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HYMENOPTERA, Eulophidae (Forster 1856) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Eulophidae. -- This is a large group with more than 125 North American species known.  They are small insects averaging 1.2-4 mm long.  They parasitize a variety of hosts that includes some major pests of agricultural crops.  The 4-segmented tarsi and the axillae, which extends forward beyond the tegulae, distinguishes them  Many species are brightly colored and the males of some have pectinate antennae.


          Some species are hyperparasitoids, and there are some bizarre phenomena regarding hyperparasitism and sex in the eulophids that attack scale insects.  In the genus Coccophagus, the females develop as parasitoids of scale insects, while the males develop as hyperparasitoids attacking parasitoids of scale insects, which may even be females of their own species.



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Boucek, Z.  1968.  Index to entomophagus insects. Palearctic Eulophide (exc. Tetrastichinae).  Le Francois, Paris.  254 p.


Boucek, Z.  1977a.  Descriptions of two new species of Neotropical Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) of economic interest, with taxonomic notes on related species and genera.  Bull. Ent. Res. 67:  1-15.


Boucek, Z.  1977b.  Descriptions of Tachinobia gen. n. and three new species of Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a tentative key to genera.  Bull. Ent. Res. 67:  17-30.


Boucek, Z.  1988.  Australasian Chalcidoidea, a biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species.  CAB Internatl., Wallingford, UK.  832 p.


Burks, B. D.  1943.  The North American parasitic wasps of the genus Tetrastichus.  Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 93:  505-608.


Burks, B. D.  1965.  The North American species of Elasmus Westwood.  Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:  201-08.


Burks, B. D.  1966.  The North American species of Pediobius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 68(1):  33-43.


Burks, B. D.  1971a.  The Nearctic species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 73(1):  68-83.


Burks, B. D.  1971b.  A North American Elasmus parasitic on Polistes.  J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 61:  194-96.


Domenichini, G.  1966.  Index or entomophagus insects.  Palearctic Tetrastichinae, Eulophidae.  Le Francois, Paris.  101 p.


Gahan, A. B.  1922.  Descriptions of miscellaneous new reared parasitic Hymenoptera.  Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 61(24):  1-24.


Gahan, A. B.  1941.  A revision of the parasitic wasps of the genus Necremnus Thomson (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera).  J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31(5):  196-203.


Girault, A. A.  1913.  Mem. Queensland Mus. 2:  140-296.


Girault, A. A.  1916.  Descriptions of and observations on some chalcidoid Hymenoptera-- II.  Canad. Ent. 48:  265-68, 337-44.


Girault, A. A.  1918.  North American Hymenoptera-- Elasmidae.  Private Printing, Sydney, Australia.  4 p.


Gordh, G.  1978.  Taxonomic notes on Zagrammosoma, a key to the Nearctic species and description of new species from California (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 80(3):  344-59.


Gordh, G. & R. Hendrickson.  1979.  New species of Diglypus Walker, 1844, a world list of the species, taxonomic notes and a key to new world species of Diglypus and Diaulinopis Crawford, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 81:  666-84.


Graham, M. W. R. de V.  1959.  Keys to the British genera and species of Elachertinae, Eulophinae, Entedontinae and Euderinae (Hym. Chalcidoidea).  Trans. Soc. British  Ent. 13:  167-204.


Graham, M. W. R. de V.  1961.  Trans. Soc. British Ent. 15:  167-275.


Graham, M. W. R. de V.  1969.  The Pteromalidae of Northwestern Europe (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).  Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.) Suppl. 16:  1-908.


Graham, M. W. R. de V.  1975.  Relationships and synonymy of Winnemana Crawford (Hymenoptera Eulophidae).  J. Ent. Ser. B. Taxon. Syst. 44(3):  281-82.


Grissell, E. E.  1981.  Edovum puttleri, n.g., n.sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasite of the Colorado potato beetle (Chrysomelidae).  Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 83(4):  790-96.


Hayat, M.  1988.  Family Eulophidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Kostyukov, V. V.  1977.  Comparative morphology of chalcids of the subfamily Tetrastichinae and the system of the genus Tetrastichus Haliday, 1844 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Ent. Rev. 56(1):  134-45.


Krombein, K. V. et al.  1979.  Catalog of Hymenoptera in America.  Symphata and Apocrita (Parasitica).  Smiths. Inst. Press, Wash. D.C. 1:  967-1022.


Miller, C. D. F.  1962.  Some Nearctic species of the chalcid genus Enaysma Delucchi (Eulophidae: Entedontinae).  Canad. Ent. 94:  1039-52.


Miller, C. D. F.  1964.  Some species of the New World genus Paraolinx Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 96:  1352-62.


Miller, C. D. F.  1970.  The Nearctic species of Pnigalio and Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 68:  1-121.


Moran, V. C. et al.  1969.  Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 121:  41-58.


Nikol'skaya, M. N. & V. A. Trjapitcyn.  1978/1987.  Family Eulophidae (Eulophids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Pagden, H.  1934.  Notes on hymenopterous parasites of padi insects in Malaya.  Fed. Malay States, Dept. Agr. Bull. 15.  13 p.


Parker, H. L. & H. D. Smith.  1933.  Eulophus viridulus Thoms., a parasitoid of Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 26:  21-36.


Peck, O.  1963.  A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea.  Canad. Ent. Suppl. 30:  1-1092.


Peck, O., Z. Bouek & A. Hoffer.  1964.  Keys to the Chalcidoidea of Czechoslovakia (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 34:  1-120.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1970a.  A new species of Astichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with the birch bracket fungus, Polyporus betulinus and woody fungus Ganoderma applanatum in eastern Canada.  Canad. Ent. 102:  656-59.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1970b.  A new eulophid parasite (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from eggs of the nursery pine sawfly, Diprion frutetorum (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinoidea).  Canad. Ent. 102:  908-10.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1971.  Revision of the genus Euderus of America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 103:  541-78.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1973a.  A new Nearctic Derosternus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitic on Nepticula (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) in North America.  Canad. Ent. 105:  1053-57.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1973b.  Review of North American Chrysocharis (Kratochviliana) (Eulophidae: Chalcidoidea) north of Mexico, especially species attacking birch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae).  Canad. Ent. 105:  1309-49.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1973c.  Revision of the genus Chrysocharis Förster (subgenus Chrysocharis s. str.) (Eulophidae: Chalcidoidea) of America north of Mexico.  Canad. Ent. 105:  1377-1405.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1976a.  Synopsis of the genus Metocharis Förster in America north of Mexico (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 108:  755-58.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1976b.  Revision of the genus Dicladocerus (Eulophidae: Chalcidoidea) of America north of Mexico, with particular reference to species attacking larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Colephoridae).  Canad. Ent. 108:  1173-1206.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1977.  The genus Achrysocharoides Girault of America north of Mexico (Eulophidae: Chalcidoidea).  Canad. Ent. 109:  514-44.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1978.  Revision of the subgenus Achrysocharella Girault of America north of Mexico (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae: Chrysonotomyia Ashmead).  Canad. Ent. 110:  697-719.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1980.  Synopsis of Chrysonotomyia Ashmead s. str. of America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 112:  1039-48.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1981.  First record of Thripoctenoides from North America with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 113:  723-25.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1983.  Review of North American Pnigalio Schrank (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae).  Canad. Ent. 115:  971-1000.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid

Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.