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HYMENOPTERA, Torymidae (Westwood 1833) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Torymidae. -- Torymids are elongated, metallic-green and average 2.2-4.5 mm long.   There is a long ovipositor; the hind coxae are large, and there are clear parapsidal sutures on the thorax.


          There are both parasitic and phytophagous species: the TorylriInae, Erimennae, and Monodontomennae attack gall insects and caterpillars; the Podagriorunae attack mantid eggs; and the Idarrunae and MegastiglriInae attack seeds (Borror et al., 1989).  Many are parasitoids on gall-forming insects, and some are phytophagous species, at times taking over the galls formed by other insects. There are over 965 species in ca. 72 genera worldwide. They distinguished by having visible cerci.


          Some species of Toryminae, Monodontomerinae Megastigminae are idiobiont ectoparasitoids of the insects in plant galls. Torymus erucarum, Megastigmus dorsalis and M. stigmatizans attack larvae in cynipid galls on oaks (Askew, 1965; 1966), Glyphomerus stigma is a parasitoid in Diplolepis galls on rose, and some North American species of the genera Pseudotorymus and Cryptopristus parasitize gall-forming eurytomids and cecidomyiids (Peck et al., 1964; Grissell, 1979). There are also a few species of Torymus that oviposit in cynipid galls but do not develop as parasitoids. They are inquilines and rely on the gall tissue, either after having destroyed the cynipid or alongside the cynipid larvae which is destroyed later (eg T. cyaneus) (Askew 1961a: 1965b)


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Ashmead, W.  1904.  Mem. Carnegie Mus. 1:  255-555.


Askew, R.R. 1961a. Eupelmus urozonus Dalman (Hym. Chalcidoidea) as a parasite in cynipid oak galls. Entomologist 94:196-201.


Askew, R.R. 1961b. On the biology of the inhabitants of oak galls of Cynipidae (Hym.) in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 14(11):237-268.


Askew, R.R. 1965. The biology of the British species of the genus Torymus Dalman associated with galls of Cynipidae on oak, with special reference to alternation of forms. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 16:217-232.


Askew, R.R. 1966. Observations on the British species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hym. Torymidae) which inhabit cynipid oak galls. Entomologist 99:124-128.


Askew, R.R.; Ruse, M. 1974. The biology of some Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) galling the leaves of birch (Betula) with special reference to their chalcidoid (Hymenoptera) parasites. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 126(2):129-167.


Bordage, E. 1913. Notes biologiques reçueilles . l'Ile de la Réunion. Bull. Scient. de la Fr. et Belg. 47(4):377-412.


Boucek, Z.  1978.  A study of the non-podagrionine Torymidae with enlarged hind femora, with a key to the African genera.  J. Ent. Soc. S. Afr. 41:  91-134.


Boucek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. : 832pp.. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K., Cambrian News Ltd; Aberystwyth, Wales.


Breland, O. P.  1938.  J. NY. Ent. Soc. 46:  355-99.


Chrystal, R.N. 1937. Insects of British Woodlands :338pp. Frederick Warne & Co., London and New York.


Clausen, C. P.  1940.  Entomophagous Insects.  McGraw-Hill, NY.  688 p.


Clausen, C.P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. Technical Bulletin United States Department of Agriculture 1139:151pp.


Crawford, J.  1914.  Notes on the chalcidoid family Callimomidae.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16(3):  122-26


Danks, H.V. 1971. Biology of some stem-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 122:323-395.


Eves, J.D. 1970. Biology of Monodontomerus obscurus Westw., a parasite of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius). Melanderia 4:1-18.


Farooqi, S. I.  1988.  Family Torymidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Ferrière, Ch.  1955.  Les genres des Podagrionidae d'Afrique.  mem. Soc. R. Ent. Belg. 27:  207-16.


Ferrière, Ch.  1958.  Podagrionidae d'Afrique; Espèces des genres Pachytomoides Girault, Mantiphaga Ferrière et Iridophaga Picard.  Bull. Ann. Soc. Roy. Ent. Belg. 94:  275-92.


Graham, M.W.R. de V. & Gijswijt, M.J. 1998. Revision of the European species of Torymus Dalman (s. lat.) (Hmyenoptera: Troymidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen 317:1-202.


Grissell, E. E.  1976.  A revision of western Nearctic species of Torymus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Toryminae).  Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 79:  1-120.


Grissell, E.E. 1979. Family Torymidae. Catalogue of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico 1:748-769. (Ed.: Krombein, K.V.; Hurd, P.D.; Smith, D.R.; Burks, B.D.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.


Grissell, E.E. 1995. Toryminae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae): a redefinition, generic classification and annotated world catalogue of species. Memoirs on Entomology, International 2:474pp.


Grissell, E. E. & C. E. Goodpasture.  1981.  A review of Nearctic Podagrionini, with description of sexual behavior of Podagrion mantis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 74:  226-41.


Hoffmeyer, E.B. 1930. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der dänischen Callimomiden, mit Bestimmungsrabellen der europäischen Arten. (Hym. Chalc.) (Slutning) Entomologiske Meddelelser 17:232-260.


Hoffmeyer, E.B. 1931. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der dänischen callimomiden, mit Bestimmungstabellen der europäischen Arten. (Hym., Chalc.) (Callimomidenstudien 5.). Entomologiske Meddelelser 17:261-285.


Hussey, N.W. 1955. The life-histories of Megastigmus spermatrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and its principal parasites with descriptions of the developmental stages. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 106:133-151.


Milliron, H. E.  1949.  Taxonomic and biological investigations in the genus Megastigmus with particular reference to the taxonomy of the nearctic species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea; Callimonidae).  Amer. Midl. Nat. 41:  257-420.


Muesebeck, C.F.W. 1931. Monodontomerus aereus Walker, both a primary and a secondary parasite of the brown-tail moth and the gypsy moth. Journal of Agricultural Research 43(5):445-459.


Narendran, T.C. 1994. Torymidae and Eurytomidae of Indian subcontinent. 500pp. University of Calicut, Kerala, India.


Nikol'skaya, M. N. & M. D. Zerova.  1978/1987.  Family Torymidae (Callimomidae) (Torymids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Parnell, J.R. 1964. The parasite complex of two seed beetles Bruchidius ater Marsh (Col., Bruchidae) and Apion fuscirostre Fbr. (Col., Curculionidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 116:73-88.


Peck, O.; Boucek, Z.; Hoffer, A. 1964. Keys to the Chalcidoidea of Czechoslovakia (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada No 34:170pp, 289 figs.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Skrzypczynska, M. 1978. Megastigmus suspectus Borries, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Torymidae), its morphology, biology and economic significance. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 85:204-215.


Szelényi, G.  1957.  The genera of the subfamily Monodontomerinae (Hym., Chalcidoidea).  Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. (n.s.) 8:  381-88.


Varley, G.C. 1937. Description of the eggs and larvae of four species of chalcidoid Hymenoptera parasitic on the knapweed gall-fly. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 6:122-130, 5 figs


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.