring about, to make happen
ob. oba     obakuntza       improvement
.ski aski   askietsi        sufficient, adequate
He has a strong desire to bring about adequate improvements. 
Khmelnitsky, Bogdan, .bo-og.-.da.-an.,
.bo     abo     aboskatu        to proclaim
og.     oga     ogasun          property, land
.da     ada     adarkadura      ramification
an.     ana     anaiguda        civil war 
.k.     ako     akordio         agreement
.h.     oho     ohoragarri      honorable
.me     ome     omenaldi        tribute
el.     ela     ela             talk, negotiation
.ni     ani     anitz           many
it.     itxi    itxi            to abandon, to lay down
.ski    iski    iskilo          weapon
Proclaim our land at the outcome of the civil war. The honorable agreement
is a tribute to the many negotiations (achieving) the laying down of weapons. 
or. ora     oraindanik      from now on
.lo alo     alokairu        salary
ob. oba     obakuntza       improvement
.ski aski   askiki          adequately
From now on my salary is adequately improved. 
.pa opa     opa izan        longing for
ab. aba     abadune         opportunity
.lo alo     alokairu        salary, earn money
ob. oba     obakuntza       betterment, improvement
.ski aski   aski            sufficient, enough
I am longing for an opportunity to earn a salary sufficient for improvement.
.pa ipa     ipartar         northern
alu alu     alukeria        repulsive action
ubi ubi     ubil            whirlpool
is. isu     isuri           to inspire
.ki uki     ukitu           to touch, to move
The repulsive action (i.e. sacrifice) in the northern whirlpool inspired and touched me. 
Prezewalski,, (the "w" is usually meaningless)
.p. ape     apellaniz       pasture
.re ere     erreka          stream
eze eze     ezeizabarrena  under the fir trees
al. ale     aleketa         grain in abundance
.ski eski   eskindu         to offer
In the pasture by the stream under the firs we offered them grain in abundance. 
.se ase     asezindako      craving for
eku eku     ekurutasun      peace of mind
ute ute     utea            to encourage   
er. era     erakuste        education
.ski aski   aski            adequate
"Craving for peace of mind? Encourage adequate education!"
.sta esta   estali          to shelter
aro aro     aro             weather
oka oka     okaztagarri     disgusting
ado ado     adoretasun      courage
om. ome     omen egin       to pay tribute
.ski eski   eskini          offering, devotional
Sheltered from the disgusting weather we paid tribute (to their) courage with a devotional. 
.s. asa     asarredun       angered
.tra atra   atrapala        noise, sound
abi abi     abiatsuki       impulsively
in. ina     inarrosketa     to shake
.ski aski   askitan         frequently, often
When angered by the sound, he often shook impulsively. 
.ri iri     irritsatu       to yearn for
asa asa     asagotu         to go far away
ano ano     ano             food supply
ob. oba     oba             better
.ski aski  askiki          plentiful
He yearned to go far away with a better and more plentiful food supply. 
txai txai   txairo          graceful
aiko aiko   aiko maikoka   making excuses
ob. oba     obakuntza       improvement
.ski aski    aski          enough, satisfactory
Gracefully making excuses (and showing) satisfactory improvement.
          It is safe to assume that all -ski names have such sentences written in them, although not all yield their hidden sentence as readily as the ones above did. 




The ending "-itch" can also have several meanings. In Basque the sharp "sch" is
written as "x", which spelling will be used here:

itxa    to await, to hope, to trust, expectation, sea
itxe    N.A.
itxi     to shut in, to close, to abandon, to denounce, to permit
itxo    to wait, waiting room
itxu    aspect, appearance, absurd, similar, to simulate, hypocrite, 
          imposter, pretense, to transform
Adamovitch, ada-amo-obi-itx.,
ada ada     adatz           long hair, long braids
amo amo     amona           grandmother
obi obi     obi             grave
itx. itxi   itxiarazi       to enclose
Grandmother's long braids were enclosed in her grave.
.mo amo     amona           grandmother
os. oso     oso             simple
.to oto     otoi            prayer
obi obi     obi             grave
itx. itxi   itxi            to close
(After) grandmother's simple prayer the grave was closed. 
Rabinovitch, .ra-abi-ino-obi-itx.,
.ra era     erauntsi        violent storm
abi abi     abiatu          to begin
ino ino     inon            somewhere
obi obi     obiratu         to bury
itx. itxa   itxaso          sea
A violent storm is beginning; bury (him) somewhere at sea. 
Topalovitch, .to-opa-alo-obi-itx.
.to ato     ator            Come!
opa opa     opari egin      to give
alo alo     alorgizon       farmer
obi obi     obiratze        burial
itx. itxu   itxurazko       decent
Come, let's give the farmer a decent burial. 
'alo' could also stand for alogereko (mercenary): 
Come let's give the mercenary a decent burial.




Another common ending is -ko which may come from:

ako: agreement, contract, tradition, memory
eko: to produce, fertile, ecology, economy, administrator
iko:  lump, swelling, stonemason's hammer
oko: cattle stable, pasture next to the house, chin, dewlap
uko: refusal, negative, elbow

Atamanenko, ata-ama-ane-en-.-ko,
ata     ata    ataldu          to divide
ama     ama   
ama             mother
ane     ane   
anega           measure of grain
en.     ena   
-ena plural     possessive suffix
.ko     ako   
akordiozko      according to tradition, as usual

Mother divided our measure of grain according to tradition.

Bracco, .b.-.ra-ak.-.ko
.b.            abe        
abe                           cross
.ra            era         
erakasle maisu         teacher
ak.            aka       
akatsbako                 perfect   
.ko            ako       
akorduan euki          to remember

"Remember our perfect teacher of the cross."


Macarenko, .ma-aka-are-en.-.ko,
.ma     ama    ama             mother
aka     aka   
akabu           perfect
are     are   
arrera          reception, welcome
en.     ene   
enetan          always
.ko     eko   
ekoizkor        productive, lavish, generous

Mother's perfect welcome was always generous.




Baranof, .ba-ara-ano-ob.,
.ba     aba    abade          priest
ara     ara   
arrapatu mozkorra to get drunk
ano     ano   
ano            wine
ob.     oba   
obaez          of course

The priest got drunk on wine, of course.


Baryluk, .ba-ari-ilu-uk.,
.ba eba     ebaskindegi     hide-out
ari ari     arinari eman   to escape
ilu ilu     iluntasun       darkness
uk. uka     ukan            to have
He escaped from his hiding place during darkness.  
Boyar, .bo-oia-ar.,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu    to develop, cultivate
oia     oia     oian            forest
ar.     ara     arazo           task
Cultivating the forest (is their) task. 
ko      ko      kontaezinbesteko innumerable/all the people
os.     osa     osatu           to unite
.sa     asa     asaben          ancestral
ak.     ako     akordu          tradition/memory
Unite all the people in the ancestral tradition. 
Dmitriev, .d.-.mi-it.-.ri-eb.,
.d. idu     iduki           to have
.mi umi     umiltasun       humility
it. ita     itxaro          to trust
.ri ari     -ari            mission
eb. eba     ebanjelari      evangelist
Have humility, and trust in the evangelist's mission. 
Dumala, .du-uma-ala,
.du idu     iduki           to have
uma uma     uma             child
 ala ala    alaitu          to fill with joy
Having a child fills (me) with joy.
Dzogan, .d.-.zo-oga-an.,
.d.     ida     idatziz         to record
.zo     azo     azokalari       merchant
oga     oga     ogasun          wealth
an.     ane     anega           grain measure, supply
He records the wealthy merchant's grain supply. 
Gorbachov, .go-orba-axo-ob.,
.go ego     egoera          manner of behaving
orba orba   orbaingabe      pure
axo axo     axoladun        careful, diligent
ob. obe     obengabe        blameless
His behaviour is pure, diligent and blameless. 
Gulag .gu-ula-ag.
.gu egu     egur            punishment, wood
ula ula     ulaka/uluka     wailing/crying out
ag. aga     agaka           hitting with a stick
"He cried out after being hit with a stick in punishment."
Karasik, .ka-ara-asi-ik.,
.ka     ika     ikaserazi       to teach
ara     ara     arrai           gentle
asi     asi     asialdi         beginning
ik.     ika     ikasgale        desire to learn
Gentle teaching creates a desire to learn. 
Korelus, .ko-ore-elu-us.,
.ko ako     akorduan euki  to remember
ore ore     orekan          to keep your balance
elu elu     elurlera        sled
us. usa     usatu           to get used to
Remember to keep your balance when getting used to your sled. 
Korolef, .ko-oro-ole-eb.,
.ko ako    akorduan euki to remember
oro oro    oroegile       Creator
ole ole     oles egin       to call upon
eb. ebe     ebertar Hebrew, Jesus
Remember the Creator by calling upon Jesus. 
Kowalchuk, .ko-al.-.txu-uk.,
.ko ako     akorduan euki  to remember
al. ala     alaitasun       happiness
.txu atxu   atxuri          newborn lamb
uk. uki     ukitu           to touch
Remember your happiness when you touched the newborn lamb? 
Landau, .la-an.-.da-au
.la ala     alabeharreko   unavoidable
an. ana     anarkia         anarchy
.da ada     adarkadura      ramification
au  au      auhen           lament, suffering
The unavoidable ramification of anarchy is suffering. 
Ligachev, .li-iga-atxe-eb,
.li ili     ilinti          fiery
iga iga     igartze         prophesying
atxe atxe   atxeki          to adhere to, to be determined
eba eba     ebanjelari      evangelist
Fiery, determined, prophesying evangelist.
Mazowsze (Mazovshe), .ma-azo-ob.-.xe, (Polish singing/dancing group)
.ma ama     amaikatxo       many
azo azo     azoka           market day
ob. obe     obeki           good
.xe exe     exeri           to sit down
Many market days it is good to sit down (and listen). 
Monomakh, .mo-ono-oma-ak.-.h.,
.mo     amo     amodiotsu       loving
ono     ono     onon            wonderful
oma     oma     oma             grandmother, tribal mother
ak.     ako     akorduan euki   to remember
.h.     oha     ohardun         thoughtful
Remember our wonderfully thoughtful tribal mother.
          Vladimir Monomakh was the grandson of Yaroslav the wise, the Great Lawgiver; from his name I deduct that Yaroslav the Wise must have been a woman. See Yaroslav below.
.pa opa     opa izan        longing for
ax. axo     axolagabetsu   carefree
.ni oni     onik            safe 
ik. ike     ikertaldi       visit
Longing for a carefree and safe visit. 
Pecheneg, .pe-eche-ene-eg.,
pe      pe      pena ukan       to suffer
exe     exe     exeri           to sit
ene     ene     -enerako        before
eg.     egu     egur            punishment
(Let them) sit and suffer before punishment. 
Pierzchala, .pi-er.-.z.-.txa-ala,
.pi ipi     ipini           to acquire
er. era     erakuste        education
.z. azi     aziarazi        to raise
.txa itxa   itxaro          hope
ala ala     alaitasun       happiness
Acquiring an education raises the hope for happiness. 
Polovtsy, .bo-olo-ob.-.tsi,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu    to develop, process
olo     olo     olo             oats
ob.     oba     oba             better
.tsi    atsi    atximurkari     pincher, roller
You process the oats better in a roller. 
.p. opo     oporrak         vacation
.ro oro     oroitu          to remember
oko oko     okolu           stable
op. opa     opa izan        to long for
.txu atxu   atxuri          newborn lamb
uk. uki     ukitu           to touch
Remember the stable on our vacation where you longed to touch the newborn lamb? 
Ranogajek, .ra-ano-oga-aje-ek.,
.ra ara     arrapatur mozkorra to get drunk
ano ano     ano             wine
oga oga     ogasun          homemade
aje aie     aiene           grief, suffering
ek. eka     ekarrarazi      to cause
Getting drunk on home-made wine causes grief. 
Rasputin, .ra-as.-.pu-uti-in.,
.ra ara     arakintza       massacre
as. asa     asarrekeria     shocking
.pu apu     apurtzaile      destructive
uti uti     utikan          go away, get out!
in. ino     inola           in any way possible
A shocking and destructive massacre! Get out in any way possible. 
Razin, .ra-azi-in.,
.ra     ira     iraultzatu      to revolt
azi     azi     azitoki         birthplace
in.     ine     inertzia        downtrodden
Revolt for our downtrodden birthplace. 
Shatalin, xa-ata-ali-in.
xa  xa      xalo            open/frank
ata ata     atalgabeko      uncomplicated
ali ali     alizan          capable
in. inu     inuritze        inspiring
"Uncomplicated, capable and inspiring".
Slavoj Zizek,
.s. osa     osatu           to unite
.la ala     alafede         I swear
abo abo     abotskatu       to proclaim
oi  oi      oinlegedi       constitution
"I swear to unite us and proclaim the constitution."
.zi ezi     eziketa         education
ize ize     izendu          famous
ek. eka     ekarri          to bring
"Famous for bringing education."
Skorepa, .s.-.ko-ore-epa,
.s. asa     asagotu         to go away
.ko ako     akorduan euki  to remember
ore ore     oren            hour
epa epa     epaialdi        trial
If you go away, remember the hour of the trial. 
.s. asa     asaldagarri     shocking
.lu alu     alukeria        repulsive action
uts. utsi   utziezin        unavoidable
.ka ika     ikara           terror, horror
aia aia     aiaia           grief, suffering
The shockingly repulsive action caused unavoidable horror and suffering. 
Stalin, .sta-ali-in.,
.sta asta   astapotro       brutish, in a brutish way
ali ali     alienatu        to kill a person
in. ino     inola           in any way possible
In a brutish way he kills people any way possible. 
Tarasof, .ta-ara-aso-ob.,
.ta ita     itxaro          to hope for
ara ara     araberatasun   agreement
aso azo     -azo            to bring about
ob. oba     obakuntza       improvement
We hope for agreement to bring about improvement.
.bo     abo     aboskatu        to proclaim
ol.     ola     oleazio         destiny
.ni     eni     eni             to me, us 
itza    itza    izaldun         honorable
Proclaim an honorable destiny for us. 
Vsevolod and Mikhalko (brothers),  .mi-ik.-.ha-al.-.ko,
.b.     oba     obakuntza       improvement
.se     ase     aseguratu       to insure
ebo     ebo     eboluzionatu    the develop, produce
olo     olo     olo             oats
od.     odi     odi             tube, drum, rolled
The improvement insured the production of rolled oats. 
.mi     ami     amilura         falling water
ik.     ika     ikaserazi       to teach
.ha     aha     ahalizan        to make possible
al.     ale     aleketa         abundance of grain
.ko     eko     ekoiztu         to produce, to process
He teaches how falling water makes it possible to process grain in abundance. 
          The translation of these names tell a very different story from that in the history books. 
Yaroslav the Wise,,
.ja     oja     oian            forest
aro     aro     arroztu         to exile
os.     osa     osatu           to unify, to unite
.la     ala     alafede         I swear to
ab.     abe     aberkide        fellow countrymen, patriots
The forest exile swore to unify the patriots. 
From the name of her grandson, Monomakh, I deduct that Yaroslav was a wise tribal mother.The true meaning of 
Slav,, osa-ala-abe is here revealed.  It has nothing to do with slavery, instead it means:
 "I swear to unite my fellow countrymen".
.za aza     azaluts         insincere
ada ada     adarra sartu    to deceive
ap. ape     apeta           tendency
.ru eru     errukigabe      cruel, pitiless
uxki uxki   uxkia miazkatzera get lost!
(You are) insincere and deceiving (and have) a tendency to be cruel; Get lost! (what a name!) 
Zaporogian, .za-apo-oro-ogi-an.,
.za     oza     ozar            arrogant
apo     apo     apokeria        insult
oro     oro     orobatu         to unify
ogi     ogi     ogipuska        easygoing
an.     ana     anaitasun       brotherhood
Arrogant insults united the easygoing brotherhood. 




txe txerri  txerrizain      swineherd
.no ino     inor            no-one
obi obi     obi             grave
il. ile     iletu           to mourn
No-one mourned at the grave of the swineherd. 
Dniepr, d.n-ie.p-.r
d.n don     donetsi to bless, the blessed one
ie.p. ihesp ihespide       means of escape
.r  ur      ur              water
The blessed one's means of escape was by water. 
          (Probably referring to the Priestess Medea who escaped with Jason up the Dniepr river after taking the golden fleece from King Aietus. See "The Voyage of Argo" by Apollonius of Rhodes). 
donetz      donetzi         to sanctify
The sanctified one. 
Irkutsk, ir.-.ku-utsik,
ir. iri     iri             city
.ku iku     ikustatu        to visit
utsik utsik utsik           deserted
I visited the deserted city. 
Kamchatka, .ka-am.-.txa-at.-.ka,
.ka ika     ikaragarri      frightening
am. amo     amorro          fury
.txa otxa   otxoa           wolf
at. ate     aterbegabe      unprotected, out in the open
.ka eka     ekantze to get used to.
Out in the open, the frightening fury of the wolves takes getting used to. 
Kiev, .ki-eb.,
.ki oki     okitu           totally, completely
eb. eba     ebanjeliotu     to evangelize
Completely evangelized. 
Okhotsk, ok.-.ho-otsk
ok. oka     okaztagarri     disgusting
.ho aho     ahozagarri      astonishing
otsk otsok  otsokeria       brutality
Astonishingly disgusting brutality. 
Taymyr, tai.-.mi-ir.,
tai. taiu   taiuera size,  appearance
.mi umi     umildu          to humble
ir. ira     iraganaldi      migration, migrating herd
The size of the migrating herd is humbling. 
Vladivostok, bo-osto-ok.,
.b. aba     abaroan egon   to take refuge
.la ala     alabearreko     necessary
adi adi     adi             watch out!
bo  bo      bortxakeria     violence
osto osto   ostosketa       rolling of the thunder
ok. oki     okildu          to be frightened
Watch out! It's necessary to take refuge. The violence of the thunder is frightening. 




          It is obvious that these names could not have been invented by the people themselves. The system of agglutination is exactly the same as was used by the Benedictines and their grammarians in western Europe. It is well known that there was close cooperation between the eastern and western Christian churches in the 10th and 11th centuries, especially between the Pannonhalma Benedictines in Hungary and the monks from the Tyniec monastery in Poland and Kiev. The Kiev monastery of Pesherska Lavra was established in 1040, a few decades after these other two monasteries and the required linguists were apparently sent from there to Kiev to train the monks in the use of the Basque language


Pesherska Lavra
.pe - es. - .he - er. - .ska    .la - ab. - .ra
ope - esi - ihe - era - aska     ila - abe - era
opetsi - eziketa - ihesleku - eraspen - askamen     ilarteko - abegion - erantzun
to offer - education - shelter - devotion - pardon     lifetime - hospitality - to fulfill
"We offer education, shelter, devotion and pardon.   
Ours is a lifetime of hospitality and fulfillment."  


          The early cooperation is still remembered because in the summer of 1996 the head of the Russian Christian church planned to attend, with the Roman Catholic Pope, the 1000-year celebrations at Pannonhalma. Unfortunately, illness prevented the historic meeting from happening. There was probably no longer a source of educated Saharan/Basque speakers in Russia, so either these specialists were recruited in Liguria (northern Italy) and Euskadi (northern Spain) and sent east, or the linguists worked from Basque dictionaries, without being able to speak the language. Possibly some of both happened.





For further detail, please refer to:


          Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
               Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

               ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p. [ see abstract & summary]


          Nyland, Edo.  2002.  Odysseus and the Sea Peoples: A

               Bronze Age History of Scotland  Trafford Publ., Victoria,

               B.C., Canada.  307 p.   [see abstract & summary].