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HYMENOPTERA, Signiphoridae (Walker 1840) = (Thysanidae) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>





          Signiphoridae. (Thysanidae)  -- These are small, thick-bodied chalcids that attack scale insects, whiteflies, and other Homoptera or are hyperparasitoids of the chalcids that attack Homoptera.


          Signiphoridae range in size from 0.22 to 1.7 mm.  Their color varies from black to salmon pink or white, but they are not metallic.  Sculpturing of the cuticleis is sparce compared to families Chalcididae and Eurytomidae..


          The principal characteristics are a sessile Metasoma (thread-waist absent), the propodeum has a medium triangular zone, the club of the antennae are long and  unsegmented and they are preceded by 1-4 ring-like annelli.  The wings are fringed with medium to long setae, and there are short post-marginal and stigmal veins. Setae are very sparce on the wing membrane.


          The genera Chartocerus and Thysanus are cosmopolitan, while Clytina has been reported only from Eastern Europe.  The Neotropical genus Signiphora has more than half of the known species.


          Most species have been recovered from scale insects, aphids, mealybugs, psyllids and chloropid and drosophilid predatory flies of scale insects (Woolley & Hanson, 2006). They function either as parasitoids or hyperparasitoids. While the parasitoids are useful in biological control, the hyperparasitoids are considered harmful (Sullivan, 1987).


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Clausen, C. P.  1924.  Univ. Calif. Publ. Tech. Bull. 3:  253-88.


Girault, A. A.  1913.  A systematic monograph of the chalcidoid Hymenoptera of the family Signiphorinae.  Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 45:  189-233.


Hayat, M. & B. R. Subba-Rao.  1988.  Family Signiphoridae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Quezada, J. R.  1967.  Master of Science Thesis, Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside.  98 p.


Quezada, J., R., P. DeBach & D. Rosen.  1973.  Biological and taxonomic studies of Signiphora borinquensis new species (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae), a primary parasite of diaspine scales.  Hilgardia 41(18):  543-604.


Rosanov, I.  1965.  Review of the genera of parasitic Hymenoptera of the family Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  Rev. d'Ent. U.S.S.R. 44:  508-15, 866-84.


Subba Rao, B. R.  1974.  The genera of Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera) with descriptions of a new genus.  Bull. Ent. Res. 64:  525-31.


Sullivan, D. J.  1987. Insect hyperparasitism. Annual Review of Entomology 32:49-70.


Trjapitcyn, V. A.  1978/1987.  Family Signiphoridae (Thysanidae) (Signiphorids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Woolley, J.B.  1988.  Phylogeny and classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology 13:465-501. DOI.


Woolley, J. B. & P. E. Hanson.  2006. Familia Signiphoridae. In: Hanson, P. E. & Gauld, I. D. (Eds.) Hymenoptera de la Región Neotropical. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 77:422-425.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.