[Note: All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]
In discussions of the English language, the Ogam script and the Benedictines, Edo Nyland showed how the Benedictine monks and their grammarians invented thousands of words by manipulating the universal language, the Saharan/Basque language, with the use of the vowel-interlocking Ogam formula. The same was done when they created the Dutch and German languages but with an important difference. For English they followed the example of Latin and Sanskrit, and used primarily that half of the Basque vocabulary that started with vowel-consonant (VC). To invent Dutch and German, both halves of the Basque language, VC and CV words were used and the originally strict VCV Formula rules of word agglutination were relaxed. That is why their work resulted in quite different languages. In order to understand the methods of word and name translations, it is necessary to become familiar with a specific procedure (see Ogam script & Translations).
Although the languages mentioned are not mutually fully understandable, it is relatively easy for a native of Holland to learn both German and English because Dutch is a kind of bridge between the two. The reason for this appears to be that all three languages were made up during the same era by the same brotherhood of Benedictine grammarians who worked closely together and borrowed newly created words regularly. Then they shaped the words according to predetermined sets of character rules. The Egmond Abbey, which was built in 922 A.D. near the North Sea coast, west of the City of Alkmaar in North Holland, appears to have been the central clearinghouse for the exchange and distribution of words and literature. Contact between this abbey and the other scriptorium was frequent. The Abbey was accessible by boat both from the sea to the west, and from the Rhine hinterland to the east. The name "Egmond" relates to the linguistic activities going on at the abbey: eg.-mo-ond.
egin to create
Documents available from Alcuin's time in the late 800's (Shipley-Duckett 1951) tell us that the monks from England regularly sailed to the mainland, while the monks from Germany and Austria would go over land and by boat down the Rhine. These monks were highly mobile in their small boats and this may well have been the origin of the name .
ola olatu waves
The main linguistic center of the French language, located in the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, appeared to have had little direct contact with Egmond Abbey. Its main contacts over land with the Romance world instead. The Scandinavian, Hungarian and East European linguistic efforts were still many years in the future. Over the centuries the Benedictine grammarians created tens of thousands of new words out of the universal Saharan language, many of which did not fit in the design plan for the home languages. Rejected words were taken in context to Egmond Abbey where they were evaluated by local Benedictine linguists and others visiting from other countries and then exchanged. Unwanted words passed into oblivion. This may have been the fate of the majority of the grammarians’ creations.
CONTRIBUTIONS ARRIVED FROM AFAR
It was in about 1,060 A.D. that the Abbot Willeram, of Ebersberg Benedictine Abbey in Bavaria (east of München) wrote a commentary on Solomon's Song of Songs, the Bible's wedding song. In it, love is explained in an allegorical sense as a dialog between Christ and His Church. The love bed is conceived as evangelism and lovely breasts as mercy. It is not likely that Willeram was the writer's real name because the meaning tells us that it was the title of his work:
Willeram: il.-.le-era.am. (the "w" has no meaning)
As was normal practice, shortly after completion, the manuscript was taken to Egmond Abbey and made available for study by the visiting monks/grammarians. Willeram's work had a profound influence upon the early development of both Dutch and German. The document is now located in the nearby library of the University of Leiden, Holland. Similarly, at about the same time, the four lines of "Olla Vogala", written in the Rochester Benedictine Abbey near Chatham, England, were taken to Egmond after some of its new words were accepted into the English language (olla became "all", nestas became "nests" etc). All four lines were published in context that made it possible to bring out the hidden Basque sentences. In Egmond several of the newly created words were quickly picked up by the monks working on the Dutch and German languages e.g. 'hebban' became "hebben" in Dutch, "haben" in German, "have" in English, while vogala became "vogels" (birds) in Dutch and "Vögel" in German. First let us look in detail at "Olla Vogala" (van Oostrom).
The following lines were written on the back page of a prayer book dating from the 11th century, originating in the Benedictine scriptorium of Rochester, England. The third and fourth lines are considered by linguists to be the oldest known prose in the Dutch language, shown here in context:
quid expectamus nunc
abent omnes volucres nidos inceptos nisi ego et tu
hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan hinase hic
enda thu wat unbidan we nu.
Lines 1 and 2 contain recognizable Latin words, be it a kind of dog-Latin. Literally, in the order given they read: "What do we expect now gone away all birds' nests begun except I and you (Furlong). Lines 3 and 4 are thought to say in Dutch: Hebben alle vogelen nesten begonnen behalve ik en jij; wat verwachten we nu ("All birds have started nest building except you and I; what can we expect now?"). Lines 1 and 2 therefore say roughly the same in Latin what lines 3 and 4 say in archaic Dutch. These words, supposedly coming from the pen of a Benedictine monk, were received with chuckles and wondering. It better applied to a lover telling his beloved to mirror herself on the behaviour of the birds. But is this really what the monk wrote? Again apply the VCV Formula and see what happens; (the "/" indicates a break in the vowel-linking; "c" and "q" must be read as "k", "v" as "b."
kuid expektamus nunk : .ku-id./ek.-.s.-.pe-ek.-.ta-amu-us./.nu-un.-.k./
.ku iku ikuskari visitor
id./ idu idurikortsu very distrustful
ek. eka ekaitz storm
.s. ase asetu to get tired
.pe epe epel weak
ek. eko ekoitzi to supply
.to ota otapur crumb
amu amu amultsu trusting
us./ usu usu usually
.nu inu inular evening
un. una una dull
.k. aka akatsun miserable
The visitors were very distrustful. Tired and weak from the storm, I gave crumbs to the usually trusting (birds) on that dull, miserable evening.
abent omnes volukres: abe.ent./om.-.ne-es./.bo-ol.-.ju-uk.-.re-es./
abe abe abestu to sing
ent./ entz entzungale longing to hear
om. ome omendatu to pay tribute, to thank
.ne ene enegana to me
es. esa esan to express
.bo abo abots voice
ol. ola ola cabin
.ju aju ajuria field of heather
uk. uka ukan to have
.re are arremankor sociable
es./ esa esamesaka gossiping
I longed to hear them sing, expressing thanks to me. Their voices (could be heard) from the cabin in the field of heather where they had their sociable gossiping time.
nidos inkeptos nisi ego: .ni-ido-os./in.-.ke-ep.-.to-os./.ni-isi/ego/
.ni eni eni to me
ido ido idoroketa discovery, revelation
os./oso oso complete
in. ino inoizka occasionally
.ke oke okerbidetu to go astray
ep. epe epel timid
.to eto etorle arrival
os. osa osatu to unify (with family)
.ni ani anitzetan often
isi/ isi isilbidez quietly
ego/ego egon to stay
(It was) a complete revelation to me. Occasionally, when a timid arrival had gone astray, looking for its family, it often quietly stayed.
et tu hebban olla vogala: et./.tu/.he-eb.-.ba-an./ol.-.la/.bo-oga-ala/
et./ eto etor to come
.tu/ atu atutxa oak forest
.he ihe ihesleku to shelter
eb. eba ebatzi to decide
.ba aba abarratsu many branched
an./ana anaitu together
ol. ole oles egin to call upon
.la ela elaberritsu talkative, chattering
.bo abo aboskatu o voice
oga oga ogasun wealth
ala/ ala alaitasun happiness
They came to the oak forest and decided to shelter together among the many branches and called upon (all) by chattering and voicing a wealth of happiness ....
nestas hagunnan hinase: .ne-esta-as./.ha-agu-un.-.na-an./.hi-ina-ase/
.ne ene enean at the time
esta esta estaldu to pair off
as./ ase asegaitz urge
.ha oha oharatu to become receptive to mating
agu agu agudotu to get active
un. uni unibertsalki generally
.na ina inarrosi to agitate
an./ ano ano food supply
.hi ehi ehizaldi to hunt
ina ina inarroskatu excitedly
ase/ ase asegabi greedily
At the time that they got the urge to pair off. Becoming receptive to mating, they got generally active and agitated over their food supply. They hunted excitedly and greedily,
hik enda thu wat unbidan we nu: .hi-ik./en.-.da/.t.-.hu/at./un.-.bi-ida-an./eu/.nu
.hi ahi ahitugaitz inexhaustibly
ik. ike ikerraldi exploring
en. ena -ena superlative
.da ada ada noise
.t. ate ateratu to depart
.hu/ehu ehundaka by the hundreds
at./ ata atano evergreen oak forest
un. una unatasun fatigue
.bi abi abiatu to leave behind
ida ida idazlan writing
an./ana anaia monk
eu eu eu you
.nu/inu inurritu to inspire
Exploring inexhaustibly. Noisily they departed by the hundreds from the oak forest, leaving your exhausted monk behind to write and inspire you.
This is a masterful piece of "double speak" in three languages, Latin, Basque and Dutch. The unique creativity lies in the linguist's ability to write one sentence in Latin, translate this into archaic Dutch and still hide a quite different story in both sentences to be decoded with the use of Basque. This hidden story makes clear that the birds arrived at their wintering grounds in south-east England where they were fed and observed by the monk. In spring, the birds paired off and departed to nest somewhere in the north. The monk's word "nestas" has therefore nothing to do with nest building; it simply means: "at the time they had the urge to pair off." The new word "vogala" certainly described the small songbirds beautifully, they really do "voice a wealth of happiness". There are quite a number of songbird species over wintering in southern England that may have been the "vogala" such as blue and grey tits.
SOME WORDS LEFT OVER FROM PRE-CHRISTIAN DAYS
Dutch has many words and names that seem to be unique to the language. However, most of these are also found in Basque, often with a closely related meaning. Several of these words have been declared "slang" by linguists in an effort to rid the new language of pre-Christian vocabulary. About some of the words it is hinted that they were borrowed from Yiddish and therefore are supposedly not Dutch at all. This is not true (see the origin of Yiddish ).
afval (leftovers) afal (dinner, supper)
Assepoester (Cinderella) astaputz (vulgar, coarse)
atje (child's bottom) atze (backside, consequence)
bajes (quod, lock-up) baieztakor (assertive, firm)
bedaard (calm, relaxed) bedardun (lawn, pasture)
bezem (broom) besomotz (short arms)
blaauw (blue) blaust (blow on the eye) i.e. a black eye
boer (farmer) buru (people)
botter (fishing boat) botari (net caster)
elkaar (each other) elkar (mutual)
ergernis (annoyance) erge-era-aniz:
foetsie (poof, gone) futz (puff of air)
frok (outer garment) fraka (trousers)
gaan (to go) gana (movement towards a goal)
gajes (rabble) gaiez (undeserving)
gannif (swindler, thief) ganibetada (knifing)
(f and b are the same)
geel (yellow) gelbera (fearful, afraid)
geit (goat) gaitzarin (damage)
geus (freedom fighter) geurez,ge'uz (our own initiative)
gezeur (lamentive) gezur (evade the truth)
graan (grain) garaun (seed, grain)
hondeweer (disastrous weather) honda (disastrous)
jatten (to pilfer food) jatun (having a good appetite)
jota (small amount) jota (broke)
kak (excrement) kaka (excrement)
kar (cart) erakarri (to carry)
kenau (female leader) ken-nau:
kenarazi ( revolt)
kerel (fellow, chap) ikerle (visitor)
kolder (giddy nonsense) koldar (cowardly)
koop (purchase) kopuru (quantity)
koorts (fever) ko-ortz:
kordokarazi (to clatter)
ortz (tooth): clattering teeth
kop (cup) kopau (mouthful)
labaaz (stinker, sneak) labazomorro (cockroach), used in Friesland.
laster (slander, smear) laster (to press, to push)
leger (army) legeria (code of laws)
maar (but) ma-ar:
mak (tame) ma-aker:
mal (mold, form) malgy (flexible)
malie (coat of mail) maila (wire mesh)
matig (frugal, moderate) ma-ategain:
ategain (lintels): mother's lintels
mazzel (good luck) mazal (good, decent)
meer (lake) meru (bass, a freshwater fish)
minne (heartache) min (pain)
mug (mosquito) mugagabe (without number)
moker (sledgehammer) mokor (ferocious)
olijk (rogisch) olerk (poetry)
onzeker (insecure, worried) onzi-ikar: ontzi (ship)
ikara (anxiety): worried about the ship.
oogst (harvest) ogits (abundant in wheat)
risico (risk) arrisk, arriskatu (to risk)
rood (red) rotu, arrotu (flushed, blushing)
stad (town) statu, ostatu (hotel, inn)
terp (safe mound) terpe, aterpe (refuge, safe haven)
toeter (hooter) tutu (horn)
varanda (porch with railing) baranda (railing)
vee (cattle) bei, vei (cow)
werp (throw) erpintsu (pointed) possibly a spear.
zeil (sail) zail (difficult)
The Dutch use some rather strange sounding words without knowing the meaning of them; Ingvaeoon is possibly the most outlandish. The pre-Christian inhabitants of Holland were called ingvaeoon by Tacitus, a word which Dutch linguists say means: "living along the ocean, a Saxon word...." To find out the original meaning, again apply the VCV interlocking formula:
Corpse-exposure was, of course, common practice among all peoples worshipping the supreme Goddess of the Ashera Religion. Exposure to the elements was done in special protected facilities to properly release the soul of the deceased from the body for speedy re-incarnation into a newborn child. Dutch linguists use the word Ingvaeoons as the name of the language spoken by the pre-historic people of Holland, a use that the actual meaning of the word shows is incorrect.
Most older Dutch place names can be decoded with the VCV Formula and translated with the Basque dictionary. There is no doubt that the people spoke the pre-Christian language of all of Europe that was the universal language of the Neolithic, tht Edo Nyland has called Saharan, of which Basque is a close relative. Some of the sentences hidden in the following names must have histories of their own:
Amerongen: ame-ero-onge-en., ameskor (dreaming) erosle (Redeemer) onginahi (kindness) enegana (to me): "I am dreaming about the Redeemer's kindness to me".
.ba-arnegat, ebanjelari (evangelist) arnegatu (to get angry): "The evangelist got
.be-ebe-ela-and., ibeni (to introduce, tell) ebertar
(Hebrew) ela (story) andi (marvelous): "Tell the marvellous
story of Jesus".
.de-el.-.de-en., ade-ela-ade-ene, adeitasun (good manners) ele
(conversation) ederretsi (pleasing) adeitsu (courteous) -enetan (always): "Good manners, pleasing
conversation and always courteous". (compare this name with the
neighboring town of "Hengelo"). (Delden is the author's family
ede-ela-afa-ati, eder (beautiful) ela (story) afa (happy) atxikitzaile (faithfulness): "Beautiful story of
.d.-.ra-ak.-.te-.en, ada-ara-aka-ate-entz, adarka (by goring, stabbing) arakintzo (massacre) akabatu (to end a life) atezatu
(to live on) entzute (fame): "The stabbing massacre
ended his life, but his fame lives on". Was that about St. Boniface?
.d.-.re-en.-.te, adei (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome) enetan (always) etenda (tired): "Always a courteous welcome
(for those who are) tired".
Ede: ede, ederren
(the most beautiful): "The most beautiful".
el.-.le-eko-om., ela-ale-eko-ome, ela (story) alegera (happy) ekonomo (administrator) omenezko
(honorable): "Happy story of the honorable administrator".
en.-.ske-ede, ena (superlative) aske
(free, independent) eder (beautiful): "Very independent and
Goes: gus, gustoko
(my favourite): "My favourite (town)".
.go-uda, egoitzar (home) uda (summer): "Summer home".
.gro-oni-inge-en., aguro (diligent) onibilera (prosperous) ingiratu (to get ready) eneganatu (to attract people): "Diligent, prosperous and getting
ready to attract people".
.he-ilo, ihe-ilo, ihesari eman (to escape) ilordu (agony): "(We) escaped the
.de-en./.he-el.-.de-er., ede-ene/ihe-ela-ade-era: ederren (the most beautiful) ene (to
attract, come to) ihesleku (shelter, harbour) elaberritsu (fond of the news) adeitsu (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome): "Come to the most
beautiful harbour for the latest news and a courteous welcome".
.he-enge-elo, uher (malicious) engera (disgusting) elorritsu (crude): "Malicious, disgusting and
crude". (Compare this name with neighboring "Delden").
.hi-il.-.be-er.-.su-um., ahi (I hope) ilezin (immortal) ebertar (Hebrew) errixee (common people) isuri
(to inspire) umiltasun (humbleness): "I hope that the
immortal story of Jesus will inspire the common people to humbleness".
de/.ko-og., ede-ako-oga, eder (beautiful) akorduan euki (to remember) ogasun (estate):
"Beautiful estate (worth) remembering".
.le-er.-.da-am., ale-ere-eda-am.: alegera (happily) eregu (indulging) edan (to drink) ameskoikeria (delirium): "Happily indulging in
drinking (causes) delirium".
.me-ede-em.-.bli-ik., ome-ede-emo-obli-iku: omenezko (honorable) edesti (history) emon (to give) obligazio (obligation) ikusbera (vigilant): "Our honorable history
obliges us to be vigilant".
na-ar.-.de-en., nabarmen (obvious) arazotu (to be worried) adelatu
(to prepare) enetan (always): "It is obvious that they
are worried and always prepared".
.re-ek.-.ke-en., arrerakor (kind) ekarri (to bring) aker (male goat) eni (to me): "Kind (of you) to bring the
male goat to me".
.re-en.-.ku-um., arren (please) ene (come to me) ekurutasun (peace of mind) umiltasun (humbleness): "Please come to me (to find) peace of mind
.sta-ap.-.ho-orst, esta-apa-aho-orrits: estatuburu (head of state) apailatu
(to organize) ahogozagarri (delicious) orrits (banquet): "The head of state
organized a delicious banquet".
ut.-.re-ek.-.t., uti-ire-eki-itu: utzi (to abandon, put a stop to) iresle
(destruction) ekinalean (doing as much as possible) itundu
(to make a treaty): "To put a stop to the destruction, do as much as
possible to make a treaty".
adaption of: alkarren (together, mutual):
Zwolle: .zu-ol.-.le, azu-ole-ele, azurruts (skeleton) oleazio (last rites) eleizakoak (Sacraments): "(He gave) the skeleton the last rites of the Sacraments".
Certain letter combinations were used repeatedly by the Benedictines to make up a diversity of words, as can be seen in the following list -- gooien, hooien, looien, pooien, tooien, rooien -- which all use the Basque word oian meaning: forest or wood. There are many other such letter combinations.
Some "oian" words.
gooien (to throw) go-oien, ego-oian, egotzi (to
throw) oian (wood): Throwing wood.
Some "aik" Words.
Every newly invented language was given some "characteristic" peculiarities and Dutch was assigned (beside the guttural "g") the "ij," pronounced something like "eye." Another letter combination, pronounced exactly the same way, is "ei," but Dutch shares this peculiarity with German. It is interesting to note that the "i" of "ij" is pronounced the English way instead of like in Latin, which may indicate that English grammarians had a hand in concocting this one. A few Dutch words with "ij" or "ei" and their origin follow:
Dutch: Origin: Comment:
Then there is the boy's name "Haiko or Heiko" which came from aiko maikoka (making excuses). Maiko (dinner guest) became the Dutch girl's name "Maaike" etc. One interesting bit about Prof. R. "de Rijk", the internationally known, Basque-speaking professor in Leiden, whose name is derived from: "de Rai-ik": dei (called) arrai (kind) ik (you): "called: you are kind". A good Basque name to have, even if he didn't know it. Many Dutch names start with "van" meaning "from." The origin of "van" is ban (b and v are interchangeable) which is an abbreviation of the Basque word banatu meaning, "to disperse," "to separate from." Most Dutch names and words can be shown to have been wrought out of Basque; take Edo Nyland’s name", ni-land.: ni (my) landa (field, countryside). An early branch of the family in Gescher (West Phalia), Germany, still spells the name as Niland. Many Dutch names have been distorted so much that it is nigh impossible to trace their origin with any certainty, just like elsewhere in Western Europe.
Some "aide" Words.
beide (both), bai-aide, bai (yes) aide (family): Say yes for a family.
rijden (to ride) rai-aide-en, arraitu (to be happy) aide (family) endekoi
Some "ust" Words.
buste (bust) .bu-uste, aburu (opinion) uzte (to leave out, to refuse): Refuse an opinion.
gust (barren*).gu-ust., igurtzi (to rub) ustu (to empty): Rub to empty.
justitia(justice).ju-usti-iti-iha, uju (shout of joy, pleased) uzti (omission)
itiki (to discover, expose) ihardukitze (dispute): Pleased to expose the omission in the dispute.
kust (coast) .ku-ust., ekuru (quietly) uste (hopeful): Quietly hopeful.
lust (delight)luzatu (to make it last): Make it last.
rust (rest) .ru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust): Simple trust.
* not producing milk
Some "olde" Words.
bolder (bitt) .bo-olde.er., abonau (to approve of) oldez (instantaneous)
erremolke (towing): Give the signal to start towing.
folder (brochure) .fo-olde-er., ebo-olde-er.,eboluzionatu (to develop,
organize) oldez (instantaneous) erabilgarbitasun (availability):
Organize instantaneous availability.
kolder (giddiness) koldar (cowardly): Cowardly.
polder (diked-in area) .po-olde-er., oposatu (to obstruct) olde (unrestricted,
natural) eraiketa (movement): Obstruct the natural movement (of the water).
soldeer (solder) .so-olde-er., oso (simple) olde (instantaneous) erremedio
(to repair): Simple instantaneous repair.
zolder (ceiling) zo-olde-er., zohi (sod) oldei (moss) eraman (to carry):
It carries the mossy sod.
We have no way of determining where the basic rules for the creation of the Germanic languages were first laid down. The original powerhouse of Germanic language-creation was apparently in York, England, where Alcuin had been the undisputed master of the grammarians and language teachers. In 782, after many years in York, England, Alcuin had joined Charlemagne at his Palace school in Aachen where he functioned as headmaster and motivator, as he had done before in York (see Benedictines). It may have been Alcuin, the master organizer, who oversaw the development of the basic structure and grammar of Dutch and German. What is more important is to realize that all three languages had been totally invented, and were not evolved naturally. The rules laid down by the Benedictines were generally adhered to in the creation of the vocabulary, but exactly what these rules were, is still to be researched.
While studying the language, our modern academics realized that there was something involved they didn't know about and decided that the truth could be established scientifically by using classical comparative methodology. To accomplish this, our linguists proposed four criteria that were supposed to be diagnostic: 1) phonological correspondences, 2) shared vocabularies, 3) common grammatical features and 4) identical constructive particles. But the Benedictines, eminent linguists that they were, had been 1,500 years ahead of our academics and, using these same four "diagnostic criteria", had built a careful "genetic" relationship into the languages. This had already been done with Sanskrit and the Romance languages where Latin, Spanish, French and Italian all are similarly "genetically" related. In addition, it would later be done to create the Slavic and the Finno-Ugric groups of languages. The work was so professional that linguists at the University of Pennsylvania were now able to "prove without a doubt" the existence of the "genetic" relationship, through "advanced computer analysis" (Johnson 1996).
This contrived relationship between English, Dutch and German is best shown by analyzing a number of words which display an "obvious genetic" relationship to each other. An attempt has been made to identify the word (shown in CAPITALS), which appears closest to the Basque language, and it is assumed that this is the originally created word. The other two words were then supposedly touched up according to the rules laid down for each language. In case the words are alike, no words are capitalized. As usual the "b" and "v or f" are interchangeable, so are "c" and "k"; the sharp "sch" is always written as "x" in Basque.
BAKERY-bakkerij-Bäckerei: .ba-ake-eri, ebadura (slice of
bread) akeita (coffee) eri (village):
eba-alo-odo, ebakidura (wound) alor (farmer) odolisurle (bloody):
blue-BLAAUW-BLAU: from blaust (blow on the
eye), a "blue" eye, in English called a black eye.
Boer-BOER(farmer)-bauer: buru (people);
(on) board-AAN BOORD-AN BORD borda (ship's cabin);
boat-boot-Boot: bota (to
launch); To launch. or: bo-at, bota (to launch) atoitu (to drag):
bow(for arrows)-BOOG-BOGEN boga (to bend;
BOOK-BOEK-Buch: buka, bukatze (finishing?);
"Are you finished?"
boom (floating timber)-boom
(tree)-BAUM: .bau-um, abaunza (mass of
branches) umo (ripe, full
berre-eka, berregin (to re-do, to
repair) ekinaldi (attempt):
bread-brood-BROT: .bro-ot., abaro (shady place) otarre (basket):
"Put the basket in a shady place".
bench-BANK-BANK: bank, banku (bench):
BOSS-baas-böse (angry): boz (voice);
butter-BOTER-Butter: .bo-ote-er., eboluzionatu (to produce) ote (perhaps) eragin (to churn):
camp-kamp-Kamp: kanpo (outdoors);
.ka-an.-.ta-atu, ekarpen (contribution) anaitu (in unity) atalkide (member)
card-kaart-KARTE karta (letter),
cellar-KELDER-Keller: ke-eldar., kentze (to put away) eldarniagarri (delirious):
"Put him away
CHALICE-schaal-Schale: txali-is, txalin (wooden dish) isurki (liquid):
"Wooden dish for liquids".
chamber-KAMER-Kammer: kamar, errekamara (chamber):
"Chamber". (erre comes from
cheese-KAAS-Käse: ka-as., kario (expensive) asezin (craving):"Expensive
chest-KIST-KISTE ki-ist., kinkila (drygoods) isterbabes (protection):
"Protection for drygoods".
.k.-.lo-oste-er, akordio (tradition) ologi (to feed
coach-koets-KUTSCHE kutsha, kutxa (box,
chest): "(Large) box".
eku-uste, ekuru (quietly) uste
come-KOMEN-kommen: komen, komeni (to be
helpful). "Be helpful".
cook-KOK-Koch: kok (bellyfull);
eko-oren; ekoitzi (to produce) orrenbeste (same amount again):
CRUST-korst-Kruste: currust, kurrustu (crust):
DARK-DONKER-dunkel: donker, donkeria (evil, bad);
"Evil", bad. or: DARK: da-ark.,
DAY-dag-Tag: dai, daigun (let's):
edo-odo, edonon (everywhere) odol (blood):
door-DEUR-Tür: deu-eur, deuseztatu (to shut out) euriketa (rain storm):
"Shut out the rainstorm".
double-dubbel-DOPPEL do-ope-el, odolberoko (spontaneous) opetsi (to offer) elexurikeria
dura-ago-on., adurra (to drool) ago (mouth)
DRAAK: dura-ak., adurra (to drool)
akarraldi (in anger): "He drools in anger".
(A)DRIFT-(OP) DRIFT-(Ab)trift: dri-ifi-it, iduri (it appears) ifili (to be) ito (to drown, go
obe-eda-aro-onki-in; obegipeko (favourite)
dumb-dom-DUMM:du-um, idu-ume, iduri (to appear) umekeria (childish):
"Appears to be childish".
eat-ETEN-essen: eten (interruption).
evil-euvel-ÜBEL: ubel (purple), the
favourite color of the Priestess. "Evil".
FAME-faam-famos: fama (fame);
FAR-ver-fern: far, ifar (north):
FAULT-fout-Fehler: falta (error);
feast-feest-FEST: fa-est., afa (happy) este (intestine):
fever-fieber-Fieber: .fi-ibe-er., abiatu (to begin) ibeni (to put on) erremedio (remedy);
fiddle-FIDEEL (jovial)-fidel (jolly):
.fi-id.-.de-el., ifili (to be) idekoki (appropriately)
field-VELD-FELD: fa-eld., afa (happy) eldu (to ripen):
"Happy to (see it) ripen".
.bi-ingir., ibili (to act) ingiratu (to be
fiord-fjord-Fjord: fa-jor.-di, afa (happy) jori (abundance) di (place of),
"Place of happy abundance".
afa-alaig, afa (happy) alaigarri (comforting).
fleet-VLOOT-Flotte: flota (fleet);
folk-volk-Volk: bolk, boladak (group of
people). "Group of people".
FRIEND-vriend-Freund: f.-.rend, afa (happy) arrendu (to call upon):
"Happy to call upon".
fusilier-FUSELIER-Füsilier: fa-uz.-elir, afa (happy) uzkali (to vanquish) elikera (food);
GARDEN-gaarde-Garten: jardun (to be busy
with): (probably borrowed from France.) "To be
good-goed-GUT: gut, gutizia (desire,
gradual-GRADAAL (archaic)-graduell: .g.-.ra-ada-al;
igo-ora-ada-al; igon (to grow tall)
grain-GRAAN-Grän: garan, garaun (grain);
grey-GRIJS-grau: gris (grey);
hand-hand-Hand: hand, handiera (extension):
honey-honing-HONIG: ho-oni-ig., ahobeteko (tasteful) onizan (useful) igita (harvest);
house-huis-HAUS: hau-aus, haundi (large) ausarki (abundantly,
more than enough): "More than
HEATHER-heide-Heide: heder, hederia (bundled
together, broom); "Bundled together, broom".
king-KONING-König: kon-ing, konde (nobleman) ingira (disposition),
kitchen-KEUKEN-Küche: .ke-euki-in; ikertu (to examine) eukitzaile (contents) inoizka (from
ika-ani, ikaradun (frightened) anitzetan (often).
ala-amai, alai (joyful) amaigabeko (endless) abeltegi (sheepfold):
lick-LIKKEN-lecken: likin (sticky);
life-leven-LEBEN: .le-eban, ele (story) ebanjelio (gospels):
"The story of the Gospels".
lust-lust-Lust: luzt, luzatu (to prolong, to
stretch out): "To prolong, make it last".
MAGIC-magie-Magie: ma-agi-ik, ama (mother,
Priestess) agindu (command) ikarakortu (to be
MAID-meid-Maid: ma-aid., ama (mother's) aide (relative);
MARKET-markt-Markt: me-erkat, eme (woman) erkatu (to compare):
"The women compare".
matey-MAAT-MAAT: ma-at, ama (mother's) ateka (bad moment);
"Mother's bad moment".
meager-MAGER-MAGER: ma-ager, ama (mother's) ager (appearance);
meal-MAAL-Mahl: ma-al, ama (mother's) altzokada (apron full);
"Mother's apron full".
meteor-meteor-Meteor: me-ete-e.or, mendi (mountain) ete (perhaps) ehortziri (to bury): "Perhaps
metal-metaal-Metal: me-eta-al, emendatu (to increase) eta (amount) al (power,
milk-melk-Milch: .me-elk., emeta (gently) elki (to empty);
moon-MAAN-Mond: ma-an, ama-anu,
ama (mother) anu (fainting);
ama-auzo, ama (mother) auzogabetu (to move away):
NAIL-nagel-Nagel: nai-il, nai (wish) il (death):
needle-naald-NADEL: .na-ade-el, anaia (brother) adelu (finery) elkarbatu (to stitch
neighbour-buur-NACHBAR: nabari (obvious, in
sight): "In sight".
NIGHT-nacht-Nacht: nait, naitaezko (inevitable):
nose-neus-NASE: nasa, arnasa (to breathe):
powder-POEDER-Puder: .po-ede-er, opor (time off) ederreztatu (to beautify) ereti (occasion):
arru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust):
red-rood-ROT: rot, arrot, arrotu (flushed):
rider-ruiter-REITER: rai-tor, arrai (gentle) aitor (legendary
patriarch), probably referring to
are-ekit, arren (please) ekite (to persevere):
rime (hoarfrost)-RIJP (pron:
raip)-reif: .rai-aip., arraitasun (brightness) aipa (to mention);
iza-ale-emo-on., izate (nature) alegera (rejoicing)
salt-zout-SALTZE: saltze, gesaltze (to melt).
scratch-KRAS-Kratzen: karras, karrask (scrape,
ezel-den; ezelan (somehow) denbora ediren (find time);
izen-denok; izeneztatu ((signed by) denok (all of us);
aski-ipu, askitan (many times,
often) ipurterre (restless,
(Friesian)-Scheisse: .sho-it., exo-ito, exorzizatu (cast out,
eliminate) itoi (filth):
aku-urtz; akuilatu (to
stimulate/bring about) urtzintz (sneeze);
sing-zingen-singen: ing, zingle (delicate):
singe-verzengen-SENGEN: .zeng, izengabetu (to discredit):
"Discredited (burned his fingers)".
sink-ZINKEN-senken: .zin-ken; ezindu
(incapacitated/unable) kendu (to avoid);
"Unable to avoid".
sister-ZUSTER-schwester: zuzter, zuztertu (growing up
fast): "Growing up fast".
soldier-SOLDAAT-SOLDAT: .so-olda-at; osoki (totally) oldar (brave) atxikimendu
ezi-ilo; ezik (without) ilordu (hour of
stone-steen-STEIN: stai-in, estai (stay put) indar (strong, firm);
"Stays firmly in place".
storm-storm-STURM: stu-uri-im., astundu (to become
heavy) urizapparada (downpour)
street-STRAAT-Strasse: sta-arrat, asta (donkey) arrate (narrow
passage): "Donkey's narrow
isu-uga-ara, isuri (to flow) ugari (abundant) aratz (pure);
isu-upe-ela, isuri (to inspire, to
cause) upeohol (stave) elastiko
sweat-zweet-SCHWITZE: xu-itze, xukatu (to mop up) itzetik mustuka (quickly with
.se-ela-ali-ing., iseka egin (to make fun
of) elastiko (bump/
thumb-duim-DAUME: dau-um., daukat (I have) umoretsu (fun).
"Thumb up, I have fun".
tobacco-TABAK-TABAK: ta-bake, taldeko (of the group,
tribe) bake (peace);
(Smoking the peace
true-trouw-TRAU: ta-arau, ta (slapping) arau (discipline):
under-ONDER-unter: ondar (bottom):
wall (wattle)-wal-Walle: wattle, atela (place of door
opening): The "w" is usually meaningless. "Place
warp-WERP-Wurf: erp, erpintsu (pointed):
WATER-WATER-Wasser: ater, atera (to get).
"Go get it".
weather-weder-WETTER: etor, etorki (expecting).
"(What to) expect?"
weave-weef-WEBE: ebe, eba, ebaki (making
decisions). "Making decisions".
wife-wijf-WEIB: Weibe, ai-be, ai (strong desire) be'ar (necessity,
indispensable): "Strong desire for
wind-wind-Wind: ind, indar (strength,
force). "Hard blow".
wood-hout-HOLTZ: oholtza ("pile of
lumber"). Wood could come from ud- udare (pear wood).
WORD-woord-Wort: ord, ordainbide (promisory
work-WERK-WERK: erk, erakarpen (contribution).
world-WERELD-Welt: ereld, eraldatu (to reform, to
renew); the world was to be made over.
yellow-geel-GELB: gelbera (hesitant, afraid):
.ie-este-er.-.da-a.i, aie-este-ere-eda-ahi: aieneka (grieving)
The Friesian language will be discussed elsewhere but I will include here a list of the Friesian islands, of which there are more than 50, now divided between Nederland, Germany and Denmark. All the names of these islands can be translated with the use of the Basque dictionary, which confirms the same underlying language. Here are some:
SOME FRIESIAN ISLANDS BELONGING TO THE NETHERLANDS
Texel, the most
westerly of all the islands: tek-sil, tekadun (having pods) silo (storage barn):
"Storage barn for the pea and bean harvest". It must have been a high
and prominent feature, clearly seen from the sea.
Vlieland, bili-landa, bili (to and fro) landa (region):
"To and fro region?"
Terschelling, tera-schilin: tera (to, towards) txilin (tinkling
bells, community pasture): "To the community pasture" where all the
animals have bells to ward off bad spirits and dangers, and also to be heard.
Ameland, ame-landa, amets (strong desire,
longing for) landa (country-side,
region): "I long for my country-side"; it still is a wonderful
place to live.
txir-mon-nik-oga, txir (oyster) mondar (beach) nik (my) ogasun (property):
"My private oyster beach".
Rottum, rot-um, arrotsu (proud) ume (child):
"Proud little island".
Urk, (island in the middle of the Zuider Zee); it may have had the Friesian corpse-exposure facility for the departed. If so, here the bodies were exposed to the air so the soul would be released from the body and proper re-incarnation could take place. The bones were later bundled together and placed in a tribal tomb. This practice was continued by the R.C. church which to this day displays the bones of many martyrs and Saints in glass show-cases. In early "Christian" times, this holy site was desecrated by "urka" (gallows).
SOME FRIESIAN ISLANDS BELONGING TO GERMANY
Borkum, bor-kum, borda (hut) kuma (cradle),
"Hut with a cradle".
Juist, ju-ist, jujatu (to judge,
evaluate) istil (mud):
"Judge, evaluate the mud".
Baltrum, bal-trum, bala (profusion) trumoi (thunder clap):
"A profusion of thunder claps".
Langeoog, langa-og, langa (barrier,
fence) ogasun (property):
Spiekeroog, sop-iker-og, sopi (soppy wet) ikerketa (to explore) ogasun (property):
"Soaking wet I explored the property".
Minsener, min-senar, min (in pain) senar (husband):
"My husband is in pain".
Oldoog, old-og, oldar (attack) ogasun (property):
"Attack on the property".
Scharhorn, ar-horn, xare (small net) horni (supplying
food): "Small net for supplying food".
ei (they say) dator (he is coming) sutargi (home, homefire)
-da (for/to me):
"They say he is coming home to me".
Süderoog, udur-og, sudur (sticking out,
far out) ogasun (property):
"Far out property".
Rantum, rant-um, arrantzu (large catch of fish) ume (child): "The child caught a lot of fish".
SOME FRIESIAN ISLANDS BELONGING TO DENMARK
Jorsand, jor-sand, joritsu (rich) santujale (devout):
"Rich and devout" (person).
Rømø, ro-mo, arro (proud,
upright) modu (manner):
Koresand, korru-sant, korru (circle) santujale (devout, religious): "Holy (stone) circle?" Was this one of the many pre-Christian stone circles found all over the Atlantic
coast of Europe and North Africa?
Kilsand, kil-sant, kili (gentle) santujale (devout):
"Gentle and devout" (owner?)
Fanø, fano (horsepasture):
ska-al.-ling-en., sikatu (dry out) alik ondoen (as well as
possible) lingirda (seaweed) -enetan (always):
"Always dry out the seaweed as well as possible".
Ho Bugt, ho-bukat, aho (mouth) bukatu (inlet):
"Mouth of the inlet (this is a channel)".
Blåvands huk, bla-band-huk, bila (searching for) banda (direction) hukiketa (point of contact): "Searching for direction to our point of contact".
SOME OTHER FRIESIAN PLACE NAMES
Bolsward, bol-su-ard, bolada (occasion) su (fight, brawl) ardo (wine):
"On occasion a drunken brawl".
Franeker, f.-.ran-neker, afa (happy) arran (bells) nekarazi (tired of):
"I'm tired of the happily tingling bells".
Harlingen, (the main
harbour): har-ling-en, harri (stones) lingirda (slime,
seaweed) -enetan (always):
"The stones are always slimey".
Lemmer, (harbour on the
south-west coast), lemar (helmsman).
(L:?) jaundu (to dominate) erd (center):
"Dominates the center".
Marknesse, mark-neska, markatu (to wave) neska (unmarried
young woman): "A young woman is waving".
Sneek, sine-ek, sinesgarri (testimony) ekinaldi (persistence):
"Testimony to persistence".
Ulrum, uler-um, uler (to understand)
"I understand the child".
Wirdum, uhir-du-um, uhir (naughty) du (he has) ume (child):
"She has a naughty child".
Zurich, zurik (flatterer): "Flatterer".
For further detail, please refer to:
Nyland, Edo. 2001. Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction. Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.
Nyland, Edo. 2002. Odysseus and the Sea Peoples: A
Bronze Age History of Scotland Trafford Publ., Victoria,