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    Background & Overview     Ecological Considerations     Behavior, Ontogeny & Reproduction in Natural Enemies

 

    Techniques Employed in Implementation     Special Research Groups & Integrated Control

 

    Populations     Evaluation of Natural Enemies     Detailed Cases of BioControl     References

 

 

BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW

 

Section 1    <bc-1.htm>

  Introduction & Scope of Biological Pest Control

     Economics.

     Important Terms

     References

 

Section 2    <bc-2.htm>

  History of Biological Control

     Insect Predation

     Insect Parasitoidism

     Biological Control in the 18th Century

     Biological Control in the Early 19th Century

     Biological Control in the Late 19th Century

     Historical Summary

     References

 

Section 3    <bc-3.htm>

  Biological Characteristics of Arthropophagous 

    Arthropods.

    Hyperparasitism, Autoparasitism, Multiple Parasitism,

        etc.

     The Imago or Adult Parasitoid.

     Mating.

     Ovigenesis.

     Host-feeding

     Ovisorption

     References

 

Section 4    <bc-4.htm>

  Organizations Active in Biological Control

     International Institute of Biological Control

     L'Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique.

     United States Department of Agriculture

     Individual Countries

     Suppliers of Biological Control Organisms

     References

 

Section 5    <bc-5.htm>

  Economic Gains from Biological Control

     Cost Effectiveness

     Biological Control From Naturally Occurring Organisms

     Estimation of the Benefits and Costs of Classical

       Biological Control

 

  Analysis of Successes in Biological Control

     Island Theory

     Multiple Versus "The Best" Species

     Clausen's 3-Host Generation/ 3-Year Rule

     Single Larval Parasitoid Importations.

     Single Pupal Parasitoid

     Generalizations.

     Pest Groups

     Natural Enemy Groups

     References

 

Section 6    bc-6.htm>

  Trends & Future Possibilities

     Complexities

     Stimulation to Theories in Population Dynamics &

       Ecology

     Future of Integrated Control

     Future of Insect Pathology

     Future of Biological Weed Control

     Future of Biological Control of Medically Important

       Pests.

     References

 

ECOLOGICAL  CONSIDERATIONS

 

Section 7    <bc-7.htm>

  The Role of Parasitoids and Predators in Natural 

    Control

      Examples of Stability

      Measuring the Force of Natural Control

      Nature of Parasitism

      Occurrence of Parasitoidism in Insects

      Taxonomic Groups Important to Biological Control

      General Ecology of Parasitoids

      Reproductive Strategies.

      Percent Parasitization

      Population Regulation

      Conclusions

      Exercises

      References

 

Section 8    <bc-8.htm>

  Climate as a Factor in the Natural Control of 

    Organisms

      Introduction and Discussion

      Examples (cherry fruit fly, face fly, red scale, walnut

        aphid, spotted alfalfa aphid, Japanese beetle, alfalfa

        weevil, black scale, Klamath weed, Mexican bean

        beetle, American grizzly bear, aquatic weeds, house 

        fly,  eye gnats)

     Conclusions...

     Exercises...

     References

 

Section 9    <bc-9.htm>

  Genetic Considerations in Biological Control 

    (Acquisition of Natural Enemies, Breeding, Mass

    Releases)

       The Natural Population at its Origin

       Natural Enemy Introductions

       Improving Fitness of Natural Enemies

       Improving Tolerance to Pesticides

       Genetic Engineering

       Prolonged Culture

       Exercises

       References

 

Section 10    <bc-10.htm>

  Extranuclear Events Influencing Behavior and  

  Fecundity in Parasitoids & Other Animals  

     Direct Effects of the Cytoplasmic Genome

     Chemical Substances Affecting Behavior

     Muscidifurax Parasitoid Complex

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 11    <bc-11.htm>

  Biological Control Precepts

     Homopterous Insects as Ideal Candidates

     Examples Demonstrating Precepts

       Cottony-cushion scale

       Florida red scale

       California red scale

       Olive scale

       Rhodesgrass scale

       Walnut aphid

       Orb-weaving spiders

   The Importance of Single Species in Determining the

      Average Abundance of Plants and Animals

  Table 11.1 (Examples showing host densities dependent

      on one or two species)

    Conclusions

    Exercises

    References

 

Section 12    <bc-12.htm>

Competitive Displacement, Exclusion and

  Coexistence.

     Mechanisms of Competitive Displacement

     Examples

     The Coexistence Principle

     Competitive Displacement of Non-homologues

     Competitive Displacement and Biological Control

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 13    <bc-13.htm>

  Habitat, Host-finding and Host Acceptance

     Habitat Effects on Natural Enemies

     Characteristics of the Habitat that Attract or Repel

       Natural Enemies

     Host Food Affects Suitability for Parasitization

     Other Influences of Habitat

     Habitat Diversity vs. Similarity Affects Population

       Stability

     Host Finding

     Host Acceptance

     Host Suitability

     Host Regulation

     Manner and Place of Oviposition

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 14    <bc-14.htm>

  Problems and Calculations

 

 

BEHAVIOR, ONTOGENY AND REPRODUCTION

IN NATURAL ENEMIES

 

Section 15    <bc-15.htm>

  Parthenogenesis

     Cytology

     Arrhenotoky vs. Thelytoky

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 16    <bc-16.htm>

  Arrhenotokous / Thelytokous Reproduction

    Sex Determination

       Cytology

       Genetics

       Early Hypotheses

       Modern Hypotheses

     Some Generalities in Arrhenotokous Reproduction

       Biparental Males

       Androgenesis

       Polyploidy

       The R locus

       Incompatibility Factors

       Sex Intergrades

     Functional Aspects of Arrhenotokous Reproduction

     Extranuclear Inheritance and Polygenes in       

        Arrhenotoky

     Recombinant Hymenopteran Males

     Estimations of the Number of Active Polygenic Loci

     Coefficient of Heritability

     Dominance

     Some Generalities in Thelytokous Reproduction

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 17    <bc-17.htm>

  Embryology / Ontogeny / Anatomy

     Early Stages of Ontogeny

       Organization of the Ripe Egg

       Development of the Egg

       Cleavage.

       Gastrulation

       Segmentation

     Prenatal Development in Hymenoptera Specifically

       Egg Size & Shape

       Common Egg Shapes in Parasitoids

     Polyembryony in Hymenoptera

     Post Natal Development

       Larval Feeding

       Larval Respiration

       Larval Anatomy

       Hypermetamorphosis

       Prepupa

       Pupa

       Rate of Development

       Exit from the Host

       Male Reproductive System

     Exercises

    References

 

Section 18    <bc-18.htm>

  Oogenesis-Ovisorption (oosorption, egg resorption)

     General Characteristics

     Physiology of Ovigenesis-ovisorption

     Vitellogenesis (yolk formation)

     Classification of Hymenoptera by the Female's  

        Reproductive System

     Variability in Ovisorption Process among Hymenoptera

       Ovisorption Rate

      Effect of Ovisorption on Longevity

      Work on Nasonia vitripennis

    Exercises.

    References

 

Section 19    <bc-19.htm>

  Facultative Sex Regulation

     Spermatheca and Spermathecal Gland

       Types of Spermathecae in Hymenoptera

     Sex Regulation Considerations

     Exercises

     References

 

Section 20    <bc-20.htm>

  Behavioral, Ecological and Physiological Factors 

    affecting the Sex Ratio

    Behavioral and Ecological Phenomena

       Topographical Environment

       Larval Competition

       Humidity & Light Intensity

       Host Size

       Host Availability

       Host / Parasitoid Density

       Oviposition Restraint

       Mating

       Delayed & Interrupted Oviposition

       Heteronomous Parasitoids

       Theoretical Considertions

    Physiological Phenomena

       High Temperature

       Low Temperature

       Nutritional Influences

       Age

       Photoperiod

       Selective Breeding

       Microorganisms

       Paternal Sex Ratio

    Exercises

    References

 

Section 21    <bc-21.htm>

  Determination of Progeny Number

    Behavioral and Ecological Phenomena

       Courtship & Copulation

       Host Location

       Host Attack & Paralysis

       Host Preferences

       Host Transport

       Progeny Defense

       Oviposition Restraint

       Host / Parasitoid Density

       Temperature

       Host Size

       Humidity

       Adult Parasitoid Food

       Larval Competition

       Ant Activity

       Learning

    Physiological phenomena

      Nutrition (host-feeding)

      Temperature

      Humidity

    Selective Breeding

      Mating

      Ovisorption & Ovulation Effects

      Glands

      Chemical Communication

  Genetic and Extrachromosomal Phenomena       

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 22    <bc-22.htm>

  Host Defense Reactions

    Encapsulation (phagocytosis)

    Melanization

    Humoral Reactions

  Incumbered Host Defenses

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 23    <bc-23.htm>

  Diapause in Developmental Stages and the Imago

    Photoperiod

      Direct & Indirect Action

      Perception

      Photoperiodicity in Geographic Races

      Seasonal Forms

      Sensitive Stages

      Induction

   Characteristics of Diapause Termination

   Diapause in Parasitic Insects

      Endocrine Processes Involved

      Theories & Experiments

   Exercises

   References

 

Section 24    <bc-24.htm>

  Caste Bias

    Characteristics

    Generalizations on Caste Determination

    Exercises

    References

 

TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN
 IMPLEMENTATION

 

Section 25    <bc-25.htm>

  Discovery & Importation of Natural Enemies

    (Foreign Exploration)

    Purpose & Need

    Planning & Preparation

    Foreign Collaborators

    Problems Encountered by Explorers from Universities

    Choosing Targets and Procedure

    Maximizing Success Potential and Reducing Risks

    Securing Natural Enemies in the Native Range

    Searching Outside the Native Range

    Judgments of Natural Enemy Capability

       Terrestrial Vertebrates

       Phytophagous Arthropods & Phytopathogens

       Terrestrial Scavengers

       Aquatic Vertebrates & Invertebrates

       Parasitic & Predaceous Arthropods

    Considerations on Geographical Origin of the Pest

      Saissetia oleae

      Circulifer tenellus

      Heliothis zea

      Cydia pomonella

      Aonidiella aurantii

      Tetranychus spp.

      Phthorimaea operculella

      Nezara viridula

      Pectinophora gossypiella

      Misc. medically important Diptera

 

    Future Direction and Emphasis

    Conclusions

    Exercises

    References

 

Section 26    <bc-26.htm>

  Integration of Other Pest Control Methods

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Pest-Upset Versus Pest Resurgence

    Drawbacks of Chemical Control

    Selective Pesticides

    Factors Determining Physical Selectivity

 

  Conditions Favoring the Adoption of Biological

    Control Strategies

      Political & Economic Framework For Biological 

        Control

    Research Allocation For Research

    The Political Economy of Biological Control Research

       & Research Needs

    Socio-Economics of Biological Control

    References

 

 

 

 

 

Section 27   <bc-27.htm>

  Quarantine Procedures

    Establishing Quarantine Facilities

    Protocol in Quarantine Operations

    References

 

Section 28    <bc-28.htm>

  Culture of Hosts For Natural Enemies

    Host Food

    Contaminants

    Intraspecific Competition

    Genetic Considerations

    Physical Environment

    Behavior

    Techniques

    Quality

    Exercises

    References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref

 

Section 29    <bc-29.htm>

  Culture of Natural Enemies

    Contamination

    Genetic Change & Diversity

    Synthetic Diets

    Entomophaga / Host Interactions (Host Type &

       Quality)

    Diapause

    Mating

    Sex-ratio Changes

    Rearing Density

    Behavior

    Techniques

    Quality Control

    Exercises

    References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref>

 

Section 30    <bc-30.htm>

  Colonization of Natural Enemies

    Liberation Procedure

    Sampling and Distribution (devices)

    Factors Influencing Establishment

    Exercises

    References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref>

 

SPECIAL RESEARCH GROUPS &

INTEGRATED CONTROL

 

Section 31    <bc-31.htm>

  Biological Control of Coccidae

    References

 

Section 32    <bc-32.htm>

  Biological Control in Deciduous Orchards

    Introduction

    Management of Secondary Pests

    Classical Biological Control

    References

 

Section 33    <bc-33.htm>

  Biological Control in Tropical & Subtropical

     Orchards 

    References

 

Section 34    <bc-34.htm>

  Biological Control in Forests

    Strategies in Forest Biological Control

      Importation of Natural Enemies For Introduced Pests

      Importation of Natural Enemies For Native Pests

      Augmentation of Natural Enemies

      Conservation of Natural Enemies

    Biological Control Organizations in Forestry

    Detailed Examples

      Lepidoptera

      Hymenoptera

      Coleoptera

    References <bc-34.ref>

 

Section 35    <bc-35.htm

  Biological Control in Glasshouses

    Vegetable Crops

    Ornamental Plants

    References

 

Section 36    <bc-36.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Grapes

    Introduction

    Homoptera

    Acari

    Lepidoptera

    Coleoptera

    Thysanoptera

    References

 

Section 37    <bc-37.htm>

  Biological Control of Medical & Veterinary Pests

    Mosquitoes

    Synanthropic Diptera

    Hymenoptera

    Snails

    Illustrated key to parasitoids of synanthropic flies:  

         <PICTORIAL  KEY>

 

    References:  bcdipt.ref     Extended References: 

                           medvet.ref

 

Section 38     <bc-38.htm>

  Biological Control of Noxious Plants & Weeds

 

    Classical Biological Control

      Introducing New Natural Enemies For Biological

           Control

      Conservation of Biological Control Organisms

      Augmentation of Natural Enemies

      History of Plant Control with Natural Enemies

      Scope of Biological Noxious Plant Control

      Biological Control Organizations in Noxious Plant

           Control

 

    Plant-Feeding Insect Biology

      Establishing Phytophagous Biological Control Agents

      Phytophagous Insect Feeding Habits

      Specificity to Host Plant

      Evolution

      Host Plant Ranges

      Analysis of Biological Control Projects

      Herbivore Ecological Attributes

      Plant Attributes

 

    Phytotoxins from Plant Pathogens

      References

 

Section 39    <bc-39.htm>

  Biological Control in Cities & Towns

    Introduction

    Species Targeted For Biological Control

    References

 

Section 40    <bc-40.htm>

  Biological Control of and by Acarina

     Introduction

     Acarina for Biological Control of Phytophagous Mites

     Acarina for Biological Control of Armored Scale Insects

     Acarina in the Marine Environment

     References

 

Section 41    <bc-41.htm>

  Biological Control of Plant Pathogens

    References

 

Section 42    <bc-42.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Range,

    Forage & Grain Crops

            References

 

Section 43    <bc-43.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Row & Short-

     term Crops

      Dynamics in Short Term Crops

      Natural Control in Short Term Crops

      Classical Biological Control in Short Term Crops

      References

 

Section 44    <bc-44.htm>

  Biological Control of Tephritidae

    Introduction

    Specific Examples

    References

 

Section 45    <bc-45.htm>

  Biological Control of &  Implementing Vertebrates 

    References

 

Section 46     <bc-46.htm>

  Pesticide Resistance in Beneficial Organisms

      Documentation Bias

      Differential Preadaptation

      Differences in Population Ecology

      References

 

Section 47    <bc-47.htm>

  Natural Enemies in Integrated Control

    References

 

Section 48    <bc-48.htm>

  Enhancing Natural Enemy Impact

    Augmentation

    Conservation

    Monitoring Populations

    Rearing Natural Enemies

    References

 

Section 49    <bc-49.htm>

   Augmentive & Inundative Strategies With Natural

        Enemies

      Trichogramma spp

      Predatory mites

      Misc. natural enemies

      Microbial Pesticides

      Biological Control and Plant Resistance

      References

 

Section 50    <bc-50.htm>

  Biological Control Using Pathogens

    Introduction

    Viruses

    Bacteria

    Fungi

    Nematodes

    Protozoa

    References:   <bc-50.ref>

 

Section 51    <bc-51.htm>

  Taxonomy of Natural Enemies

    History...

    Importance of Taxonomy to Biological Control

    Natural Enemy Identification

    Biological Control Contributions to Taxonomy

    Sources of Taxonomic Expertise

    General References

   

Keys to Principal Families:  <keys.htm>

 

Principal Groups of Insect Parasites & Predators

 

       To view details of behavior and illustrations of adult & immature insects, CLICK  on <TAXNAMES>

 

.      For Key references on biologies, CLICK  on <biology.ref.htm>

 

Section 51-B    <bc-51b.htm>

 Morphology of Insects (for Natural Enemy

    Identification) 

 

Section 52    <bc-52.htm>

  Autocidal & Pheromonal Control

     References

 

Section 53    <bc-53.htm>

  Cultural Control Methods

 

Section 54    <bc-54.htm>

  Selective Use of Pesticides

    References

 

Section 55    <bc-55.htm>

  Plant Resistance

    References

 

Section 56    <bc-56.htm>

  Predator Biology & Ecology

    References

 

Section 57    <bc-57.htm>

  Nutrition of Natural Enemies

    History

    Utilization of Food

    Nutritional Requirements in Development

    Predator Culture In Vitro

    Parasitoid Culture In Vitro

    Adult Entomophage Nutrition

    Continuous Culture on Artificial Media

    Contemporary Applications

     References

 

Section 58    <bc-58.htm>

  Environmental Management

    Introduction

    Kinds of Agroecosystems

    Types of Environmental Management

    Mechanisms Involved in Enhancing Natural Enemies

    Theoretical Aspects of Management

    References

 

Section 58B    <bc-58B.htm> [in process]

  Biological Control in the Nearctic North of Mexico

    References:  <bc-58B.ref.htm>

 

Section 59    <bc-59.htm>

  Biological Control in Australasia

    References: <bc-59.ref.htm>

 

Section 60    <bc-60.htm> {in process]

  Biological Control in China & Korea

    References:  <bc-60.ref.htm>

 

Section 61    <bc-61.htm> [in process]

  Biological Control in the Ethiopian Region

    References:  <bc-61.ref.htm>

 

Section 62    <bc-62.htm>

  Biological Control in Eurasia

    References:  <bc-62.ref.htm>

 

Section 62B    <bc-62B.htm>

  Biological Control in India

    References:  <bc-62B.ref.htm>

 

Section 63    <bc-63.htm>

  Biological Control in the Middle East

    References:  <bc-63.ref.htm>

 

Section 64    <bc-64.htm>

  Biological Control in Japan

    References:  <bc-64.ref.htm>

 

Section 65    <bc-65.htm>

  Biological Control in Southeast Asia

    References:  <bc-65.ref.htm>

 

Section 66    <bc-66.htm>

  Biological Control in the Neotropics

    Consequences of Pesticide Use in the Neotropics

    Biological Control Results in Specific Countries

    Biological Control Organizations

    Potential Biological Control Successes in the Neotropics

    References:  <bc-66.ref.htm>

 

Section 67    <bc-67.htm>  [in process]

  Biological Control in Pacific Islands

    References:   <bc-67.ref.htm>

 

Section 68    <bc-68.htm>

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in Canada 

    References

 

Section 69

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in the

     Eastern United States  <bc-69.htm>

    References

 

Section 70    <bc-70.htm>

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in the

     Western United States

                  References

 

POPULATIONS

 

Section 71    <bc-71.htm>

Population Theories

  Single Species Populations

  Interspecific Competition

  Host-Parasitoid Systems

  Host-Pathogen Systems

  Multispecies Systems

  Searching in Animals

  Steady Densities

  Generalities on Modeling of Arthropod Populations

  References <bc-71.ref.htm>

  Special Problems in Population Dynamics 

   <Problems.htm>

 

EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES

 

Section 72    <bc-72.htm>

  Life Tables and Evaluation of Natural Enemies

    Introduction

    Definitions & Data Collection

    Kinds of Data in Life Tables

    Use For Biological Control Systems

    Assessing Quantitative Impact of Natural Enemies

    Ecological Roles For Natural Enemies

    Analysis

    Experimental Designs For Life Tables

    Applications to Natural Enemies Other Than Parasitoids

    Augmentation

    General References <bc-72.ref.htm>

 

Section 73    <bc-73.htm>

  Experimental Techniques to Evaluate Natural

        Enemies

    Techniques For Evaluation

    Methods For Detecting Predation/Parasitism

    Molecular Techniques

    General References <bc-73.ref.htm>

 

 

DETAILED CASES OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

 

 

POOLED REFERENCES       BIBLIOGRAPHIES

 

      GENERAL REFERENCES