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HEMIPTERA, Enicocephalidae -- <Images> & <Juveniles>



          These are the Unique-headed or gnat bugs.  They are small, slender and predaceous and are generally  4 mm  long, and occur worldwide. The head is elongated and somewhat constricted.  The front wings are entirely membranous.  In the United States there is a rare species, Systeloderes biceps (Say), which may be the only one.  There are about 130 identified species.  Clausen (1940) made brief mention of this family, stating that it was a relatively small group which inhbited foliage and flowers and fed on a variety of insects in those habitats.


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Banar, P. & P. Stys.  2006.  A new species of Pseudohenschiella (Heteroptera: Enicocephalidae) from Madagascar.  Acta Ent. Musei Nationalis Pragae 46:  7-14.


Hoberlandt, L. & P. Stys.  1979.  Tamopocoris asiaticus gen. And sp. n. -- a new aphelocheirine from Vietnam and further studies on Naucoridae (Heteroptera).  Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae 33(B):  1-20.


Jacobs, D.H. 1985. Heteroptera. In: Insects of Southern Africa (Eds C.H. Scholtz & E. Holm). Butterworths, Durban, p. 117-152.


Kulalova-Peck, J.  1983.  Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg.  Canad. J. Zool. 61:  1618-1669.


Kukalova-Peck, J.  1991. Fossil histories, and the evolution of hexapod structures.  Pp. 141-179.  In:  CSIRO (ed.): The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Vols. 1, 2. Melbourne Univ. Press, Carlton.  1137 pp.


Polhemus, D. A. & J. T. Polhemus.  1988.  The Aphelocheirinae of tropical Asia (Heteroptera: Naucoridae).  Raffles Bull. Zool. 36:  167-300.


Schuh, R. T. & J. A. Slater.  1995.  True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).  Classification & Natural History, Comstock Publ. Assoc., Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca & London.  13:  353 pp.

 Stys, P.  1970.  Three new aberrant species of Systelloderes Blanch from the Old World, and notes on the tribal classification of Enicocephalinae (Heteroptera).  Acta Universitatis Carolinae Biological 1968:  435-454.


Stys, P.  1985.  Phallopiratinae-- a new subfamily of plesiomorphic Enicocephalidae based on a new genus and four new species from the Oriental region (Heteroptera).  Acta Universitatis Carolinae Biologica 1981:  269-310.


Stys, P.  2002a.  New enicocephaline genera similar to Systelloderes (Heteroptera: Enicocephalidae).  Acta Universitatis Carolinae Biologica 45(2001):  319-338.


Stys, P.  2002b.  Key to the genus-group taxa of the extant Enicocephalomorpha of the World, their list, and taxonomic changes (Heteroptera).  Acta Universitatis Carolinae Biologica 45(2001):  339-368


Stys, P. & P. Banar.  2006.  Description of a new genus with larviform females from Mauritius (Heteroptera, Enicocephalidae), with discussion of thoracic and abdominal morphology.  Pp. 681-695.  In:  W. Rabitsch (ed.): Hug the bug-- For love of true bugs.  Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Ernst Heiss.  Denisia 19:  1-1184.


Usinger, R. L.  Classification of the Enicocephalidae (Hemiptera, Reduvioidea).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer 38(3):  321-142


Villiers, A.  1969.  Revision des Hemipteres Henicocephalidae Africaines et Malgaches.  Ann. De Musee Royal d'Afrique Centrale, Ser. In-8 deg. Sciences Zoologiques (Tervuren) 176:  1-232.


Wygodzinsky, P. W. & K. Schmidt.  1991.  Revision of the New World Enicocephalomorpha (Heteroptera).  Bull Amer. Mus. Nat. History 200:  1-265.