File: <hydro1.ima.htm>        [For educational purposes only]       Terminology       Glossary    <Principal Natural Enemy Groups >  <Citations>


Immature Stages of Hydrophilidae


Detailed information on immature stages of Hydrophilidae is being acquired.  However, Clausen (1940) noted that larvae of Hydrophilidae are voracious predators on a variety of insects and other aquatic animals; while the adults are scavengers on decaying plant and animal matter (Legner et al. 1980).   Several species have been introduced for biological control with no reported success.


Aquatic hydrophilids are most often found in ponds, especially those having extensive vegetative growth, although they also may be found along streams.  Adult beetles are principally scavengers, consuming decaying animal matter and also living on dead plant tissue.  Many species feed mostly on algae and other lower forms of plant life.  Although most larvae are predaceous, there are some exceptions.  Predaceous forms feed on various worms, snails, insect larvae and pupae, Entomostraca, small fish, crayfish and tadpoles.  They may actually swallow bits of solid matter, but seem to prefer body fluids of their prey.


Oviposition behavior is distinctive because of the silken case within which the eggs of many species are contained.  Several more primitive subfamilies lay their eggs singly, with little or no covering.  In a few genera, the cases are attached to the body of the parent by silken strands, while in others they are enclosed in a folded leaf, placed on foliage underneath the water, or float free on the surface (Clausen 1940/62).  The larvae of many aquatic species are unable to swim, but rather move about by crawling along the bottom or on vegetation, and may be found only partially submerged.  Larvae of most species construct their pupal cases out of the water, near the water line in mud, under various objects, or on plants above ground.  Enochrus is reported to form its case from floating strands of Spirogyra.



  References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]