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HYMENOPTERA, Monoserphidae (Proctotrupoidea)


          Monoserphidae. -- These are parasitoids that attack immature stages of other insects. Most are small or tiny and black, and may appear as cynipids, chalcidoids or some aculeata. The smallest species have a reduced wing venation, but they may be separated  from chalcidoids by the structure of the mesosoma and ovipositor. The pronotum in the proctotrupoids appears triangular when seen laterally and it extends to the tegulae. The ovipositor originates from the tip of the metasoma rather than from anterior to the tip



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]