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                                          COMPARISON  OF  KOINABIONTS

                                                    WITH  IDIOBIONTS

 

Koinabionts

Idiobionts

Host specialists with very strict physiological adaptions to specific hosts. Much host modification is present along with many ways of preventing encapsulation.

 

Large host range with a wide choice of species available. The host's location is more important.  Frequently a highly developed means of finding and reaching hidden hosts.

 

A specific venom is deployed that only functions on a few species.

 

Venom of a generalized type that affects a wider variety of host species.

 

Mostly endoparasitoids that develop inside the body cavity of the host, with some exceptions.

 

Ectoparasitoids that develop outside the body of their hosts.  Nutrients are absorbed through the integument.

 

Host growth and development continues, so that although specialization occurs in a single stage, all stages may be attacked

 

Oviposition occurs when the host is large enough to fully sustain the parasitoid.  Therefore, llater host stages are selected.

 

Oviposition is on exposed hosts while the host is still active and defensive.

 

Oviposition is on hidden hosts that are paralysed and unable to protect themselves.

 

Proovigenic = many small eggs are produced that are mature at the time that the adult wasp emerges.

 

Synovigenic - Several large eggs are produced that develop in succession over the life of the adult wasp.

 

Larvae develop slowly in the early stages thereby permitting  the host to grow.

 

 

Larvae develop fast because the host is paralysed and they must feed as fast as possible before the host dies or is attacked by other predators.

 

Not much host feeding = the adult female imbibes some of the hosts haemolymph.

 

Host feeding is frequent in order to gain protein to produce more eggs.

 

A simple sex ratio that is usually percentage driven

 

 

Sex ratio is determined by host suitability. Males are generally smaller and require smaller hosts for survival.

 

Adults are short-lived

Adults have a longer life.