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Table 3.  KINGDOMS OF ORGANISMS

-- Several Arrangements

 

 

  • Bacteria (Eubacteria),
  • Archaea (Archaebacteria) and
  • Eukarya (Eukaryotes; further divided into Protista, Plantae, Animalia and Fungi).
  •  

Reference:
GJ Olsen and CR Woese (1993). FASEB Journal 7: 113-123.

 

The Six Kingdoms:

 

Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria.

 

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Monera (includes Eubacteria and Archeobacteria)

 

Individuals are single-celled, may or may not move, have a cell wall, have no chloroplasts or other organelles, and have no nucleus. Monera are usually very tiny, although one type, namely the blue-green bacteria, look like algae. They are filamentous and quite long, green, but have no visible structure inside the cells. No visible feeding mechanism. They absorb nutrients through the cell wall or produce their own by photosynthesis.

 

Protista

 

Protists are single-celled and usually move by cilia, flagella, or by amoeboid mechanisms. There is usually no cell wall, although some forms may have a cell wall. They have organelles including a nucleus and may have chloroplasts, so some will be green and others won't be. They are small, although many are big enough to be recognized in a dissecting microscope or even with a magnifying glass. Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis, ingestion of other organisms, or both.

 

Fungi

 

Fungi are multicellular,with a cell wall, organelles including a nucleus, but no chloroplasts. They have no mechanisms for locomotion. Fungi range in size from microscopic to very large ( such as mushrooms). Nutrients are acquired by absorption. For the most part, fungi acquire nutrients from decaying material.

Plantae

 

Plants are multicellular and most don't move, although gametes of some plants move using cilia or flagella. Organelles including nucleus, chloroplasts are present, and cell walls are present. Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis (they all require sunlight).

 

Animalia

 

Animals are multicellular, and move with the aid of cilia, flagella, or muscular organs based on contractile proteins. They have organelles including a nucleus, but no chloroplasts or cell walls. Animals acquire nutrients by ingestion.

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FOLLOWING OBTAINED FROM:  http://biology.about.com/od/evolution/a/aa091004a.htm

 

Organisms: Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles, Psychrophiles

Cell Type: Prokaryotic

Metabolism: Depending on species - oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfur, sulfide may be needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may by absorption, non-photosynthetic

 photophosphorylation, or chemosynthesis.

Reproduction: Asexual reproduction by binary

II. Eubacteria

Organisms: Bacteria, Cyanobacteria(blue-green algae), Actinobacteria

Cell Type: Prokaryotic

Metabolism: Depending on species - oxygen may be toxic, tolerated, or needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may by absorption, photosynthesis, or chemosynthesis.

Reproduction: Asexual reproduction

III. Protista

Organisms: Amoebae, green algae, brown algae, diatoms, euglena, slime molds

Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Depending on species - nutrition intake may be by absorption, photosynthesis, or ingestion.

Reproduction: Mostly asexual reproduction. Meiosis occurs in some species.

 

 

IV. Fungi

Organisms: Mushrooms, yeast, molds

Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Absorption

Reproduction: Asexual or sexual reproduction occur.

V. Plantae

Organisms: Mosses, angiosperms (flowering plants), gymnosperms, liverworts, ferns

Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Photosynthesis

Reproduction: Some species reproduce asexually by mitosis. Other species exhibit sexual reproduction.

VI. Animalia

Organisms: Mammals, amphibians, sponges, insects, worms

Cell Type: Eukaryotic

Metabolism: Oxygen is needed for metabolism.

Nutrition Acquisition: Ingestion

Reproduction: Sexual reproduction