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HYMENOPTERA, Plumariidae (Chrysidoidea) (formerly Bethyloidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>


Description & Statistics


In this family the antennae generally have 11 segments each with long setae (Finnamore & Brothers 1993).  The pronotum is without an anterior protrusion, so that the propleuron is partly exposed.  Sexual dimorphism is pronounced.  The male is macropterous, the flagellar segments have numerous setae and the pronotum is vertical.  Females are wingless, their head prognathous, flagellar segments have some scattered setae, the pronotum is horizontal and the mesothorax is separated from the metathorax by a deep ventro-lateral restriction.


          These wasps are distributed arid and semi-arid areas of western South America and southern Africa.  There are ca. 21 species in 4 genera.  Adults are black or brown.  Females may be found under rocks or in traps, but the common males are nocturnal and attracted to light.  There is little biological data.


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Bradley, J. C.  l921a. Some features of the hymenopterous fauna of South America. Actes SOC. Sci. Chili, 30: 51-74.

Bradley, J. C.1921b. Plumarius, an aberrant genus of Hymenoptera. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 11 : 214.


Brothers, D.J. 1974. The genera of Plumariidae, with description of a new genus and species from Argentina (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 37: 351-356.


Day, M.C. 1977. A new genus of Plumariidae from Southern Africa, with notes on Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Cimbebasia (A), 4: 171-177.


Diez, P.; Fidalgo, P.; Roig-Alsina, A. 2007. A new genus and species of Plumariidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) from western xeric Argentina. Zootaxa, 1467: 35-41.pdf


Diez, P.; Roig-Alsina, A. 2008. A new species of the genus Plumaroides Brothers (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae) from Argentina. Zootaxa, 1676: 45-50.pdf


Diez, P.A. 2008. A new species of the genus Plumaroides Brothers (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae) from Santiago del Estero, Argentina: male and female description. Zootaxa, 1891: 25-30. pdf


Enderlein, G. 1918. Hymenoptera II: Archihymenidae. Beitr. Landf. Süd-Westafrik., 1: 193-199.


Finnamore, A.T. & D. J. Brothers. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.


Roig-Alsina, A. 1994. A new genus of Plumariidae, with notes on the relationships among the genera of the family (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae). Mitteilungen der Muencher Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 84: 91-96.