File: <proctdae.htm>                                                                            [For educational purposes only]        Glossary            <Principal Natural Enemy Groups >             <Citations>             <Home>



HYMENOPTERA, Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>




         Proctotrupidae (= Serphidae now with Proctotrupidae) --: Most Proctotrupids range in size from 3.1 to 7.4  mm long. They are distinguished by a large stigma in the front wing, beyond which is a very small marginal cell.  Some species are endoparasitoids of beetles, and flies.


          Most Proctotrupidae are solitary endoparasitoids of Coleoptera larvae that occur in soil litter and rotten wood. Some species parasitize larvae of Diptera). Gregarious parasitism is present. In all species a distinctive emergence pattern from the host occurs. The parasitoid larva pupates away from the host larva but is still connected by its posterior end to the host ventrum.. A thin membrane is formed on the parasitoid pupa. Adults are common in wet, shaded habitats.


= = = = = = = = = = = = = = =


References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Johnson, N. F. 1992. Catalog of world Proctotrupoidea excluding Platygastridae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 51: 1-825


Kozlov, M. A.  1978/1987.  Family Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Masner, L. 1993. Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (pp. 537-557). In: GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.