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                                     OF BENEFICIAL ARTHROPODS



I.  History of Federal Quarantine in the United States


A.  1905:  Congress in response to the advice of many entomologists, passed the Insect Pest Act, which

      regulates the entry and interstate movement of injurious insects.


B.  1912:  Plant Quarantine Act authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to establish and enforce quarantines

      needed to control entry and interstate movement of known "carrier plants."


  1.  this action was spirited by the presence of the brown tail moth and gypsy moth in New England and the

       threat of their westward spread.


  2.  Federal Horticultural Board was established to administer this act.


  3.  the remarkable and highly successful eradication of the Parlatoria date scale was hailed as one of the

       early successes of the Federal Horticultural Board.  Quarantine against this pest was revoked in 1936.

       Also, quarantine was revoked against the red date scale after it was found to be of no commercial importance.


C.  1915:  Terminal Inspection Act.


  1.  provided that any state may establish terminal inspection stations at designated post offices.


  2.  a list of examined material is furnished to the Secretary of Agriculture.


D.  1928:  Plant Quarantine and Control Administration.


  1.  part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.


  2.  assumed duties of the Federal Horticultural Board.



E.  1933:  Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.


  1.  agency functioned for more than two decades, being dissolved in 1957.


  2.  a separate administration of the research and regulatory program was sought.


F.  Present time:  Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) enforces quarantine activities of the

     U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.  The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is in charge of the quarantine facilities

     of which there are 10 federal and 10 state as of 1982. 


II.  Quarantine Policy at the University of California.


A.  Primary Mission:  Under the formal agreement among the U. S. Department of Agriculture, California State

     Department of Food and Agriculture, University of California, and County Agricultural Commissioner, the

     primary mission of the quarantine is the handling, under maximum security, of imported living entomophagous

     and entomogenous organisms for the purposes of (1) screening out unwanted organisms and (2) conducting

     biological studies sufficient to establish the primary feeding habit of the imported species.


       Security involves (1) trained and dedicated personnel, (2) physical isolation from the mainstream of insectary

 routine, and (3) allowing only the minimum number of persons necessary to perform the primary mission of

quarantine access to the quarantine facility.  Point #3 minimizes the possibility of escape of potentially

hazardous organisms by reducing traffic.  Accordingly, it has been the practice to allow a restricted number

of experienced technical personnel, duly authorized by memo from the Department Chairman, to enter the

side rooms of the quarantine facility for the purpose of assisting the quarantine officer in the initial rearing

 effort, following primary screening in the main quarantine room.  This arrangement is warranted only during

peak workloads when the quarantine officer requires additional assistance. 


B.  Secondary Mission:  This concerns the processing of incoming material from other insectaries.  it also

      includes the processing of field material which is destined for use in the rearing program.  The purpose of

     processing such material in the quarantine facility is to greatly reduce the probability of contaminant

     organisms gaining access to ongoing project rearing programs.


III.  Quarantine Procedures.


A.  Importation Plans.


  1.  the project leader shall notify the Department Chairman and Quarantine Officer by memo of plans to import

     natural enemies.  If host material and space are not readily available, this notification must occur 6 months

     prior to anticipated receipt of material.  If deemed necessary, the project leader shall provide the Quarantine

      Officer with names of duly authorized personnel to provide host material and to assist in handling natural



  2.  the project leader shall provide the Quarantine Officer and the Department Office with a copy of his/her

     approved PQ Form 26 as soon after its receipt as possible.


B.  Material Originating from Foreign Exploration Programs.


        This pertains to all shipments from outside California and to shipments from known quarantine areas within

the state.  Normally, such material arrives with proper permits affixed and goes directly to the Quarantine Officer. 

Unsolicited material likewise must immediately be consigned to the Quarantine Officer.  Such material usually

originates innocently by individuals not fully aware of the hazards or regulations relating to importation.  Any

shipment not clearly marked, that is suspected to contain live material, must also be consigned to the Quarantine

 Officer for opening.


C.  Cultures of Entomophagous or Phytophagous Species, Including Weed Feeders, from other Insectaries

      Within or Outside of California.


         Experience has repeatedly shown the danger of assuming that incoming material is (1) the species requested,

or (2) that it is free of contaminating species of parasitoids, predators, disease organisms or hosts.  Such material

 shall be processed in one of the auxiliary rooms of the quarantine facility by project personnel under the

supervision of the Quarantine Officer. 


D.  Local Quarantine Material.


  1.  occasionally, it is necessary to work with species in the insectary that are under local quarantine r

       egulations as interpreted by the California State Department of Food and Agriculture and/or the ounty

       Agricultural Commissioner.  The Commissioner or designated agent may make an on-site inspection to satisfy

        that the species in question will be handled in a manner to preclude escape.  To keep such routine work

       out of the quarantine wing, other rooms in the insectary may be designated as secondary local quarantine

       and are to be locked when not occupied by personnel.


  2.  the project leader shall indicate to the Department Chairman by written memorandum the justification,

       need, number of rooms required, and the anticipated duration of such work.  After receiving permission

       from the proper state and county authorities and after consulting with the Departmental Space and Quarantine

       Procedures Committee, the Department Chairman shall notify the project leader and Quarantine Officer in

       writing of the arrangements that are to be made.


  3.  the need for such facilities as outlined above should be anticipated well in advance of actual utilization

       so that adjustments can be logically and amicably arranged.  Otherwise, projects should expect to accommodate

       their specific quarantine needs within space already assigned to them.


E.  Phytophagous (Pest) Species:  Occasionally, it is necessary to utilize field-collected host material in the

      insectary production of beneficial species.  Strict handling procedures must be observed to avoid jeopardizing

     the program of primary interest as well as the programs of other projects.  This attitude should be observed even

     though the pest (host) species occurs in California, because populations from diverse localities may be genetically

     different or may contain undesirable contaminants, such as the grain itch mite, Peymotes, which could be

     transmitted throughout the insectary, thereby crippling the entire program, if not actually wiping out all projects.


F.  Field Samples from Non-quarantine Areas for Population Counts or Natural Enemy Recovery Studies.


  1.  this type of work must not be performed in or near the insectary because of the very high probability of

       escape and subsequent contamination of cultures in the insectary.


  2.  as an added safeguard, containers of field material must not be carried through the insectary when on the

       way to a laboratory counting station.  Material held in cold storage prior to counting should be carefully

       handled to preclude any possibility of escape.


G.  Deposition and Identification of Dead Specimens of Natural Enemies and Arthropod Hosts.


  1.  the original material and/or the F1 progeny (accompanied by quarantine identification memorandum) shall

       be released to the project leader or his designated representative as soon as practical.


  2.  the project leader shall forward the material to a specialist under cover letter, bearing the appropriate data

       and the quarantine identification memorandum number.


  3.  upon receipt of an identification, the project leader shall return the original or copy of the quarantine

       identification memorandum to the Quarantine Officer, and shall deposit series of the properly labeled and

       identified material in an appropriate location for future reference.


IV.  During slack periods of natural enemy introduction, the auxiliary rooms of the quarantine facility may be virtually

      idle:  a situation that should be understood and tolerated by staff.  With increasing pressure on space within the

       Department, there will often be temptation to use these rooms on a temporary basis, but this cannot be condoned in

       keeping with the existing quarantine agreement with the State and Federal governments.


       A list of personnel authorized to enter the quarantine wing will be posed on the corridor door within the

anteroom.  This list will be revised as the need demands.  Authorization for entry will be made by the

Department Chairman after consultation with requesting project leaders.





Coulson, J. R. & R. S. Soper.  1989.  Protocols for the introduction of biological agents in the United States, pp. 1-35.  In:  R. P.

     Kahn (ed.), Plant Protection & Quarantine, Vol. 3, Special Topics.  CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.  215 p.


Coulson, J. R., A. Carrell & D. L. Vincent.  1988.  Releases of beneficial organisms in the United States and Territories--1981.  

     U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Publ. No. 1464.  324 pp.


Fisher, T. W.  1964.  Quarantine handling of entomophagous insects.  In:  P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests

     and Weeds.  Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York.  844 p.


Fisher, T. W. & L. A. Andrés.  1999.  Quarantine:  concepts, facilities, procedures.  In:  Principles and Application of Biological

     Control.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1046 p.