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HYMENOPTERA, Embolemidae (Chrysidoidea) (formerly Bethyloidea) -- <Images> & <Juveniles>


Please refer to the following links for details on this group:


Embolemidae = Link 1



The biology of this group is not well studied. A Nearctic species was reared from homopteran nymphs (Achilidae) feeding on subcortical fungi. Females have been collected in ant nests and small mammal burrows. There are ca.. 22 species in 2 or 3 genera.


Adults very tiney to small, solitary wasps. Antennal segments are 10 in males and 13 in females. The geniculate antennae are inserted above the lower margins of the eye. The pronotum is short and does not extemd back to the tegulae. Cenchri are absent, but wings may be either present or absent. The fore-wings have a prominent pterostigma; with the venation well developed but reduced apically. Forewing cells 610 are closed. The hind wings do not have closed cells. Fore femora are either dilated or not. Hind femur do not have a well developed trochantellus. The hind tibiae have spurs that are seemingly specialized for a cleaning.


The abdomen has a notable basal constriction. They may be either a long petiole, or short-waist in females. There are 7 visible abdominal segments. The female ovipositer is conspicuous or modified as a retractable stinging apparatus.


The legs of the larvae may be either present or vestigial. These wasps are considered parasitic on unknown hosts that are selected by the females.


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References: Please refer to <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]


Finnamore, A.T. & Brothers, D.J. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.


Olmi, M. 1995. A revision of the world  Embolemidae (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica (1995), N.S., XVIII (XXXI): 85-146.


Olmi M., 2006. A catalogue of Dryinidae and Embolemidae of South Africa, with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera Chrysidodea). Frustula entomologica (2005)(N.S.) vol. 28-29 (41-42): 1-57.


Trjapitcyn, V. A. 1978/1987. Family Embolemidae (Embolemids). In: G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2. Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi). 1341 p.