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Introduction to Entomology



[For answers please also refer to:  Borror, D.J. C.A. Triplehom, and N.F. Johnson. 1989.  An Introduction to the Study of Insects (6th ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Orlando, Florida, U.S.A


Metcalf, R. L.  1986.  The ecology of pesticides and the chemical control of insects, p. 251-97.  In:  M. Kogan (ed.), Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management Practice.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.  362 p.p..]


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



        A. Injury to Growing Plants.

                1.   (a) Explain the fact that there is a struggle between humans and insects.
                      (b) How long has the struggle between man and insects been going on?
                      (c) Has man been very successful in the control of insects? Explain.

                2.   (a) List a number of insects that damage crops by chewing. Give examples of damage occurring

                           in different areas.
                     (b) List a number of insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Give examples of the damage


                    (c) Discuss briefly and give examples of injury done by the following:
                                (1) Internal feeding insects.
                                (2) Subterranean insects.
                                (3) Insect damage by egg laying..
                                (4) Insect damage by nest making.

                 3. Explain the word "Mutualism? with reference to insects.

                 4.  Explain how diseases of plants may be spread by insects.
                       (1) List examples of insects and plant diseases they spread.
                       (2) List ways in which insects spread diseases.

        B. Insect Injury to Humans an and Other Living Animals.

                 1. In what ways may insects annoy marl and other animals?

                 2. Give five methods by which insects may. cause bodily pain. Name an insect using each of the

                     above methods.

                3.  Name three orders of insects that are entirely parasitic on animals.  Give several examples of


                4.  What is the cause of Texas fever of cattle? How is the disease spread?

                5.  What is a disease reservoir?

                6.  What is a disease vector?

        C. Insects as Despoilers of Stored Products and Other Materials.

                1.  Make a list of articles often damaged by insects.

                2.  What is the chief objection to having cockroaches in the house?

                3.  Explain briefly the damage caused by the following pests?

                       (a) Pea and bean weevils.
                       (b) Termites (1:Jhite ants).
                       (c) Indian meal moth.
                       (d) Clothes moths.
                       (~) Drugstore beetle.


        1. Outline briefly the history and importance of the following industries?

               (a) Silk manufacturing.

               (b) Honey and beeswax production.

               (c) Shellac manufacturing.

               (d) Cochineal manufacturing.

        2.  What are the uses of cantharidin, "specific medicine apis", and insect galls?


        3. How is cross-pollination accomplished? V\~at seems to be the purpose of the showy flowers and odors

            of plants?

        4.. Explain how the Smyrna fig is pollinated.

        5. What is the most important contribution of the honeybee?

        6. Discuss some of the ways in which insects can be used as food.


        7. Define the following terms:


               (a) Predator. (b) Parasite.
               (c) Phytophagous parasite.
               (d) Zoophagous parasite.
               (e) Entomophagous parasite
               (f) Permanent parasite.'
(g) Transitory parasite.
(h) Obligatory parasite.
               (i)  Ectoparasite.
               (k) Endoparasite.
               (1) Primary parasite.
               (m) Secondary parasite.
               (n) Tertiary parasitu.
               (0) Hyperparasite.

        8. Outline briefly the predaceous habits of the following:
               (a) Dragonfly.
               (b) Aphid lion.
               (c) Ground beetles.
               (d) Lady beetles.
               (e) Syrphidflies.

9. Outline briefly the habits of the fo11oviing parasites:
               (a) Tachinid flies.
               (b) Chalcid wasps.
(c) Ichneumon wasps.
(d) Braconid wasps.

       10. What value, and what danger is there from insects feeding on weeds?

       11. In what ways do insects aid in soil building?

       12. Of what importance is the fly, (injurious and beneficial) Drosophila?



External Morphology of Insects.

        1. Considering the reproductive possibilities of insects, why is the world not over run by them. Explain

            natural selection.

        2. Explain the following topics with reference to the insect:

               (a) Size of insects.
               (b) Rapidity of reproduction (Note housefly abundance.)
               (c) Adaptability of insects.
               (d) Persistence of insects.

        3.    (a) What is the cuticula?
               (b) What is the hypodermis?
               (c) What is chitin?
               (d) Contrast the skeleton of a mammal and an insect.

4.   (a) Explain the segmentation of the insects body.  List advantages.

              (b) Give the derivation of the 1'Jord "insect".

              (c) Define the following terms:
                     (1) Somite.
                     (2) Joint, articulation.
                     (3) Conjunctive
                     (4) Suture.
                     (5) Sclerit4.
                     (6) Tergum, sternum, pleura.

               (d) What is the typical number of body segments in an insect's body?  What is the actual number?

5. How can insects be distinguished from true worms such as the earthworm?

6.  (a) Name the three body divisions in insects and give the number of segmentsin each.
             (b) What is the function of each body division?
             (c) Name the three segments of the thorax.

       7. How did insects get the class name Hexapoda'? Insecta"?  What are prologs?


       8. List the number of legs in the following.
Spiders, mites and ticks.
(b) Crayfish, lobsters, and crabs. ,
              (c) Hundred-legged
worms (Centipedes).
              (d) Thousand-legged
worms (Millipedes)

        9. List the uses an insect
makes of its legs.

       10. What are some of the advantages of wings to insects?

       11. Do all insects have wings? Are there any insect groups that have never had wings?

       12.  (a) Explain how wings develop.
 (b) What are the veins and cells?

       13.   (a)  What are the uses of the antennae?

               (b) Describe briefly or sketch the following kinds of antennae?
                      (1) Filliform. (6) Lamellate.
                      (2) Moniliform. (7) Serrate.
                      (3) Setaceous. (8) Pectinate.
                      (4) Capitate. (9) Plumose.
                      (5) Clavate. (10) Geniculate.

14.  Name the two kinds of eyes of insects.  Describe a compound eye.

15.  List the distinguishing characteristics of insects.

        16.  Can you list any winged invertebrates other than insects?


1.  Make a drawing of a grasshopper showing the body regions.


         2.  Make a drawing of the hind leg of a grasshopper labeling the different joints.


         3.  Make an outline drawing of an insect wing showing costal, apical and anal margins.


         Use plain white paper about 8~ x 11.  The drawings should be made large enough to show all parts


         Drawing number one should be at least 15 cm. in length. Broken lines should be drawn from the insect

           part to the right side of the page. All labels must be neatly printed.


Internal Anatomy and Physiology of Insects.


         1. Explain the process of metabolism.

         2.  Which part of the digestive system performs most of the digestion?

3.  What is the function or the Malphigian tubules?

4.  List a number of glands of an insect's body and their function.

         5.  Explain the breathing system of an insect.  What part of the breathing is lined with

6.  Describe the circulatory system of an insect.  How does it differ from the circulatory system of


7.  Describe the structure of the central nervous system of an insect.  Is it located dorsally or ventrally?

         8. Contrast the muscles of an insect and the muscles of higher animals in number and size.

9.  Compare briefly the parts of the male and female reproductive organs in an insect.

       10.  Make a list of ways in which insects gain protection.


      11. Define:

(1) Secretion (4) Excretion
(2) Respiration (5) Coordination
              (3) Glands (6) Ganglia



         Make an outlihe drawing of a sagittal section of an insect's body show1ng the following structures

          properly labeled?

                Pharynx. .
                Small intestine.


         1.  Explain the function of each of the mouth parts in a chewing insect.

         2.  Explain the location and function of the following mouthparts in a piercing-sucking insect.

                (a) Clypeus.  (b) Mandible.
                (c) Labrum (d) Maxilla
                (e) Labium.

         3.  Make a drawing of the head of a cicada (cephalic aspect) showing the mouthparts spread out.

         4.  What mouthparts of the female mosquito actually pierce the flesh?

         5.  Explain the structure of the mouthparts found in the stable fly, the flea, and the human body louse.

         6.   (a) Name insects having chewing mouthparts.
               (b) Name an insect possessing' a rasping-sucking type of mouth parts.
               (c) Name examples from each of the five types of piercing-sucking insects.


        7.  How does an insect with sponging mouth parts get its food?

        8.  How does a butterfly get its food?

        9.  (a) Explain the structure of the mouth parts of a honey bee.
             (b) Make a drawing of the honeybee mouthparts.

       10.  (a) Name the parts of the insect egg and the importance of each.
              (b) What is fertilization?
              (c) Define parthenogenesis.

       11.  Explain oviparous, viviparous and ovoviviparous reproduction.

       12.  Discuss:
               (a) Number of eggs laid by insects.
               (b) Rapidity of insect increase.

      13.  Explain the development of the following types of insects?

               (a) Insects without metamorphosis.
               (b) Insects with a gradual or simple metamorphosis.
               (c) Insects with a complete metamorphosis.

      14.  (a) Explain clearly how and when an insect grows.

              (b) Define: (1) Molting (2) Exuviae (3) Instar (4) Life stage.
              (c) List the way of distinguishing a nymph from a larva.
              (d) What is the prepupal period?
              (e) Can insects frequently be recognized to order by pupal appearance?


        1.  What do you think is the best way to classify insects?

        2.  (a) What is a phylum? Name the fifteen phyla given and list several animals in each Phylum.
             (b) What is a Class? Give examples.
             (c) What is an Order, a Family, a Genus, and a Species? Give examples of each.

        3.  (a) How does an insect officially get its name?
             (b) List the rules used in giving an insect a scientific name.

             (c) Give the complete classification of the squash bug.

        4.  (a) List the distinguishing characteristics of each of the four chief classes under the phylum

             (b) Name examples of each class.

        5.  How does the class Hexapoda compare in numbers with other classes in the phylum Arthropoda?

        6.  List the chief orders of the Class Hexapoda giving the following information about each order:

               (a) Distinguishing characteristics.
               (b) Examples of insects in order.
               (c) Meaning of the order name.
               (d) One to six insects in each order that you think are economically important.

        7.  List the distinguishing features of the families in the order Orthoptera.

        8.  How can dragonflies be distinguished from damselflies?

        9.  How can the Mallophaga be distinguished from the
Phthiraptera (= Anoplura)?

      10.  Name insects in the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera that are predacious.

      11.  What are the prolegs of an insect? Larvae of what Order have prolegs?  The student should become

             acquainted with the principal families in each order of the Hexapoda.



        1.  What is applied control? T!hat is natural control?

        2.  What is an insecticide?  Name three general types.

        3.  What is a repellent? .  What is an attractant?

        4.  Explain mechanical control and physical control.

        5.  How does cultural control fit into genera+ farm practices? Name several important practices.

        6.  What is biological control? Give examples.

        7.  What type of insecticide is most commonly used to control insects withchewing mouthparts? List


        8.  In what two ways are stomach poisons most commonly applied?

        9.  Name six arsenical insecticides in their decreasing order of actual arsenic strength.

      10.  Discuss the fluorine insecticides.  Is cryolite compatible with most other insecticides? (Discuss briefly).

      11.  Name some organic stomach poisons, which are also important as contact poisons.  Discuss briefly.

      12.  Discuss poison baits.  At what time of day do we usually apply grasshopper bait, earwig bait, cutworm


      13.  Discuss direct application sprays; and also residue sprays.

      14.  Name as many of the newer synthetic organic contact insecticides as you can.

      15.  Why should DDT, chlordane, and related synthetic organic insecticides not
be sprayed or dusted on

             feed to be fed to cattle being milked?

      16.  How do contact insecticides kill insects? Give examples.

      17.  Discuss the toxicity of rotenone and pyrethrum, as compared with parathion, arsenic and nicotine


18.  What was the value of DDT produced in the United states in 1947? Name two uses, which required

             large amounts of DDT each year.


      19.  Discuss toxaphene and clordane as contact insecticides.

      20.  Compare parathion and TEPP with pyrethrum, indicating: (a) the toxicity to insects, (b) toxicity to the

             person applying the insecticide, and (c) the number and kinds of insects controlled.

      21.  Discuss use of insecticides as soil poisons and as preservatives for wood.


         1.  How important is sulfur in insect control? Give examples of pests controlled by it.

         2.  Name the chief chemicals in the mixture known as lime sulfur? How was lime sulfur made at home?

         3.  Just what is an oil emulsion?, dormant oil? A summer oil?

         4.  What is a fumigant? Against which types of insects is it most freq~ently applied?

         5.  What is vacuum fumigation? What types of materials are protected by this method?

         6.  Make a list of (a) directions, and (b) precautions to keep in mind during fumigation with toxic


         7.  How can the number of cubic feet of space in a greenhouse be calculated for: (a) an even span

              greenhouse, (b) a three-quarters span greenhouse.


         8.  List the advantages and disadvantages of fumigation with:
                      (a) Hydrocyanic acid gas
                      (b) Sulfur
                      (c) Carbon bisulfide
                      (d) Ethylene dibromide
                      (e) Nicotine

         9.  In what way is Bordeaux mixture a repellent? How is it mixed?


       10.  Discuss repellents for mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects.

       11.  Discuss mothproofing' fabrics, and chemicals used.

       12.  Explain a "water suspension" of an insecticide.

       13.   What are (a) solvents; (b) emulsions (explain).

       14.  Discuss resistance of insects to insecticides.

       15.  Give examples of mechanical control.

       16.  Explain use of low and high temperatures in insect control.

       17.  Discuss crop rotation in insect control; and (b) use of resistant varieties of crops.

       18.  List the types of organisms useful in biological control (and natural control).

       19.  What is an insect parasite? Define an insect predator?

       20.  Discuss possibilities for use of insects in the biological control of weeds.


       21.  In what ways may legislation aid in insect control?


        1.  What are the two most common methods of applying insecticides?

        2.  List the good qualities in an ideal sprayer.

        3.  Make a list of suggestions and precautions to observe in spraying with parathion, etc.

        4.  What general rules should be considered in the purchase of a sprayer?

        5.  (a) What type of sprayer would be suitable for a small garden?
             (b) W type for a large garden?
             (c) For an orchard of over fifty trees.
             (d) For a field of 500 acres, producing vegetable crops.

       6.  Explain how the following are constructed and how they operate:
              (a) Spray gun
              (b) Discuss the various kinds of sprayer nozzles.
              (c) Name as many types of sprayers as you can.
              (d) Spray boom.

       7.  (a) What are the advantages of applying a dust instead of a spray?
            (b) In what way is a spray better?

       8.  (a) How is a hand duster constructed?  When should it be used?
            (b) How is a blower duster constructed?
            (c) ,What is a traction duster and when should it be used? A power duster'?

       9.  Why is a canvas "trailer " sometimes used behind a dusting machine?

     10.  Discuss thoroughness in cover, and timeliness of application as related to effective insect control.

     11.  What type of duster, and what type of sprayer would you purchase if you had a 200 acre potato farm?

     12.  Discuss pressure in spray applications and effectiveness.


     13.  Explain aerosols for (a) field, (b) barn, (c) household use; (d) what is an aerosol bomb?

     14.  Explain sprayer duster equipment for orchard use.

     15.  Discuss airplane spraying and dusting of crops.


        1.   What is the most valuable farm crop in the North America?

        2.  In your opinion which are the most important insects attacking corn?

        3.  How can a larva of the wireworm be distinguished from the larva of the mealworm or from a false-


        4.  How is the poison bait for the control of the armyworm or cutworm mixed?

        5.  Why is the pale eastern cutworm so hard to control?  By what method is it controlled?

        6.  What type of plants do chinch bugs attack?

       7.  In table form give the following information of the ten most important common insects:
              (a) Common name.
              (b) Scientific name.
              (c) Distribution.
              (d) Order

              (e) Family.
              (f) Life history.
              (g) Plants attacked.
              (h) Injury done.
              (i) Control measures.

       8.  Discuss control of white grubs in lawns.


       1.  Describe a  white grub larva.

       2.  What type of metamorphosis do the following insects have?
              (a)  June beetle.
              (b)  Aphid (plant louse).
              (c)  Hessian fly.
(d)  Billbug.
              (e)  Armyworm.
(f)  Wheat stem maggot.
              (g)  Screwworm.
              (h)  Sawfly.

              (i)   Wheat jointworm

              (j)   Grasshopper

      3.  In your opinion, which are the ten most important wheat and grass pests?

      4.   How can the adult of the screwworm and of the false wireworm be distinguished?

      5.   How long do white grubs remain in the larval state?

      6.  How do the Hessian fly and wheat stem maggot pass the winter?

      7.  What is the order and family of the greenbug? Its distribution.

      8.  To what family do the wheat stemworm and wheat jointworm belong? Is this family generally


      9.  What is the cause of a gall in a wheat stem?

     10.  In table form give the follo1"ling information .of the ten most important wheat and grass insects.
             (a)  Common name.
             (b)  Scientific name.
             (c)  Distribution.
             (d)  Order.
             (e)  Family

             (f)  Life history.
             (g)  Plants attacked.
             (h)  Control measures.

    11.  Name any pests of wheat with which you are personally acquainted.


        1.  What type of mouth parts do the following insects have in the adult stage? (a) Clover root curculio.
              (b)  Alfalfa weevil.
              (c)  Aphids.
              (d)  Green clover worm.
              (e)  Leafhoppers.
              (f)  Clover stem borer.
              (g) Clover seed and alfalfa chalcid.
              (h) Bean weevil.
              (i)  Lygus bugs.

       2.  Give the distribution of the alfalfa weevil in the United states.  Name an important parasite of this pest.

       3.  In what stage do the following insects pass the winter?
              (a)  Lygus bugs
              (b)  Alfalfa caterpillar
              (c)  Garden v~ebworm
              (d)  Grasshopper
              (e)  Clover stemborer
              (f)   Cloverseed chalcid
              (g)  Cloverseed midge

        4.  Where do the following insects pass the winter?
              (a) Clover root curculio
              (b) Clover leaf weevil
              (c) Garden webworm
              (d) Pea aphid

5.  Discuss lygus bug control or alfalfa raised for seed.

        6.  In your opinion what are the seven most serious legume pests?

7.  Name the family of the alfalfa caterpillar; the genus and species.

        8.  How many generations a year do the following insects have?
             (a)  Alfalfa caterpillar
(b)  Garden webworm
             (c)  Cloverseed chalcid

        9.  In table form give the following information about the seven most important legume pests:
(a)  Common name
             (b)  Scientific name
             (c)  Distribution
             (d)  Order
             (e)  Family
             (f)  Life history
             (g)  Plants attacked
(h)  Injury done
             (i)  Control measures


       1.  What financial losses have resulted from the invasion
by the cotton boll weevil?

2.  Where did the cotton boll weevil come from?

3.  During what stage or stages does the boll weevil do its damages?  Where does it over-winter?

       4.  How many generations of boll weevil are produced each year?

       5.  Discuss cotton-melon aphid outbreaks and control.

       6.  Where does the cotton leaf insect over-winter?

       7.   Where did the pink
bollworm come from?  Outline control measures.

       8.  In your own opinion, what are the eight most important cotton damaging  insects?

       9.  In table form give the following information about the eight most destructive cotton insects-

               (a)  Common name
(b)  Scientific name
(c)  Distribution
(e)  Family
Life history
Plants attacked
(h)  Injury done
               (i)  Control measures

      10.  In table form give the following information about the six tobacco damaging insects that you think

             are most important.
               (a)  Common
(b)  Scientific name
(d)  Order
               (e)  Family
               (f)  Life history
(g)  Plants attacked
(h)  Injury done
(i)  Control measures

      11.  What two common food plants are commonly attacked by several of the injurious tobacco insects?



        1.   (a) What vegetables are injured by wireworms?
(b) How can they be controlled in a garden?
(c) Give the order and family of wireworms, and of white grubs.

         2.  What control measures may be used against white grubs?

3.  In what ways does a millipede differ from an insect? How can millipedes be controlled?

         4.   (a) Where do cutworms attack plants? Where do cutworms stay in daytime?
              (b) Name the order and family of cutworms? Their control by baiting.
              (c) How can the fall armyworm be controlled? The beet webworm?

5.  Describe the flea beetle.  Give size.
(a) How do flea beetles damage crops?
               (b) Name the order and family of the flea beetle.
               (c) Why was Bordeaux nurture often used in the control of flea beetles?  Other control by


         6.  Name the order and family of the woolly bear.  What damage do they do?

Give the following information about aphids.
               (a) Common name (b) Injury done
(c) Order and family
(d) Type of mouth parts
               (e) Type of metamorphosis and reproduction
               (f) Discuss aphid control by spray and dust.

8.  Give the order, family, and injury done to plants by the garden and the tarnished plant bug.

        9.  (a) Is the red spider an insect? Explain.
              (b) ifuat
damage do mites do and ho1~ can they be controlled?


1.  (a) Name the order and family of the Mexican bean beetle. Is this family generally destructive?


              (b) Give the life history and control of the Mexican bean beetle.

2.  Give the life history and control measures for the pea aphid.  What plants does the pea aphid attack?

3.  (a) Give the life history, plants attacked, and control measures for the striped cucumber beetle.

         4.   What kind of mouth parts does the striped cucumber beetle have?

    4.  Give the following information about the squash bug; same for the melon aphid.  (a) Order
         (b) Family
         (c) Type of metamorphosis
         (d) Type of mouth parts
         (e) Plants attacked
         (f) Life history
         (g) Control Measures

    5.  Describe the squash vine borer.  How is it controlled?

    6.  List the order, family and control of the following insects:
         (a) Colorado Potato beetle.
         (b) Blister beetle.
         (c) Flea beetle.
         (d) Potato tuber moth.


    1.   (a) Explain how the Colorado potato beetle spread over the United States.
         (b) Where does the Colorado potato beetle overwinter?
         (c) Describe the adult beetle; color of the slug.
         (d) How is the Colorado potato beetle controlled?

    2.  What damage does the potato leafhopper do to potatoes? Does it confine its feeding to potatoes? Where do the leafhopper filaments occur?

    3.  Give the life history, appearance, habits, damage, and control measures for the potato aphid.

    4.  Give the life history of the potato tuber moth.

    5.  How can the sweet potato weevil be controlled?

    6.  (a) How can the pupa of the hornworm be identified? Name the order and family of the hornworm.
         (b) How does the hornworm damage tomatoes and potatoes?
         (c) Name a common parasite of the hornworm.
         (d) What is the best way to control hornworms in a small garden?

   7.   (a) What common insect is also called the tomato fruit-worm?
         (b) How can tomatoes be protected from these insects?
         (c) What other food plants are attacked by the common tomato fruit worm?

   8.   (a) Name the order and family of the onion thrips.
        (b) What type of metamorphosis do they have?
        (c) Name the plants attacked and give control measures.

   9.  Give the following information of the onion maggot.
        (a) Order
        (b) Family
        (c) Damage
        (d) Control measures

 10.  Give the following information on the imported cabbage worm, the cabbage looper, the harlequin bug,

        and the cabbage aphid:

        (a) Order and family
        (b) Damage
        (c) Plants attacked
        (d) Control measures.

 11.  Give life history and control of the beet leafhopper.

 12.  Give control of asparagus beetles; and of corn earworm.



      1.  Give the following information about the flat-headed apple tree borer, the round headed apple tree

           borer, and the shot hole borer:

        (a) Order
        (b) Family

        (c) Type of damage
        (d) Control

      2.  Give the life history of periodical cicada  ~:fuat injury does it do?

      3.  Give the life history, damage, and control for the s&~ Jose scale; the pear thrips.

      4.  Describe the female fall cankerworm.  List control measures for this insect.


      5.  Give the life history of the Eastern tent caterpillar.  Name the order and family to which it belongs.

      6.  Give the following information about the codling moth:
             (a) Order
             (b) Family
             (c) Importance
             (d) Plants attacked
             (e) Distribution
             (f) Life history
             (g) Control measures

7.   (a) Outline seasonal control of codling moth.
            (b) Why should no polsonous spray be applied when the blossoms are in full bloom?

      8.  Discuss budmoths and case makers.

      9.  Give the fo11owing information about the fruit tree leafroller.
             (a) Plants attacked
             (b) Type of damage
             (c) Control measures

     10.  Name the common apple aphids and discuss their control.

     11.  Discuss mite control on apple and pear trees.


       1.  Give the order, family, damage, and control of the peach tree borer, the peach twig borer, and the

             oriental fruit moth.

       2.  List the following information about the grape leafhopper, the grape moth and the green peach aphid:
              (a) Order
              (b) Family
              (c) Damage
              (d) Control

3.  In what way does the tree cricket damage plants? List the order, family and control of the tree cricket.

       4.  Give the order, family, damage, and control of the strawberry leaf roller and the strawberry root


       5.  Select three important citrus insects and give the following information about each:
              (a) Common name
              (b) Order
              (c) Family
              (d) Damage
              (e) Control

6.  List the order and family of the following:
              (a) California red Scale
(b) Black Scale.

(c) Thrips
(d)  Whiteflies. -
 (e)  Mediterranean fruit fly.
(t) Citrus rust mite.

       7.  Is the citrus rust mite an insect? Explain and indicate control.

       8.  Describe the control of elm scale and oyster shell scale.

       9.  Give the life history of the carpenter worm, the gypsy moth, boxelder bug, and th3 bagworm.



             1.  Give in table form the common and scientific names, order and family, and the control of the

                  European earwig, oblique-banded leafroller, greenhouse thrips, rose leafhopper, two-spotted mite,

                  garden wireworms, garden centipede, snails and nematode.

             2.  In table form, give the common and scientific name, order and family, and control of termites,

                  silverfish, cockroach, clothes moths, carpet beetles, saw-toothed grain beetle, and pea weevil.

             3.  Discuss heat and cold as methods for controlling stored-grain and household, insect pests.


             1.  Give the life history of a horse fly, the stable fly, chewing horse louse, sucking cattle louse, and

                  horse bot fly.

             2.  Give the life history of scab mite, Texas fever tick, ox warble and screw worm fly.

             3.  To what order and family does the sheep tick belong? Indicate control.

             4.  List life histories and control measures for the poultry mite, poultry lice and fowl tick.

             5.  List the control measures for the bedbug and cattle grub.

             6.  Why is the spotted fever tick important?

             7.  List the control measures for the body louse and public louse.

             8.  Give the life history of the mosquito.  How can the
Anopheles mosquito be distinguished from the

                 Aedes mosquito?  Give control measures for mosquitoes.

            9.  Describe the kissing bug.  Give its family and order.

           10.  Why is the rat flea so important? Describe the flea.

           11.   (a) What diseases or pathogens may be carried by tha housefly?
                  (b) Give the distribution of the housefly.
                  (c) Give the history of the housefly.
                  (d) List the control measures for the housefly, including recently developed chemicals.

             1.  Define the following terms:

(a) Ametabola
                   (b) Herimetabola
                   (c) Paurometabola
                   (d) Holometabola
                   (e) Hypodermis
                   (f) Ecdyses
                   (g) Exuviae

            2.  List six distinctive characters of the class Hexapoda.

            3.  What insect provides spittle as a protection for its offspring in the nymphal stage?

            4.  Give the common name of the following insects:
Leptocoris trivittatus (Say).
(b)  Phymata erosa (L.)
Anasa tristis (De Geer)
Hylemyia antiqua (Meigen)
Pieris rapae (L.)
(f)   Autographa brassicae (Riley)

                  (g)  Hylemyia brassicae (Bouche)
Tinea pellionella (L.)
( i)  Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)
(j)   Musca Momestica (L.)
(k)  Cimex lectularious (L.)

            5.  How are pea aphids controlled?

            6.  Give the order, family, damage, and control for the greenhouse whitefly and the rose midge.

            7.  List five important household pests and give the following information about each:

                   (a) Order
                   (b) Family
                   (c) Damage, etc.
                   (d) Control

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Bibliography #1   Bibliography #2      Citations