File: <aphelini.htm>                                       [For educational purposes only]        Glossary            <Principal Natural Enemy Groups >             <Citations>             <Home>


HYMENOPTERA, Aphelinidae (Forster 1856) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>


          Aphelinidae is a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with about 1163 described species in some 36 genera. These minute insects are challenging to study as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.


          They are difficult to separate from other Chalcidoidea except by subtle features of the wing venation and other difficult characters, and it appears the family is paraphyletic, and therefore likely to be split up in the future (e.g., the Azotinae and Calesinae may become separate families).



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Annecke, D. P., & H. P. Insley.  1971.  Catalogue of Ethiipian Encyrtidae and Aphelinidae.  Entomology Mem. Dept. Agr. Tech. Serv. Rep. So. Afr. 23:  1-53.


Annecke, D. E. & H. P. Insley.  1974.  The species of Coccophagus Westwood, 1833 from the Ethiopian region (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  Entomology Mem. Dept. Agr. Tech. Serv. Rep. So. Afr. 37:  1-62.


Cedaña, S. M.  1937.  Studies on the biology of Coccophagus (Hymenoptera), a genus parasitic on nondiaspine Coccidae.  Univ. Calif. Pubs. Ent. 6:  337-400.


Compere, H.  1931.  A revision of the species of Coccophagus, a genus of hymenopterous coccid-inhabiting parasites.  Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 78(7):  1-132.


Compere, H.  1936.  Notes on the classification of the Aphelinidae with description of new species.  Univ. Calif. Pub. Ent. 6(2):  227-321.


Compere, H. & D. P. Annecke.  1961.  Descriptions of parasitic Hymenoptera and comments (Hymenopt.: Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae).  J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr. 24(1):  17-71.


De Santis, L.  1946.  Taxonomía de la familia Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  Rev. Mus. La Plata, Zool. (N. Ser.) 5:  1-21.


De Santis, L.  1948.  Estudio monográfico de los afelínidos de la República Argentina (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  Rev. Mus. La Plata, Zool. (N. Ser.) 5:  23-280.


De Santis, L.  1967.  Catálogo de los hmenópteros Argentinos de la serie Parasitica, incluyendo Bethyloidea.  Ann. Comp. Inv. Cient. Prov. Bs. As.  337 p.


Ferrière, C.  1965a.  Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae.  Faune d'Europe et du Bassin Mediterranéen No. 1.  Masson et Cie, Editeurs, Paris.  206 p.


Ferrière, C.  1965b.  Hymenoptera Aphelinidae d'Europe et du bassin Méditerranéen.  Masson et Cie Editeurs, Paris.  p. 1-208.


Flanders, S. E.  1937.  Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 6:  357-401.


Hartley, E. A.  1922.  Some bionomics of Aphelinus semiflavus (Howard) chalcid parasite of aphids.  Ohio J. Sci. 22:  209-36.


Hayat, M.  1983.  The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world.  Systematic Entomology. 8:  63-102.


Hayat, M.  1988.  Family Aphelinidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Janosh, V. A. 1976.  Classification of parasitic Hymenoptera of the family Aphelinidae (Chalcidoidea).  Ent. Rev. 55(1):  114-20.


Mercet, R.  1912.  Trab. Mus. Ciencias Nat. 10:  1-306.


Nikol'skaya, M. A. & V. A. Yasnosh.  1966.  Aphelinids of the European part of the USSR and the Caucasus.  Opred. Faune SSSR. 91 Nauka, Moscow & Leningrad.  296 p.  [in Russian].


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Quayle, H. J.  1913.  Some natural enemies of spiders and mites.  J. Econ. 6:  85-8.


Rosen, D. (ed.).  1993.  Advances in the Study of aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  Lavoisier Publ., Inc., Newark, NJ.  350 p.


Rosen, D. & P. DeBach.  1979 (1978).  Species of Aphytis of the world (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).  Dr. W. Junk B. V. Publ., The Hague & Israel Univ. Press. Jerusalem.  801 p.


Stuben, M.  1949.  Biol. Zentralblatt 68:  413-29.


Taylor, T. H. C.  1935.  The campaign against Aspidiotus destructor Sign. in Fiji.  Bull. Ent. Res. 26:  1-100.


Viggiani, G. & P. Mazzone.  1979.  Contributi alla conoscenza morfo-biologica delle specie del complesso Encarsia Foerster-- Prospaltella Ashmead (Hym., Aphelinidae).  Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr. Filippo Silvestri 36:  42-50.


Yasnosh, V. A.  1976.  Classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of the family Aphelinidae.  Ent. Rev. 55:  114-20.


Yasnosh, V. A.  1978/1987.  Family Aphelinidae (Aphelinids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Yasnosh, V. A.  1979.  Host-parasite relations in the family Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).  Ent. Rev. 58:  751-60.


Yasnosh, V. A.  1983.  Ent. Rev. 62:  145-59.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.