File: <eupelmid.htm>                                               [For educational purposes only]        Glossary            <Principal Natural Enemy Groups >             <Citations>             <Home>


HYMENOPTERA, Eupelmidae (Walker 1846) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Eupelmidae. -- This is a large family with over 95 North American species known. They resemble encyrtids, but they have a flatter mesonotum and parapsidal furrows are present. Some apterous or have very short wings. 


          Many are able to jump and they often tumble around after jumping, before gaining a grip; their jumping is facilitated by their ability to bend the head and abdomen up over the thorax, much as occurs in click beetles. The members of this group attack a wide variety of hosts; a number of species are known to attack hosts in different orders; and a few are parasitoids of spiders.



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Ashmead, W. H.  1904.  Classification of the chalcid flies.  Mem. Carneg. Mus. 1:  287-91.


Bouek, Z.  1958.  Eine Cleonyminen-- Studie; Bestimmungsstabella der Gattungen mit Beschreibungen und Notizen, eingeschlossen einige Eupelmidae (Hym. Chalcidoidea).  Sb. Ent. Odd. Nár. Mus. Praze 32:  353-86.


Bouek, Z.  1988.  Australasian Chalcidoidea, a biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species.  CAB Internatl., Wallingford, UK.  832 p.


Burks, B. D.  1967.  The North American species of Anastatus Motschulsky (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae).  Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 93:  423-31.


Burks, B. D.  1973.  North American species of calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae).  J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 63(1):  26-31.


Clausen, C. P.  1940.  Entomophagous Insects.  McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY.  688 p.


Ferriere, C.  1954.  Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Gesell. 27:  1-21.


Gahan, A. B.  1943.  Revisions of two genera of chalcid-flies belonging to the family Eupelmidae from North and South America.  Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 94:  339-69.


Hedqvist, K.  1970.  Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea); Eupelmidae.  In:  South African Animal Life, Vol. 14, Chapter 17.


Islam, S. S. & M. Hayat.  1988.  Family Eupelmidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Parker, D. L.  1933.  J. Agr. Res. 46:  23-34.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Ruschka, F.  1920.  Verhand. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien 70:  234-315.


Trjapitcyn, V. A.  1978/1987.  Family Eupelmidae (Eupelmids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.