Immature Stages of Tiphiidae
Immature stages of Trigonalidae were discussed by Clausen (1940), as follows:
The egg of Tiphiidae was noted by Clausen (1940) to have been described adequately only for the genus Tiphia. The range in size is ca. 1.0-2.0 mm. in length, and the width is 1/3rd the length. The eggs are thus slightly broader in proportion to length than are those of the Scoliidae, and the chorion is much heavier. They are uniformly white in color when laid but soon assume an amber hue of varying depth, due largely to the oxidation of the mucilaginous material with which they are coated. The coloring becomes slightly more pronounced as incubation proceeds. In several species, such as T. agilis Smith and T. phyllophagae A. & J., this darkening is extreme, becoming almost black; other species show various gradations of brownish-black and gray.
In spite of the extensive studies that have been made upon members of the genus, no detailed description had been presented of any of the 5 larval instars as of 1940 (Clausen 1940). The segmentation is distinct in all instars of Tiphia, but less so in Myzine and Pterombus, and the thoracic segments are not attenuated as in the Scoliidae. The mandibles of the mature larvae of this family, at least of the genus Tiphia, may be distinguished by the possession of a small supplementary tooth at the basal margin of the 3rd of the main teeth. According to T. R. Gardner, there are 9 pairs of spiracles, located on the 1st thoracic and the first 8 abdominal segments, in all instars.
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