File: <charip.htm>                                            [For educational purposes only]        Glossary            <Principal Natural Enemy Groups >             <Citations>             <Home>


Cynipidae (Charipinae) (Cynipoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>


           Please refer also to the following links for further details: Link 1




          The Charipinae are tiny insects, 2.1 mm long or less.  They have a smooth thorax, and they are hyperparasitoids, attacking braconids, which are aphid parasitoids.


          They are hyperparasitoids of Hemiptera.The African genera Alloxysta and Phaenoglyphis are hyperparasitoids of Aphididae via Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Species of the African geners Apocharips and Dilyta are hyperparasitoids of Psyllidae via Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]


Carver, M. 1992: Alloxystinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Charipidae) in Australia. Invertebrate taxonomy, 6: 769-785. doi: 10.1071/IT9920769


Paretas-Martínez, J.; Arnedo, M.A.; Melika, G.; Selfa, J.; Seco-Fernández, M.V.; Fülöp, D.; Pujade-Villar, J. 2007: Phylogeny of the parasitic wasp subfamily Charipinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). Zoologica scripta, 36: 153-172. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00269.x


Paretas-Martínez, J.; Melika, G.; Pujade-Villar, J. 2007: Description of Lobopterocharips arreplegata gen.n. & sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Charipinae) from Nepal, with notes on its phylogenetic position. Insect systematics & evolution, 38(4): 473-479. ISSN 1399-560X


Paretas-Martínez, J.; Pujade-Villar, J. 2006: Charipinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) from Australia: revision of the genus Thoreauana Girault, 1930 and description of Dilapothor n. gen. Australian journal of entomology, 45: 219-226. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2006.00536.x


Paretas-Martínez, J., Arnedo, M.A., Melika, G., Selfa, J., Seco-Fernández, M.V., Fülöp, D., Pujade-Villar, J. 2007. Phylogeny of the parasitic wasp subfamily Charipinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) Zoologica Scripta 36: 153–172.


Pujade-Villar, J.; Díaz, N.; Evenhuis, H.H.; Ros-Farré, P. 2002: South American Charipinae: review and description of two new species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 95: 541-546. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2002)095[0541:SACRAD]2.0.CO;2


Quinlan, J. & Evenhuis, H. H. 1980. Status of the subfamily names Charipinae and Alloxystinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Systematic Entomology 5: 427–430.


Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.