219. Derived from: Legner, E. F. & R. D. Sjogren. 1985. Biological mosquito control: broader recognition of past successes and future emphases. Proc.Calif. Mosq. & Vector. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 52: 102-107.
Natural enemy systems that persist in the environment increase their effectiveness through field reproduction, and are able to coevolve with their hosts and thereby develop resistance to pesticides. Some biotic insecticides are commercially available for short-term direct mosquito control. An extended view of biological control likelihood should differentiate geographic areas, habitat characteristics and human annoyance tolerance levels. Intensified studies of certain invertebrates, fungi and bacteria are desirable.