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HYMENOPTERA, Tiphioidea -- Members are now grouped with Vespoidea.


           Please refer also to the following link for details on this group:


                  Tiphioidea = Link  1


The several families were grouped with the Vespoida by Goulet & Huber (1993).



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Pilgrim, E. M., C. D. Von Dohlen & J. P. Pitts.  2008: Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies. Zoologica scripta, 37: 539-560.