Immature Stages of Pentatomidae
Detailed information on immature stages of Pentatomidae is being acquired. However, Clausen (1940) noted that Podisus serviventris Uhler is predaceous on many different caterpillars, and its feeding is similar to that described by Preble (1933). First instar nymphs feed on unhatched eggs of their own kind and on plant juices, which are essential at this time, and they consistently refuse to attack caterpillars. Plant food may also be taken after the first molt, but the nymphs are unable to develop to maturity without animal food. Podisus sagitta F. is a very abundant predator of Epilachna larvae in Mexico (Clausen 1940/1962). Perillus bioculatus F. of North America has also been introduced to France for biological control of the Colorado potato beetle, and its behavior was studied by Trouvelot (1932). Both adults and nymphs attack beetle larvae, impaling them with their beaks and often holding them suspended in the air while the body fluids are imbibed. First instar nymphs feed only on eggs and young larvae. It was thought that each individual destroyed 150-200 larvae during its lifetime. Landis (1937) found that the eggs were the principal food during the nymphal period and that an average of 452 eggs were consumed during development. In America it was noted that control is effective where the predator is very abundant, precluding the need for other controls. Several generations occur annually, and overwintering is as adults. Females lay a maximum of ca. 260 eggs.