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Invertebrate Zoology



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General References Medical & Veterinary References Citations


[Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library]



[For additional scientific names and references please see <scientif.htm> and <Melvyl> ]





Adoutte A., Balavoine G., Lartillot N., Lespinet O., Prud'homme B., de Rosa R. 2000. The new animal phylogeny: Reliability and implications. Proc. Natl. Acad. 9 Sci. U.S.A. 97:44534456.


Barth, L. G. 1940. The process of regeneration in hydroids. BioI. Rev. 15,405. Barth, L. G. 1944. The determination of the regenerating hydranth in Tubularia. Phys. Zool. 17, 355.


Berrill, N. J. 1949. Developmental analysis of Scyphomedusae. BioI. Rev. 24, 393. Berrill, N. J. and Liu, L. K. 1948. Germ plasm, Weismann and Hydrozoa. Quart. Rev. BioI. 23, 124.


Bidder, G. P. 1923. The relation of the form of a sponge to its currents. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 67, 293.

Bradfield, J. R. G. 1955. Fibre patterns in animal flagella and cilia. Symp. Soc. Exp. Bioi. 9, 306-55.

Borradaile, L. A. & F. A. Potts. 1958. The Invertebrata. Cambridge Univ. Press. 795 pp.


Browne, E. T. 1897. On keeping medusae alive in an aquarium. Jour. Mar. BioI. Ass.. 5, 176.

Bryden, R. B. 1952. Ecology of Pelmatohydra oligactis in Kirkpatricks Lake, Tennessee. Ecol. Monog. 22,45.


Calkins, G. N. and Summers, F. M., eds. 1941. Protozoa in Biological Research Columbia University Press.

Chapman, G. 1953. Studies on the mesogloea of coelenterates. I. Histology and chemical properties. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 94, 155. II. Physical properties. Jour. Exp. Bioi. 30, 440.

Corliss, J. O. 1956. On the evolution and systematics of ciliated Protozoa. Syste- matic Zoology, 5, 68-91, 121-140.

Cushman, J. A. 1948. The Foraminifera, their Classification and Economic U. 4th ed. Harvard University Press.

Darwin, C. 1896. The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. John Murray, London.

Davis, W. M. 1938. The coral reef problem. Americ. Geograph. Soc.

De Beer, G. R. 1954. The evolution of the Metazoa. Evolution as a Process Allen and Unwin, pp. 24-34.

De Broyn, P. 1947. Theories of amoeboid locomotion. Quart. Rev. Bioi. 22, 1. Doflein, F. Revised by E. ~eichenow, 1954. Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde 6th ed. G. Fischer, Jena.

Dendy, A. 1926. On the origin, growth and arrangement of sponge spicules. Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. 70, 1.

Doyle, W. 1943. The nutrition of the Protozoa. Bioi. Rev. 18, 119.

Eernisse D. J., Albert J. S., Anderson F. E. 1992. Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa: A phylogenetic analysis of spiralian metazoan phylogeny. Syst. Biol. 41:305330.


Fowler, G. H. 1891; Hermit crabs and anemones. Jour. Mar. Bioi. Ass.. 2,75. Garstang, W. 1946. The morphology and relations of the Siphonophora. Quart.Jour. Micr. Sci. 87, 103.

Fritsch, F. E. 1929. Evolutionary sequence and affinities amongst the Protophyta. Bioi. Rev. 4, 103.

Galtsoff, P. 1925. Regeneration after dissociation an experimental study on sponges. I and II. Jour. Exp. Zool. 42, 183-221,223-55.

Giribet G. 2002. Current advances in the phylogenetic reconstruction of metazoan evolution. A new paradigm for the Cambrian explosion? Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 24:345357.


Giribet G., Distel D. L., Polz M., Sterrer W., Wheeler W. C. 2000 Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Syst. Biol. 49:539562.


Goldacre, R. J. 1952. The folding and unfolding of protein chains as a basis for osmotic work. Int. Rev. Cytol. 1, 135.

Halanych K. M. 2004. The new view of animal phylogeny. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35:229256.


Halanych K. M., Passamaneck Y. 2001. A brief review of metazoan phylogeny and future prospects in Hox research. Am. Zoo. 41:629639.


Hickson, S. J. 1918. Evolution and symmetry in the order of Sea Pens. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 90, 108.

Hickson, S. J. 1924. An Introduction to the Study of Recent Corals. Pub. Univ. Manchester, Biol. Ser. 4.

Horridge, G. A. 1954-5. The nerves and muscles of medusae. Jour. Exp. Bioi. 31, 594; 32, 555.

Hyman, L. H. 1940. Observations and experiments on the physiology of the medusae. Bioi. Bull. 79, 282.

Jahn, T. 1946. The euglenoid flagellates. Quart. Rev. Bioi. 21, 246.

Jepps, M. W. 1947. Contribution to the study of sponges. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 134, 408.

Jones, C. S. 1941. The place of origin and the transportation of cnidoblasts in Pelmatohydra oligactis Pallas. Jour. Exp. Zool. 87,457.

Jones, C. S. 1947. The control and discharge of nematocysts in Hydra. Jour. Exp. Zool. 105, 25.

Jones, W. C. 1954. The orientation of the optic axis of spicules of Leucosolenia complicata. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 95, 33.

Kirby H. 1950. Materials and Methods in the Study of Protozoa Univ. California Press.

Kirby, H. 1944. Some observation on cytology and morphogenesis in flagellate protozoa. Jour. Morph. 75, 361.

Kitching, J. A. 1938. The physiology of contractile vacuoles. Bioi. Rev. 13, 403.

Kitching, J. A. 1954. On suction in the Suctoria. Recent Developments in Cell Physiology, p. 197 Butterworth,

Knoll A., Carroll S. B. 1999. Early animal evolution: Emerging views from comparative biology and geology. Science 284:21292137.


Kudo, R. R. 1954. Protozoology 4th ed. C. C. Thomas.

Lackey, J. B. 1938. A study of some ecological factors affecting the distribution of Protozoa. Ecol. Monog. 8, 503.

Lorch, I. J. and Danielli, J. F. 1954. Nuclear transplantation in amoebae. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 94, 445.

Lund, E. E. 1941. The feeding mechanisms of various ciliated Protozoa. Jour. Morph. 69, 563.

Lwoff, A. 1950. Problems in the Morphogenesis of the Ciliates: the kinetosome in development, reproduction and evolution Wiley.

Lwoff, A. 1951-55 editor of vols. 1 and 2. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa Academic Press.

Mayer, A. G. 1910. Medusae of the World Carneg. Instit. Washington, 3 vols.

McHugh D. 1997. Molecular evidence that echiurans and pogonophorans are derived annelids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94:80068009.


McHugh D. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Annelida. Can. J. Zool. 78:18731884.


Metz, C. B. and Westfall, J. A. 1954. The fibrillar system of ciliates as revealed by the electron microscope. Bioi. Bull. 107,106.

Noble, E. R. 1955. The morphology and life cycles of trypanosomes. Quart. Rev. Bioi. 30, 1.

Pantin, C. F. A. 1950. Behaviour patterns in the lower invertebrates. Soc. Exp.Bioi. Symp. 4, 175.

Pantin, C. F. A. 1952. The elementary nervous system. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 140, 147.

Parker, G. H. 1914. On the strength of water currents produced by sponges. Jour. Exp. Zool. 16,443.

Parker, G. H. 1919. The Elementary Nervous System Lippincott.

Pechenik J. A. 2004. Biology of The Invertebrates. 5th edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.


Peterson K., Cameron R., Davidson E. 2000. Bilaterian origins: Significance of new experimental observations. Dev. Biol. 219:117.


Picken, L. E. R. 1953. A note on the nematocysts of Corynactis irridis. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 94, 203.

Picken, L. E. R. 1957. Stinging capsules and designing Nature. New Biology, 22, 56.

Podar M., Haddock S. H., Sogin M. L., Harbison G. R. 2001. A molecular phylogenetic framework for the phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA genes. Mol 9 Phylogenet. Evol. 21:218230.


Pringsheim, E. G. 1941. The interrelationship of pigmented and colourless Protozoa. Bioi. Rev. 16, 191.

Robson, E. A. 1953. The nematocysts of Corynactis. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. 94, 229.

Romanes, J. G. 1885. Jellyfish, Starfish and Sea Urchins Kegan Paul, Trench and Trubner.

Rouse G. W., Fauchald K. 1997. Cladistics and polychaetes. Zool. Scripta 26:139204.


Rouse G. W., Pleijel F. 2001. Polychaetes New York: Oxford University Press.


Russell, F. S. 1955. Medusae of the British Isles Cambridge University Press.


Sassuchin, D. 1934. Hyperparasitism in Protozoa. Quart. Rev. Bioi. 9, 215.


Seaver E. C., Paulson D. A., Irvine S. Q., Martindale M. Q. 2001. The spatial and temporal expression of Chen, the engrailed gene in the polychaete Chaetopterus, does not support a role in body axis segmentation. Dev. Biol. 236:195209.


Sonneborn, T. M. 1947. Recent advances in the genetics of Paramecium and Euplotes. Adv. in Genetics, 1, 264.

Sonneborn, T. M. 1950. Methods in the general biology and genetics of Para- mecium aurelia. Jour. Exp. Zool. 113, 87.


Stephenson, T. A. 1928; 1935. British Sea Anemones. Zvols. Ray Society. Southward,A. J. 1955. Observations on the ciliary currents of the jellyfish, Aurelia  aurita L. Jour. Mar. Bioi. Ass. 34, 201.


Stunkard, H. A. 1954. The life history and systematic relations of the Mesozoa. Quart. Rev. Bioi. 29, 230.

Sussman, M. 1955. Developmental physiology of the amoeboid slime moulds. Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, II, 201.

Turner, J. P. 1933. The external fibrillar system of Euplotes with notes on the neuro- motor apparatus. BioI. Bull. 64, 53.

Van Weel, P. B. 1948. On the physiology of the tropical fresh-water sponge, Spongilla proliferens. Physiol. Decol. Comparat. 1, 110.

Wagendonk, W. J. 1955. Encystment and Excystment of Protozoa. Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, 2, 85.

Ward & Whipple. 1918. The wheel animacules (Rotatoria). Fresh Water Biology. Wiley Publ.


Watson, J. M. 1946. The bionomics of coprophilic Protozoa. BioI. Rev. 21, 121. Weiss, P. B. 1954. Morphogenesis in the Protozoa. Quart. Rev. BioI. 29, 207. t Wichterman, R. 1953. The Biology of' Paramecium' Blakiston.

Weill, R. 1934. Contributions a l'etude des cnidaires et de leurs nematocystes.I Trav. stat. zool. Wimeraux, 10-11, 1-701.

Werbrock A. H., Meiklejohn D. A., Sainz A., Iwasa J. H., Savage R. M. 2001. A polychaete hunchback ortholog. Dev. Biol. 235:476488.


Wilson, D. P. 1.947. The Portuguese man-of-war, Physaliaphysalis, in British and adjacent seas. Jour. Mar. Bioi. Ass. 27, 139.

Wilson, H. V. and J. T. Penny 1930. The regeneration of sponges Microsciona from regenerating cells. Jour. Exp. Zool. 56, 73.

Witlmer, E. N. 1945. Growth and form in tissue culture. Essays on Growth and Form presented to D' Arcy Thompson Oxford University Press, pp. 264-95.

Zrzavy J., Milhulka S., Kepka P., Bezdek A., Tietz D. F. 1998. Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence. Cladistics (1998) 14:249285.






Invertebrate Classification