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Mycology:  The Study of Fungi1


Including Some Bacteria and Slime Molds


Bacteria ►


     Please CLICK on underlined links & included illustrations for details;

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Background & Overview


    Groups of Fungi


    The Fungus Vegetative Body


    Nature & Reproduction of Fungi


Bacteria -- Monera  Schizomycophyta


Slime Molds Amoebozoa

Eumycophyta (True Fungi)


     Zygomycota (Zygote fungi)


     Ascomycota (Sac fungi)


     Basidiomycota (Higher fungi)


     Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti)


 Plates     Tables     Bibliography


  Identification Keys    Citations


Sample Examinations




         The following section on Schizomycophyta, Amoebozoa and Eumycophyta follows the classification that prevailed from the latter third of the 20th Century until the present.  The arrangement of the various subgroups is based on the presumed evolution of the most primitive to the more highly advanced organisms with previous names of groups being included in parentheses.  Although further rearrangements are expected as more biological and biochemical data are forthcoming the presented design should enable identification of major orders, families and genera. Emphasis has been placed on morphological and behavioral characteristics, and a simple diagrammatic style is used for most of the illustrations. A binocular microscope with a 20X magnification is advisable for students wishing to view living and preserved specimens.  Greater detail on a particular group of fungi may be found by referring to publications listed in the References or through Internet searches.



          This is a self-contained database with a minimum of links outside its limits.  Independent Internet searches are encouraged for greater detail on a particular fungal group.


Background & Overview


          The first scientific effort to classify the fungi was made by Anton De Bary in 1860.  He divided the fungi into four groups:  Saprophytes (nutrients derived from dean organic material), Facultative Parasites (able to become parasitic but generally saprophytic, Facultative Saprophytes (able to become saprophytic but generally parasitic, and Parasites (only able to survive on a living host). 


          Mycology was originally a branch of botany, but fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants albeit this was not widely accepted until the late 20th Century.  There have been many schemes developed to classify organisms (see Systems & Kingdoms) and fungi in particular.  Two contemporary proposals to classify fungi are shown in Table 1 & Table 2.  Historically, the bacteria and slime molds were also included under the broad group "Fungi" until they were separated into "Kingdoms" of their own (Table 1)  (Also See Wikipedia).  All of these are alike in one respect:  they lack chlorophyll and thus cannot make their own food.  They, like animals, depend for their food either directly or indirectly on green plants.


          The following sections discuss diagnostic structures that aid in the identification of the major organism groups in an arrangement that begins with primitive forms and proceeds to the more advanced.  Included are Bacteria (Monera, Schizomycophyta), Slime Molds (Amoebozoa), and the True Fungi (Eumycophyta) and their principal Classes: Zygomycota (zygote fungi), Ascomycota (sac fungi), Basidiomycota (higher fungi), and Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti).  Representative Genera and some species of major families are included.  Of special interest is that sexual processes that appear throughout these groups gradually disappear as they ascend the evolutionary ladder.  The systematic study of these organisms is scarcely two hundred years old, but humans have known the manifestations of this group of organisms for thousands of years.  Yet today few realize how intimately our lives are linked with them.  They plan such an important role in the slow but constant changes taking place around us because of their ubiquity and their amazingly large numbers.  They are the agents responsible for much of the disintegration of organic matter, and as such they affect us directly by destroying food and fiber and other goods that are manufactured from raw materials subject to their attack.  They cause the majority of plant diseases and man7y diseases of animals and humans.  They are the basis of a number of industrial processes involving fermentation, such as making wines, bread, beers and even the fermentation of the cacao bean and the preparation of certain cheese.  They are deployed in the commercial preparation of many organic acids and of some vitamins, and are responsible for the manufacture of a number of antibiotic drugs, notably penicillin.  Fungi in particular are both destructive and beneficial to agriculture.  On the one hand they do extensive damage to crops by causing plant disease, while on the other they increase the fertility of the soil by inducing various changes that eventually result in the release of plant nutrients in a form available to green plants.  Their widespread use as edible food in the form of mushrooms also should not be overlooked.




The fungi rank prominently in numbers of species among organisms.  Comparison

estimates of some species as of 2020 are noted as follows:


          Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria) = 1,800 species

          Euglenophyta (Euglenozoa) – Flagellate protozoa = 350 species

          Chlorophyta (Green algae) = 3,250 species

          Protista (Chrysophyta) (Golden algae)= 5,225 species

          Phacophyta (Protista—Brown algae) = 1,675 species

          Rhodophyta (Red algae) = 2,810 species

          Dinoflagellata  (Pyrophyta -- fire algae) = 1,215 species

          Monera (Bacteria)  (Shizomycophyta --  = 2,200 species

          Protista (Myxomycophyta) = 535 species

          Eumycophyta (Eumycetes) – True fungi = 142,000 species

          Bryiophyta  (Mosses) = 28,000

          Tracheophyta (Vascular plants) = 380,000 (most likely many more species exist)


          The five main food sources that are required by fungi are Carbon, Nitrogen, Minor elements, Vitamins (Thiamin & Biotin) and Oxygen.  The main carbon source is Sucrose, but one group, the Mucorales, is unable to use it as a source of carbon.


Main Groups of Fungi


          Zygomycota (Phycomycetes) -- zygote fungi

          Ascomycota (Ascomycetes) -- sac fungi

          Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes) --  higher fungi

          Deuteromycota (Deuteromycetes or Fungi Imperfecti) – anamorphic fungi 


General Characteristics of Fungi


          The fungi are a group of living organisms that do not possess chlorophyll.  They resemble green plants as generally they have definite cells walls, they are usually nonmotile, although they may have motile reproductive cells, and they reproduce by means of spores.  They do not have stems, roots or leaves, nor dor they have a vascular system as the more advanced types of plants.  Fingi are usually filamentous and multicellular; their nuclei can be seen with relative ease; their somatic structures with few exceptions show little differentiation and practically no division of labor.


          The filaments that make up the body of a fungus elongate by apical growth (Plate 51).  However, most parts of an organism are capable of growth, and a tiny fragment from almost any port of the fungus is enough to start a new individual.  Reproductive structures are differentiated from somatic structures and show a variety of forms, which are useful for identification.  Few fungi may be identified if their reproductive stages are not available.  This is becuase with few exceptions the somatic parts of fungi resemble those of many other fungi.


          The fungi obtain their food either by infecting living organisms, by behaving as parasites, or by attacking dead organic matter.  Most fungi, whether normally parasitic or not, are able to live on dead organic matter, which makes it possible to grow them on synthetic media.  Fungi that live on dead matter are unable to infect living organisms and are referred to as obligate saprobes.  Those capable of inciting disease or of living on dea organic matter are referred to as facultative parasites or facultative saprobes.  Those that require living protoplasm are obligate parasites.  Fungi also differ from most plants in that they require already elaborated food to live and are incapable of manufacturing their own.  But, if provided with carbohydrates in some form most fungi can synthesize their own proteins by utilizing inorganic or organic sources of nitrogen.  Many fungi can synthesize vitamins, which they need to grow and reproduce as do other organisms.  Excess food is usually stored in the form of glycogen or oil.


          Fungi vary in their food requirements.  Some are omnivorous and can live on anything that contains organic matter.  Other fungi are more restricted in their diet and a few of the obligate parasites not only require living protoplasm but are also highly specializes as to the species and even the variety of host they parasitize.  Enzymes determine what foods are able to be used.


The Fungus Vegetative Body


          The mycelium is the entire vegetative body of a single thalus.  It is composed of thread-like structures or hyphae.  The diameter of a hypha varies between 2 and 50 microns.  Branching occurs behind the tip, there being some degree of apical dominance.  Walls in the Zygomycota (Phycomycetes) are principally of cellulose, while in the other groups the walls may contain a combination of cellulose and fungus chitin.  The mycelial type of thallus is not present in many of the lowest members of fungi, and a few degenerate forms in the higher fungi also lack it.


          Occasionally, as in the Zygomycota, a single hypha will compose the entire mycelium and cross walls will form at random.  The absence of cross walls is known as coenocytic, and is also characteristic of the Zygomycota.


          Septa are the cross walls and are characteristic of the higher true fungi (Plate 52b).  In some species a pore (hole) is left in the septa and protoplasm is continuous from cell to cell of the hypha.


          In the Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes) a characteristic feature is that a clamp is formed, and the septa do not reach to the end of the diameter.



          All true fungi (Eumycophyta) have well-defined nuclei.  In the coenocytic condition there may be nuclei distributed throughout the hypha (Plate 52a).  When mycelia occur in the Phycomycota they are characteristically of the coenocytic type.  Septations (cross-walls in the hyphae) are almost entirely lacking.



          Vacuoles and food particles and oil droplets also are distributed throughout the mycelium.  Again in the coenocytic condition nuclei may or may not (usually not) exhibit conjugate nuclear dividion.



          In a septate mycelium (with or without septal pores), some species may have many nuclei distributed in one cell (multinucleate).  Other species may have two nuclei per cell (dicaryotic).  A dicaryotic cell will usually exhibit conjugate nuclear division, which is the simultaneous division of the two nuclei in a dicaryon.  This gives rise to four daughter nuclei.  These generally become separated by a septum into two cells, the sister nuclei migrating into different daughter cells.




       Also, in the septate condition (septa = “cross wall”), the two hyphae will fuse (hyphal anastomosis).  This may occur between hyphae on the same mycelium or on two closely related species.  In this condition the nuclei may migrate over the “bridge.”  Further division may result in daughter nuclei migrating through septal pores to adjoining cells.  This results in a heterocaryotic effect, which is where there are different nuclei in the mycelium.  It allows for a recombination of characters.  Most Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Deuteromycota form mycelia the hyphae of which are divided by septa.



          All hyphae do not have the same growth rate.  Nevertheless, some forces keep the total margin at an even level



          Stolons are parts of hyphae that skip across the substrate surface.  At points of contact with the substrate, growth is stimulated and hyphae will penetrate the substrate.  These penetrating hyphae are then called rhizoids.



          In some Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes) a bunch of horizontal hyphae will form a cable over the substrate (rhizomorphs).  This is typified in Armelaria, the “shoe-string fungus.”  The outer edge of the hyphae forms a thick cell wall.  Its function is believed to be the transportation of water across dry areas.  The cables are usually large enough to be readily viewed without a microscope and resemble small roots of a seed plant. 



Often the fruiting bodies will arise from rhizomorphs, which is particular true of stinkhorn fungi.


          Sclerotia (sing. = sclerotium) is a very dense, heavy-packed group of hyphae surrounded by a thick wall (Plate 56a,b).  They are usually found in the higher fungi, and in certain genera and species they can be of considerable size.  The outer hyphae are usually thick-walled so that the whole structure appears firm and hard.  The color is mostly brown or blackish even though the rest of the mycelium may be white.  Sclerotia may store food and serve as resistant vegetative resting structures when they occur (Plate 56c,d).



          Haustoria are usually found among the obligate parasites where they occur in the intercellular hyphae (= a protuberance that dissolves the host cell wall and develop into the cell (Plate 53).  There are various kinds and they serve as identification characters for certain species.  Naturally they do not occur in an intracellular parasite.  Some Eumycophyta are not myceliar and are characterized by a single cell (e.g., yeasts).






       [Please see PLATE 1 and PLATE 2 for additional examples of fungal vegetative bodies.]



Nature & Reproduction of The Fungi




          Ancient cultures were well aware of fungi, but they knew mainly the fleshy kinds.  They did not associate the parasitic forms, such as rusts and mildews, with disease.  They were often amazed at the rapidity of growth.  Theophrastus (3-4 BCE) believed that fungi were plants without roots, stems and leaves.  The Greeks and Romans formed the spontaneous generation idea of fungus origins.  Pliny (1 AD) proposed that lightening and thunder were implicated in the rise of fungi.  He observed “fairy rings of fungi,” which are actually the expanding mycelium.



          Anton DeBary in 1850 noted that fungi develop from spores.  Franz Unger in 1840 advocated that fungi were associated with disease and were the results of disease.  He believed that the “morbid sap” of the host was transformed into the fungus. 


          Micheli in Florence, Italy published Novum Plantarum Genera in 1729.  He described fungi along with other plants in this book, but he did not believe in spontaneous generation.  He thought that fungi also had seeds (viewed their powdery spores).  In a classic experiment he used two sterile melons, which he placed under bell jars.  He inoculated one and left the other as a control.  Mycelia developed on the inoculated portion, which he compared with that of the parent.  He repeated the experiment several times and concluded that because of their lightness, fungal spores were in the air at all times.  In a second experiment he seeded an area in the leaf mat of a forest with non-indigenous species of mushroom.  Later he observed mycelium and still later the fruiting bodies.


          Reproduction in the fungi is varied and sometimes very complex.  A sexual process, or the equivalent, is often involved.  However the fungi are noted for the diversity of means they possess for asexual reproduction.




Asexual Reproduction of Fungi


          Some fungi employ fragmentation of hyphae as a means of propagation.  The hyphae break up into their component cells, called oidia, which behave like spores (Plate 57a).  If the cells become enveloped in a thick wall before they separate from each other or from other hyphal cells adjoining the, they are called chlamydospores (Plate 57b).  Fragmentation may also occur accidentally by the breaking off of parts of the mycelium through external forces.  Such pieces of mycelium under favorable conditions can start a new individual.  Laboratory propagation is frequently made from mycelial fragments.  Fission can occur through the simple splitting of a cell into two daughter cells by constriction.  This is found among the bacteria generally, but some fungal yeasts may do this also (Plate 58a).


          Budding is the asexual production of a small outgrowth from a parent cell.  The bud increases in size while still attached to the parent cell.  It eventually breaks off and forms a new individual (Plate 58b).  Sometimes chains of buds form a short mycelium.  Most yeasts have budding, but it also occurs in many other fungi at different phases of their life history or under certain conditions of growth.


          The commonest method of asexual reproduction in fungi is by means of spores.  Spores vary in color, size, shape, number of cells and the way that the spores themselves are borne (Plate 58b)




Kinds of Fungal Spores


          Spores are small, detachable bodies, with either one or more cells and capable of germinating (Plate 54).  Most fiungi produce these small detachable bodies, the function of which might be compared to that of seeds in higher plants.  Although there are many spore types in the fungi, this discussion will stress basically five different types:  Conidia, Sprangiospores, Zoospores (Planospores), Ascospores and Basidiospores.  Other types include aeciospores, uredospores, pycnospores, etc.  Nevertheless, a number of fungi form more than one type , e.g., both ascospores and conidiospores), usually at different stages in their development.  The spores may be either colored or hyaline and exhibit a variety of shapes.  They are frequently unicellular but may be two- or more celled.  Some fungi bear them on or within a fruiting body, which consists of a dense aggregation of hyphae.  The spore output of some fungi is in the millions or even billions of spores being produced by a single individual.  They are distributed in a variety of ways, but when they travel by air currents they can be the source of severe allergies as they are breathed in and begin to germinate on the linings of respiratory systems in humans and animals.


          During some stages of the life history of most fungi the mycelium becomes organized into loosely or compactly woven tissues as distinguished from the loose hyphae ordinarily making up the thallus.  The general term plectenchyma is used to designate all organized fungal tissues. Two types of plectenchyma are prosenchyma, which is a loosely woven tissue where the component hyphae lie mostly parallel to one another and their typically elongated cells are easily distinguishable; and pseudoparenchyma which consists of closely packed, generally isodimetric or oval cells that resemble the parenchyma cells of higher plants.  In this type of tissue the hyphae have lost their individuality and are not distinguishable as such (Plate 55).


          Conidia are small, detachable bodies, either with one or more cells and capable of germinating.   Catenulate conidia are borne in chains.  They may become catenulate by continuous pinching-off of the end of the conidiophore, or the first conidium may divide giving rise to the second, and so on:



          Sporangiospores are common in the Phycomycota:



          Zoospores (Planospores) are characteristic of aquatic fungi:



          Ascospores are characteristic of the Ascomycota, although these also exhibit other spore types.




          Basidiospores are characateristic of the Basidiomycota, although these also exhibit other spore types:



          All the noted spores are “walled structures” except the zoospores





          Provost in 1807 first observed a spore germinate from one fungus species.  In the process of germination a spore must have a suitable environment (water taken up).  The wall becomes thin in one or more places after water has been taken in.



          In double-walled spores, the outer wall cracks on germination.



          Viability may be either long or short.  Some spores are not durable at high altitudes (high ultra-violet rays cause lethal mutagens).  Sometimes simply the presence of an element, e.g., Boron, will stimulate germination.  In multicellular spores each cell can give rise to a mycelium.





Sexual Reproduction in Fungi


          In 1952 Alexopoulos gave a detailed narrative of Sexual Reproduction in the fungi, which holds true into the 21st Century, and the following description is derived therefrom [Alexopoulos, C. J.  1952.  Introductory Mycology.  John Wiley & Sons, NY.  482 p.].

          Sexual reproduction in fungi involves the union of two compatible nuclei. The process of sexual reproduction naturally consists of three distinct phases. In the first phase, called P
lasmogamy a union of two protoplasts brings the nuclei close together within the same cell. The fusion of the two nuclei that are brought together by plasmogamy is called karyogamy and constitutes the second phase of sexual reproduction. Karyogamy follows plasmogamy almost immediately in many of the lower fungi. However, in the higher fungi, these two processes are separated in time and space, plasmogamy resulting in a binucleate cell that contains one nucleus of each sex.  This pair of nuclei is called a dikaryon.  These two nuclei may not fuse until much later in the life history of the fungus.  In the interim, during growth and cell division of the binucleate cell, the dikaryotic state is perpetuated from cell to cell by the concurrent division (conjugate division) of the two closely associated nuclei, and by the separation of the resulting sister nuclei into the two daughter cells.  Nuclear fusion, which eventually takes place in all sexually reproducing fungi, is ultimately followed by meiosis, which again reduces the number of chromosomes to the haploid, and which constitutes the third phase of sexual reproduction. Therefore, plasmogamy brings two haploid nuclei together in one cell; karyogamy unites them into one diploid, zygote nucleus; and meiosis restores the haploid condition in the four nuclei that result from it.

          Sometimes the regular product of sexual union develops from the female gamete alone in the absence of the male. This is not uncommon among the fungi and is considered a degenerate sexual process.  Regarding the sex organs involved in reproduction, some species produce distinguishable male and female sex organs on each thallus.  Such species are hermaphroditic.  A single thallus of a hermaphroditic species can reproduce sexually by itself if it is self-compatible.  Other species consist of male and female thalli, some thalli producing only male sex organs and others only female sex organs.  Such species are dioecious
.  A single thallus of a dioecious species cannot reproduce sexually by itself normally since it is either male or female.

          Some fungi produce no differentiated sex organs, the sexual function having been delegated to somatic hyphae.  Individual thalli of such fungi may or may not reproduce sexually by themselves depending on whether they are self-compatible or self-incompatible.  The sex organs of fungi are called
gametangia.  These may form differentiated sex cells known as gametes or they may contain one or more gamete nuclei. The terms isogametangia and isogametes are used to designate gametangia and gametes that are morphologically indistinguishable, whereas heterogametangia and heterogametes designate male and female gametangia and gametes that are morphologically different.  In the latter case, the male gametangium is the antheridium and the female gametangium is the oogonium.


          The most common methods where compatible nuclei are brought together (Plasmogamy) are:

1. Planogametic copulation involves the fusion of two naked gametes one or both of which are motile (Plate 59). Motile gametes are called planogametes.  The most primitive fungi produce isogamous planogametes.  Anisogamous planogametes that are morphologically similar but differ in size are produced only by one group of lower fungi belonging to the genus Allomyces.   In a related group, Monoblepharidales, the female gamete is non-motile whereas the male gamete is motile. The latter enters the oogonium and fertilizes the egg.

     2. Gametangial contact.  In a large number of fungi, the gametes of the male or of both the male and the female gametangia have been reduced to undifferentiated protoplasts consisting chiefly of a nucleus. Such gametes are never released from the gametangia to the outside, but are transferred directly from one gametangium into the other. In this method, two gametangia of opposite sex come in contact, and one or more gamete nuclei migrate from the male to the female. In no case do the gametangia actually fuse or in any way lose their identity during the sexual act. The male nuclei, in some species, enter the female gametangium through a pore developed by the dissolution of the gametangial walls at the point of contact; in other species, an especially developed fertilization tube serves as a passage for the male nuclei (Plate 60). After the passage of the nuclei has been accomplished the oogonium continues its development in various ways, and the antheridium eventually disintegrates.

3. Gametangial copulation is characterized by the fusion of the entire contents of two contacting gametangia.  Such fusion takes place in one of two ways:


          a.  Passage of the contents of one gametangium into the other through a pore developed in the gametangial walls at the point of contact.  This method is typical of some holocarpic forms in which the entire thallus acts as a gametangium, the male thallus attaching itself to and emptying its entire content into the female thallus (Plate 78f).


          b.  Direct fusion of the two gametangial cells into one. This takes place by the dissolution of the contacting walls of the two gametangia, resulting in a common cell in which the two protoplasts mix (Plate 61, 111g, 112g).

     4. Spermatization.   Some fungi bear numerous, minute, uninucleate, spore-like, male structures termed spermatia that h are produced in various ways.  The spermatia are carried by insects, wind, water, or (in some other way, to the female gametangia or to special receptive hyphae, or even to somatic hyphae, to which they become attached. A pore develops at the point of contact, and the contents of the spermatium pass into the particular receptive structure that serves as the female organ (Plate 62)

5. Somatogamy is found especially in the higher fungi where no sex organs are produced, somatic cells taking over the sexual function (Plate 63). 


Sexual Compatibility


          Sexual compatibility. Although this phenomenon is certainly related to sex because it affects sexual reproduction, compatibility should not be confused with sex.  There are, for example, many fungi that produce clearly distinguishable male and female sex organs on the same thallus but in which, nevertheless, single individuals are sexually self-sterile because their male organs are incompatible with their female organs and no plasmogamy can take place.

On the basis of sex, most fungi may be classified into three categories:


               1.  Hermaphroditic, in which each thallus bears both male and female organs.

               2.  Dioecious, in which some thalli bear only male and some thalli bear only female organs.

              3. Sexually undifferentiated, in which sexually functional structures are produced which are

                   morphologically indistinguishable as male or female.

Fungi in the above sex categories belong to one or the other of the following

two groups on the basis of compatibility:


               1. Those in which every thallus is sexually self-fertile, and can therefore reproduce sexually by itself without the aid of another thallus.

               2. Those in which every thallus is sexually self-sterile and requires the aid of another compatible thallus for sexual reproduction. Fungi in this category consist of at least two groups (strains) of individuals that differ in their genetic make-up for the compatibility factor.  Each nucleus of one strain carries the gene A, and each nucleus of the other strain carries the gene a.  Only thalli whose nuclei carry opposite genes of this Mendelian pair Aa are compatible.

          Compliant with the above, some
hermaphroditic species consist of self-fertile thalli, but others consist of two groups of self-sterile but intergroup fertile thalli (A and a). The same is true of sexually un- differentiated species. In dioecious species all thalli are, of course, self-sterile because of the segregation of the sex organs in different individuals. In most dioecious species, any male thallus is compatible with any female thallus. However, it is probable that some dioecious species exist in which some thalli of each sex bear the A factor and some bear the a factor for compatibility. Such species would consist of four types of thalli which we may designate as male A, male a and female a, female A.   Sexual reproduction would take place only between sexually opposite, compatible thalli, i.e., only between. male A, female a and male a , female A.   

          The term "
homothallic" is used to refer to species in which all individuals are self-fertile, and the term "heterothallic" for species in which all individuals are self-sterile because they bear only the A or only the a gene for compatibility.  Some authorities insist that a heterothallic species is one in which the sexes are segregated in two different thalli, some individuals being entirely male and some entirely female. This difference in definition of homothallism and heterothallism is confusing , but the essential thing is to understand what happens; what these phenomena are called is incidental. An excellent discussion of sex and compatibility in the fungi is also given by Whitehouse (1949).


Life Cycle in Fungi

Life cycle. As in other living organisms, so too in fungi there is a cycle of haploid and diploid structures, corresponding to the gametophyte and sporophyte in the green plants. The diploid phase begins with karyogamy and ends with meiosis. However, in the majority of fungi, there is no distinct alternation of generations.  Also for most fungi the diploid phase occupies a very much smaller portion of the life cycle than does the haploid phase. In forms where no sexual reproduction has been discovered; it is assumed that all the nuclei are haploid.




Please view the following for additional examples of Fungal Structures & Reproduction:


Plate 1 = Fungal Vegetative Body-1

Plate 2 = Fungal Vegetative Body-2

Plate 3 = Examples of Fungus Spores

Plate 51 = Successive growth stages of hypha:  Gelasinospora autosteira.

Plate 52 = Somatic hyphae.

Plate 53 = Three types of haustoria.

Plate 54 = Two stages in spore germination.

Plate 55 = Fungal tissues: Parenchyma & Pseudoparenchyma.

Plate 56 = Stroma & sclerotium:  Daldinia sp. & Claviceps purpurea

Plate 57 = Asexual reproduction: Fragmenting hypha:  Collybia conigena & Fusarium sp.

Plate 58 = Asexual reproduction:  Budding

Plate 58b = Various types of fungal spores.

Plate 59 = Sexual reproduction:  Planogametic copulation: Catenaria sp., Allomyces arbuscula &

                      Monoblepharella taylori.

Plate 60 = Sexual reproduction:  Plasmogamy thru' gametangial contact in Pythium aphanidermatum.

Plate 61 = Sexual reproduction:  Plasmogamy thru' gametangial copulation in Sporodinia garndis.

Plate 62 = Sexual reproduction:  Plasmogamy by spermatization in Pleurage anserina.

Plate 63 = Sexual reproduction:  Plasmogamy thru' somatogamy in Peniophora sambuci.

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