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HYMENOPTERA, Scolioidea (now grouped with Vespoidea)



One family, the Scoliidae, is included in this superfamily although sometimes-additional families are included.  They are large, hairy and usually black with yellow bands on the metasoma.  The larvae are external parasitoids of scarabaeid beetle larvae.  Adults are usually found on flowers.  Females burrow into the ground in their quest for a host.  They sting and paralyze grubs that they find, and then burrow deeper into the soil to construct a cell around the grub.  Many grubs may be stung without oviposition, and they generally do not recover.  There were 25 species known in North America as of 2000.


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Bradley, J. C.  1957.  Scolia (Diliacos) praslini new name (Hym. Scoliidae).  Bull. Soc. Ent. France 62:  53.


Bradley, J. C.  1957.  A new Brazilean species of Campsomeris (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae).  Ent. News 68:  97-8.


Guiglia, D.  1957.  Sopra alcuni Scoliidei africani del museo del Congo Belga (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae).  Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 56:  253-62.


Hammer, K.  1955.  Contributions à l'étude de la faune entomologique du Ruanda-Urundi (Mission P. Basilewsy 1953).  Hymenoptera Mutillidae.  Ann. Mus. R. Congo belge 40:  397-403.


Hammer, K.  1957 (1956).  Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna Ostafricas, insbesondere des Matengo-Hochlandes. X. Hymenoptera: Mutillidae.  Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 61:  232-37.


Invrea, F.  1955.  Imenotteri raccolti da L. Ceresa in Sardegna. II. Altri reperti di Mitillidi e Mirmosidi con quattro nuove specie.  Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. 94:  233-54.


Invrea, F.  1956.  Mutillidi nuovi o notevoli del bacino mediterraneo (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae). IV. Nota.  Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital. 86:  142-50.


Invrea, F.  1957.  Idem. V. Nota.  Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. 36:  189-200.


Jacot-Guillarmod, C.  1955.  Contributions à l'étude de la faune entomologique du Ruanda-Urundi (Mission P. Basilewsy, 1953).  Hymenoptera Tiphiidae.  Ann. Mus. R. Congo belge 40:  391-96.


Pilgrim, E. M., C. D. Von Dohlen & J. P. Pitts.  2008.  Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies. Zoologica scripta, 37: 539-560.


Schuster, R. M.  1956.  A revision of the genus Ephuta (Mutillidae) in America north of Mexico. II.  J. NY. Ent. Soc. 64:  7-84.