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HYMENOPTERA, Leucospidae (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>


          Leucospidae. -- Leucospids are usually black-and-yellow insects, and they are parasitoids of bees and wasps. They are rare, but may sometimes be found on flowers. They are stout-bodied, have the wings folded longitudinally at rest, and resemble small yellow jackets. The ovipositor is long and curves upward and forward over the abdomen, ending over the posterior part of the thorax. Like the chalcidids, the leucospidids have the hind femora greatly swollen and toothed on the ventral side (Borror et al. 1989).



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Boucek, Z.  1974 (1975).  A revision of the Leucospidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the world.  Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist (Ent.) Suppl. 23:  1-241.


Clausen, C. P.  1940.  Entomophagous Insects.  McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY & London.  688 p.


Graenicher, S.  1906.  The habits and life-history of Leucospis affinis (Say), a parasite of bees.  Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 4:  153-59.


Nikol'skaya, M. N.  1978/1987.  Family Leucospididae (Leucospidids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid

Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.