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                                                                        GENERAL INDEX—C Words



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Cacti & Other Desert Plants


California (Pictures)

California Birds

California Red Scale (ideal biocontrol candidate)

California Red Scale (natural enemy exploration)

California Red Scale Taxonomy

California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)

Calliceratidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Calliphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Caltagirone, Leo E.

Caltec Agri Marketing Services

Camerobiidae (Acarina)

Canada (Natural Biological Control)

Cantharidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Carabidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Carbon dioxide (anesthetic)

CARIBBEAN (Pictures)

Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae

Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)

Carulaspis minima (Targ.-Tozz.)

Cassava Mealybug in Africa--Phenacoccus manihoti (short-term crops)

Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti

Caste Bias

Caste Bias (characteristics)

Caste Determination (generalizations)

Castle (1903)

Caudate Larva

Causes of Genetic Change in Natural Enemy Culture

Cecidomyiidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Ceinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cellular defense reactions

Ceraphronidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Ceraphronoidea <Overivew>

Ceratopogonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cercerinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cereal Leaf Beetle, Oulema melanoplus (L.)

Cereal Leaf Beetle, Oulema melanoplus -short-term crop

Cerocephalinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Ceroplastes destructor Newstead

Ceroplastes rubens Maskell

Chalcididae (Parasitoids of Diptera)

Chalcididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chalcidoidea <Overview-1>, <Overview-2> <General References>


Chamaemyidae (Ochthiphilidae) <Habits>; <Adults>

     & <Juveniles>

Channing, William F.

Chaparral Biome

Chapman, A. J.

Characteristics of Host-feeding

Characteristics of the Habitat (Plant Pathogens)

Characteristics of the Habitat that Attract or Repel

     Natural Enemies

Charipinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chemical Communication

Chemical Control Drawbacks

Chemical Substances Affecting Behavior

Chemical surface disinfection (culture)

Chemical Usage (environmental management)

Chewing Lice

Cheyletidae (Acarina)

Chicken cockerels

Chile (Pictures)

Chilling (diapause)

China & Korea (Biological Control)

Chioaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)

Chironomid Midges, Chironomus spp. ; Chironomid Midges (biocontrol)

Chironomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chironomus spp.

Chlorohydra viridissima (Pallas)

Chloropid Gnats (Hippelates, Leptoconops, etc.)

Chloropidae (Oscinidae) <Habits>; <Adults> &


Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell)

Chondrilla juncea L.

Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach)

Chromeurytominae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chrysaugidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chrysididae (+ Cleptidae) <Habits>; <Adults> &


Chrysididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan)

Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead

Chrysomphalus. aonidum (L.)

Chrysopidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Cicadellidae (Biocontrol in Grapes)

Cicindelidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Circulifer tenellus (natural enemy exploration)

Cities & Towns (Biological Control)

Citricola Scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)

Citriculus Mealybug, Pseudococcus citriculus Green

Citrophilus Mealybug, Pseudococcus fragilis Brain

Citrus Blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby

Citrus Mealybug Biocontrol in Glasshouses

Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso)

Citrus Psyllid (Asian) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama


Citrus red mite

Citrus Whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashmead


Classical Biological Control

Classical Biological Control in Deciduous Orchards

Classical Biological Control in Short Term Crops

Classical Biological Control.of Weeds

Classification of Hymenoptera by the Female's Reproductive System

Classification of Invertebrates

Clausen, Curtis P.

Clausen's 3‑Host Generation/ 3‑Year Rule

Clean Cultivation (adverse effects)


Cleonyminae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Cleridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Clidemia hirta (L.)

Climate Affecting  Insects (examples)

Climate as a Factor in Natural Control

Climatic Effects (conclusions)

Climatic Effects (overview)

Cloned or Selected Lines (tests for)

Coast Agri-Pro-tect Dept. (Insectary)


Coccidae (Biocontrol in Grapes)

Coccinella undecimpunctata

Coccinellidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Coccus hesperidum L.

Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)

Cockroaches (general)

Cockroaches, Blatella, Blatta, Periplaneta, & Supella

Coconut Leaf-mining Beetle, Promecotheca reichei

Coconut Moth, Levuana irridescens Bethune-Baker

Coconut Scale, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret

Codling Moth (natural enemy exploration)

Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L. [= Cydia pomonella

Coefficient of Heritability

Coelocybinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Coexistence Principle

Coffee Mealybug Taxonomy

Coffee Mealybug, Planococcus kenyae (LePelley)

Cold room (quarantine)

Coleman, N. J.

Coleophora laricella Hübner

Coleophora laricella Hübner (forestry biocontrol)

Coleoptera (Biocontrol in Grapes)

Coleoptera (General)

COLEOPTERA (parasites/predators) <General >


Colletidae (= Hylaeidae) <Habits>; <Adults> &


Colombian Defoliator (forestry)

Colombian Defoliator, Oxydia trychiata (Guenée)

Colonization (Ecological Factors Influencing Success

Colonization of Natural Enemies

Colonization of Natural Enemies (detailed procedures)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (evaluation)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (establishment)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (liberation)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (overview)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (recovery)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (release numbers)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (sampling)

Colonization of Natural Enemies (success prediction)

Colorado (Pictures)

Colotrechinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Colydiidae <Habits.>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Common Egg Shapes in Parasitoids

Communication (Chemical)

Communication Equipment (quarantine)


Compere, George

Compere, George & Harold Compere

Competing Herbivores and Natural Enemies

Competing Natural Enemies


Competition Curve

Competitive Antagonists & Antibiotic Production

Competitive Displacement (examples)

Competitive Displacement (mechanisms)

Competitive Displacement (overview)

Competitive Displacement and Biological Control

Competitive Displacement of Non-homologues

Competitive Displacement Principle

Competitive Displacement, Exclusion and Coexistence

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Complexities (in populations)

Comstock Mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki

Conditions Favoring the Adoption of Biocontrol

Coniferous Forest biome

Coniopterygidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Connecticut (Pictures)

Conopidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Consequences of Pesticide Use in the Neotropics

Consequences of Thelytoky


Conservation of Biological Weed Control Organisms

Conservation of Natural Enemies in Forests

Conservation of Plant Pathogens

Conservation to Enhance Natural Enemy Impact

Considerations on Geographical Origin (of the pest)

Constricted Waist (Petiolate Abdomen)

Consumer Dynamics

Contagious diseases (culture)

Contaminants in Host Cultures

Contamination in Natural Enemy Culture

Continuous Culture on Artificial Media

Control (population)

Coppel, Harry C.

Coquillett, D. W.

Cordia macrostachya (Jacquin) Roemer & Schultes

Corn Earworm (natural enemy exploration)

Corpus allatum

Corpus cardiacum

Corrodentia (General)

CORRODENTIA (predators)  <General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Corydalidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cosmopterigidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cost Effectiveness

Costa Rica (Pictures)

Costs of Classical Biological Control

Costs of Natural Enemy Production

Cotton Bollworm (natural enemy exploration)

Cottony-cushion scale (ideal biocontrol candidate)

Cottony-cushion Scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell

Courtship & Copulation

Crabroninae <Habits>; >Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cratominae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Crawford, Frazer

Creating Pesticide Resistant Enemies


Crozier, R. H.

Ctenopharygodon idella - control)

Csd gene

Ctenoplectridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cuba (Pictures)

Cuban Laurel Thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal

Cucujidae (incl. Passandridae) <Habits>;  <Adults> &


Culex tarsalis Coquillett

Culicidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Culicinomyces clavosporus Couch, Romney & Rao

Cultivation & Habitat Disturbance

Cultural Control Methods

Culture of Hosts For Natural Enemies

CULTURE of Natural Enemies

Culture of Natural Enemies

Culture of Natural Enemies (behavior)

Culture of Natural Enemies (contamination)

Culture of Natural Enemies (diapause)

Culture of Natural Enemies (genetic change causes)

Culture of Natural Enemies (genetic change)

Culture of Natural Enemies (genetic diversity)

Culture of Natural Enemies (mating)

Culture of Natural Enemies (quality assessment)

Culture of Natural Enemies (rearing density)

Culture of Natural Enemies (sex-ratio changes)

Culture of Natural Enemies (techniques)

Cunaxidae (Acarina)

Curculionidae (Biocontrol in Grapes)

Cuscuta spp.

Cyclopoid Larva

Cyclops vernalis Fisher

Cyclotornidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cydia (Carpocapsa) pomonella (natural enemies)

Cydia pomonella L. [= Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)]

Cynipidae (Parasitoids of Diptera)

Cynipidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cynipinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cynipoidea <Overview>

Cyprinodon spp.

Cyrtidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

Cytoplasmic Genome

Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Viruses

Czech Republic (Pictures)