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For teaching purposes only: quote cited references only

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]

 

[Note: All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]

 

WORLD PLACE NAMES *

[Contacts]

 

 

Introduction

 

This page will be under construction for some time. The subject is endless so Edo Nyland will keep on adding more names as they become available.

 

The world's place names have hidden sentences in them, written in what today would be called the Basque language. Considering where these geographical names are and the age of the places they represent, it is obvious that the language cannot be Basque, but must be an earlier form of it. Nyland (2001) called this proto language: the Saharan language or better the Universal Language because it applies to many related languages on every continent and because its existence can be traced back at least 7,000 years (see Ainu). The Basque language must be very close to the original Saharan language and therefore the Basque dictionary by Gorka Aulestia was used. The overwhelming majority of the names were made up with the vowel-interlocking formula, but here and there, the name originators cheated or slipped and ignored the inter-locking.

 

 

A SELECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

 

 

AFRICA

 

Africa, af.-.ri-ika, afa-ari-ika: afa (happy) arinari eman (to escape) ikaragarritasun (tragedy): "We are happy to have escaped the tragedy".


Chad, txa-ad., txa-adi:
txankaldu (to divide the land into fields) adiskedigisa (in a friendly manner): "They divided the land into fields in a friendly manner".

Egypt, egi-ip.-.t., egi-ipu-uto: egin (to create) ipuin (legend) utopia (utopia): "They created the legend of utopia".

Kenya, .ke-eni-iha, ike-eni-iha: ikertu (to pay a visit) eni (to me) ihardun (to spend time): "Pay a visit to me and spend some time".

Sahara, .sa-aha-ara, iza-aha-ara, izadi (nature, character) ahalguzti (Almighty) aratz (pure): "The Omnipotent's character is pure". The previous translation has been: zahar (old): "The Old Country? This is not likely.

Senegal, .se-ene-ega-al., ase-ene-ega-ala: asezin (insatiable craving) enegan (within me) egape (shelter, home) alai aldi (happiness): "Within me there is an insatiable craving for a home and happiness".

Uganda, uga-anda, ugaldu (to grow a crop) andanaka (in large quantities):"They grow crops in large quantities".

 

 

AMERICA, NORTH

 

America, ameri-ika, ameriketak egin (to make a fortune) ikaragarri (enormous): "Make an enormous fortune".


CANADA

 

Canada, .ka-ana-ada, akabu (the far end) anaitu (to get together) ada (the noise of the last word): "At the far end we'll have a party".

Hudson, .hu-ud.-.so-on., uhu-udi-iso-ona, uhui (cry of happiness) udikan (to get out) isolamendu (isolation) (isolation) onargaitz (intolerable, hostile): "He cried for joy to get out of the hostile isolation".

Mission, .mi-isi-on., umi-isi-one, umiltasun (humbleness) isilka (quietly) onegite (doing good): "Quietly doing good in humbleness".

Quebec, ke-ebe-ek., ke-ebe-eku: kementze (act of encouraging) ebertar (the Hebrew, Christ) ekurutasun (peace of mind): "Christ encourages peace of mind".


MEXICO


Mexico from Mexica, .me-exi-ika


AMERICA, SOUTH

 

Brasil/Brazil, .b.-.ra-azi-il., eba-ara-azi-il: ebasle (thief) arrapatu (to plunder) azienda (wealth) ilki (to leave): "The thieves plundered our wealth and then left".

Peru, .pe-eru, ape-eru: apez (priest) errukigabe (cruel): "The priests are cruel".

 

ASIA

 

Asia, asi-ia, asiera (origin) iaiotasun (profound knowledge), "Origin of all profound knowledge".

 

 

NEAR EAST (Except Israel).


Bagdad, .bag.-dad., abaga-dad:
abagadune (opportunity, possible success) dadin (so that he may be): "That he may be successful".

Basra, bas.-.ra, basa (mud) ara (over there): "There's mud over there".

 

 

ISRAEL


Bethlehem, .be-et. h.-.le-em., abe-ete he-ele-eme:
abeletxe (stable) etenune (time of birth) hementxe (right here) ele (cattle) emekiro (peaceful): "The time of birth came right here in the stable between the peaceful cattle."


Galilee, .ga-ali-ile, iga-ali-ile,
igarle (prophet) alienatu (to kill a person) ileta (lament, mourning): "Lament for the killed prophet".


Jerusalem, je-eru-usa-ale-em.,
jentil (pagan) errukigabe (cruel) usadio (custom) alegia (fake) emankortasun (fertility):"Cruel pagan custom for fake fertility."

 

 

MIDDLE EAST. (India, Pakistan etc)


Bihar, .bi-iha-ar., ibi-iha-ara,
ibildari (nomadic) iha'urri (to scatter, to roam) arro (proud): "Proud roaming nomads".


Goa, from
goardia (to stand guard): Referring to the town's defenses.


Harappa, from
harapatu (to plunder): "Plundered".


Himalaya, ima-alaya,
imajina (image, scenery) alaia (pleasing): "Pleasing scenery".

 

 

FAR EAST


Fujiyama, fa.-uji-ama,
fa (happy) uju (cry of joy) ama (Goddess): "A happy cry of joy for the Goddess".

 

 

AUSTRALIA

 

Australia, aus.-.tra-ali-iha, ausa-atra-ali-iha: ausarta (courageous) atrakatzaile (robber, convict) alizan (capable) ihaurri (to scatter, to go everywhere): "Courageous and capable convicts went everywhere".

 

Papua, apapua (living in poverty): "They live in poverty".

 

 

EUROPE

 

Europa, eur.-opa, euri (rain) opa (longing for): "Longing for rain".

Atlantic, from Atlantis, at.-.la-an. .ti-iz., atontze (Get ready!) olatualdi (huge wave) aniztu (to increase) utikan (get away from) izugarrikeria (terrible happening): "Get ready! Huge waves are increasing, get away from this terrible happening!"

BALTIC


Baltic, bal-tik,
bale (whale) tiko (origin, birthplace), "Calving area of the whales", probably baluga whales. The area referred to is likely the Bay of Riga.


Lithuania, better known as Litauen, eli-ita-ahu-ene,
elikadura (food) itaitu (to harvest) ahurka (by the handful, in large numbers) -enetan (always): "They always harvest their food in large numbers."

 


BRITAIN


Canterbury, (kanterburi), .ka-an.-.te-er.-bu-uri, ika-ana-ate-era-abu-uri,
ikasi (learned) anaia (brothers) ateratu (to take advantage of) erabide (education) aburu eman (to express and idea, opinion) urrikimendu (repentance): Take advantage of an education from the learned brothers and express repentance".


Hoy, hoi,
hoindi (over there, the other side): "On the other side".


Lindisfarne, .li-in.-.di-is.-.fa-arne, ili-inu-udi-isi-ifa-arne,
ilintu (to set on fire) inular (sundown) udikan (get away!) isilume (bastard) ifar (northern) arnegatu (cursed): "Get away from here! At sundown the cursed bastards from the north set fire to the monastery".


Trafalgar, .t.-.ra-afa-alga-ar., ate-era-afa-alga-ari,
ateru (to stop) erasan (attack) afa (happy) algara (loud laughter) arinaldi (fast run): "We stoped the attack (amid) happy and loud laughter when they ran away fast".

 

 

GERMANY, AUSTRIA, SWITZERLAND


Berlin, .be-erli-in., abe-erli-inu,
abergikor (hospitable) erlijiozale (pious) inurritze (inspiring): "A hospitable, pious and inspiring town".


Fritzlar, .f.-.ri-itz.-.la-ar., afa-ari-itza-ala-are,
afa (happy) ari (mission) itza eman (to give a promise) alaitzaile (joyous) arrera (welcome): Happy mission which promises a joyous welcome".


Lorsch, .lo-ortz,
alondegi (wine storage/cellar) ortzeko (heavenly): "Heavenly winecellar".


Lubeck, lu-ube-ek.,
luzarotu (to last a long time) uberka (water reservoir) ekaizte (big rainstorm): "The water reservoir will last for a long time (when filled by) a big rainstorm".


Murbach, .mu-ur.-.ba-ak., amu-uri-iba-akitu,
amultsu (tender) urrikitu (to show compassion) ibarretxe (house in the valley) akitu (to be exhausted): "At the house in the valley the exhausted find tender compassion".


Reichenau, .re-ike-ena-au, are-ike-ena-au,
erreraegin (to welcome) ikertzaile (visitor) -ena (possessive suffix) aupatu (to give praise): "We welcome our visitors and give praise".


Stettin, .s.-.te-et.-.ti-in., asa-ate-eta-ati-inu,
asaldatze (rioting) aterpe (refuge) eta (and) atxikitzaile (supporter) inurritu (to inspire): "A refuge from the rioting and inspiration for our supporters".


Tirol, tiro-ol,
tirokaldi (shooting) oldartu (to begin, to start): "Start shooting".


Wurtzburg, urtz-bu-urg.,
urtzeko (heavenly) buruargi (ingenious) urgatza (protection): "Ingenious heavenly protection".

 

THE LOW COUNTRIES


Amerongen, ame-ero-onge-en.,
ameskor (dreaming) erosle (Redeemer) onginahi (kindness) enegana (to me): "I am dreaming about the Redeemer's kindness to me".


Arnhem, ar.-.n.-.he-em., aro-oni-ihe-ema,
arrotz (foreigner) onik (unharmed) ihesaldi (escape) emarrapaketa (abduction of a woman): "The foreign woman escaped unharmed from her abductors".


Barnegat, .ba-arnegat,
ebanjelari (evangelist) arnegatu (to get angry): "The evangelist got angry".


Delft, .de-el.-.f.-.t., ede-ela-afa-ati,
eder (beautiful) ela (story) afa (happy) atxikitzaile (faithfulness): "Beautiful story of happy faithfulness" or "beautiful and happy story of faithfulness".


den Helder, .de-en./.he-el.-.de-er., ede-ene/ihe-ela-ade-era,
ederren (the most beautiful) ene (to attract, to come to) ihesleku (shelter, harbour) elaberritsu (fond of the news) adeitsu (courteous) errezbimendu (welcome): "Come to the most beautiful harbor for the latest news and a courteous welcome".


Drachten, .d.-.ra-ak.-.te-en., ada-ara-aka-ate-en:
adarka (by goring) arakintzo (massacre) akabatu (to end a life) atezatu (to live on) entzute (fame): "The stabbing massacre ended his life but his fame lives on".


Echternach, ek.-.te-er.-.na-ak., eka-ate-era-ana-ako,
ekarri (to provide) aterpe (refuge) eramankizun (suffering) anaidi (brotherhood) akordiozko (traditional): "Traditional brotherhood which provides a refuge from suffering".


Egmond, eg.-.mo-ond.,
egin (to create) moldez (skillfully) ondorekidego (common inheritance): "(We skillfully create a common inheritance".


Fulda, fu-ul.-.da, fu-ule-eda,
funtsatu (to create) ulerketa (understanding) edagale (thirst): "We create a thirst for understanding".


Hilversum, .hi-il.-.be-er.-.su-um., ahi-ile-ebe-eri-isu-umi,
ahi (I hope) ilezin (immortal) ebertar (Hebrew) errixee (common people) isuri (to inspire) umiltasun (humbleness): "I hope that the immortal story of Jesus will inspire the common people to humbleness".


Holland, ol.-.la-and., ola-ala-anda,
olatu (waves) alaitu (to fill with joy) andar (speeding): "Speeding the waves fills us with joy".


Utrecht, ut.-.re-ek.-.t., uti-ire-eki-itu,
utzi (to put a stop to) iresle (destruction) ekinalean (do as much as possible) itundu (to make a treaty): To put a stop to the destruction, do as much as possible to make a treaty".

 

ITALY


Monte Cassino, .mo-on.-.te. .ka-as.-.si-ino, amo-ona-ate ika-asa-asi-ino,
amodiotsu (loving) onarketa (welcoming) aterpe (refuge) ikasleku (learning center) asagotu (go far away) asi (to start) inon (somewhere: "A loving and welcoming refuge. Go far away and start a learning center somewhere".


Mont Serrat, .mo-on.-.t. .se-er.-.ra-at., amo-ona-ate ase-era-ara-ati,
amodiotsu (loving) onarketa (welcoming) aterpe (refuge) asezindaki (craving) erekuste (education) arrazi (to encourage) atikitzaile (faithful): "A loving and welcoming refuge. We encourage the faithful to get a craving for education".


Rome, .ro-ome, aro-ome,
arrotasun (pride) omen (honor): "Pride and honor".


Sacro Speco, .sa-ak.-.ro .spe-eko,
usa (dove, holy man) akabu (ultimate) arroztu (to exile) asperkeria (boredom) ekoizle (producing): "Holy man in ultimate exile; producing boredom".


Subiaco, .su-ubi-ako, isu-ubi-ako,
isurikatu (to waste a life) ubil (whirlpool) akorduan euki (to remember): "Remember the waste of life in the whirlpool".


Vatican, .ba-ati-ika-an., aba-ati-ika-ana,
abadeburu (head priest) atiki (to be faithful) ikasgiro (learning environment) anaiarte (brotherhood): "The faithful head-priest's learning environment for the brotherhood".

 

IRELAND


Aran, from aran (echo): "Echo".


Erris Head,
errisku (dangerous): "Dangerous".


Malin Head, mali-in.,
malizia (bad action) indarketa (contest of strength): "Bad contest of strength".


Tralee, from trali, tra-ali,
tara (sadness) alienatu (destruction of a person): "Sadness over the death of a person".

 

RUSSIA and other SLAVIC COUNTRIES


Chernobil, txer.-.no-obi-il.,
txerrizain (swineherd) inor (no-one) obi (grave) iletu (to mourn): "No-one mourned by the grave of the swineherd".


Dniepr, d.n-i.e.p.-.r, don-ihesp-ur,
dontsu (blessed) ihespideto (means of escape) ur (by water): "The blessed one's means of escape was by water". Probably referring to Chief Priestess Medea who escaped with Jason up the Dniepr after taking the golden fleece from King Aietus. See: Apollonius of Rhodes.


Irkutsk, ir.-.ku-utsik, iri-iku-utsik,
iri (city) ikustatu (to visit) utsik (deserted): "I visited the deserted city".


Okhotsk, ok.-.ho-otsk, oka-aho-otsok,
okaztagarri (disgusting) ahozagarri (astonishing) otsok (brutality): "Astonishingly disgusting brutality".


Siberia, .si-ibe-eri-i.a, esi-ibe-eri-iha,
esinguratu (to round up) ibeni (to dump) erioaldi (agony) ihaurri (to scatter): "Round them up, dump and scatter them in agony".


Taymyr, tai.-.mi-ir., taiu-umi-ira,
taiuera (size, appearance) umildi (to humble) iraganaldi (migration, migrating herd): "The size of the migrating herd is humbling".


Kamchatka, .ka-am.-.txa-at.-.ka, ika-amo-otxa-ate-eka,
ikaragarri (frightening) amorro (fury) otxoa (wolf) aterbegabe (unprotected, out in the open) ekantze (to get used to): "Out in the open, the frightening fury of the wolves takes getting used to".


Kiev, .ki-eb., oki-eba,
okitu (totally) ebanjeliotu (to avangelize): "Totally evangelized".


Ukraina, uk.-.rain-a, uku-arain-a,
uku (gone bad, smelly) arrain (fish) a (the): "The smelly fish".


Vladivostok, .b.-.la-adi bo-osto-ok., aba-ala-adi bo-osto-oki,
abaroan egon (to take refuge) alabearreko (necessary) adi (watch out!) bortxakeria (violence) ostosketa (rolling of the thunder) okildu (to be frightened): "Watch out! It's necessary to take refuge. The violence of the storm is frightening".

 

SCANDINAVIA


Uppsala, up.-.p.-.sa-ala, upa-apu-usa-ala,
upa (cask) apurtu (to break) usain (smell, aroma) alaitu (to fill with joy): "The smell of the broken cask fills us with joy".

OCEANIA

[Hawaiian names translated with the Basque Dictionary]

 

Hawaii, hau-ahi, hau (this one) ahigarri (exhausting): "This one is exhausting", it is a long way to there.


Hilo, ilo,
ilobi (tomb, grave): "Site of the grave".


Kaula, .ka-aula,
akabu (the end, when we get there) aulagotu (to weaken): "When we got there we were weakened".


Lanai, .la-anai, ala-anai,
alabear (fate) anai (brother): "The fate of my brother".


Laysan, lai-izan,
laino (foggy) izan (to be): "It is foggy".


Maui, .ma-uhi, ema-uhi,
eman (to beat repeatedly) uhin (wave): "Constantly beaten by waves".


Oahu, oa-ahu,
oaratu (in heat) ahuntz (female goat): "Female goat in heat".

 

MARIANAS


Agiguan, agi-igu-an.,
agindu (orders) igurika (to wait for) -an (inside): "Wait for orders on the island".


Agrihan, agiri-iha-an,
agirian (obviously) ihar (arid) -an (inside): "The island is obviously arid".


Guam, .gu-am., agu-ama,
agur (greetings) ama (mother): "Greetings for mother".


Guguan, .gu-.gu-an, agu-agu-an,
agur (good bye) agur (good bye) andana (people): "God buy, good buy people".


Maug, .ma-ug., ama-uga,
ama (mother) ugalkor (prolific): "Prolific mother".


Pagan, .pa-aga-an., opa-aga-ana,
opari (sacrifice) -aga (abundance of) anaigo (group of worshippers): "Group of worshippers with an abundance of sacrifice".


Rota, .ro-ota, arro-ota,
arro (proud) otargile (basket maker): "Proud basket maker".


Saipan, sai-aipa,
saiaketa (attempt) aipatu (famous for): "Famous for attempt".

 

MARSHALL ISLANDS


Ailinglapalap, ai-ili-ing.-.la-apa-ala-apo,
ai (strong desire) ilinti (burning) ingiratu (to get ready) il (to die) apaiz (priest) alabear (fate) apokeria (human sacrifice): "I have a burning desire to get ready to die the priest's fate of a human sacrifice".


Aur,
aur (child): "Child of Maloelap".


Bikar, bika-ar., bika-arra,
bikain (extraordinary) arrantza (fishing): "Extraordinarily good fishing".


Ebon, ebo-on., ebo-ondi,
eboluzio (development) ondikotsu (unfortunate): "Unfortunate development".


Kwajalein, .ku-aja-ale-in., aku-aja-ale-in.,
akuila (to urge on) ajaja (laughter) -ale (agent, cause) indar (strength): "Laughter urges on and creates strength".


Maloelap, ma-alo-ela-ap.,
maiburuko (guest speaker) alogerekotu (to be paid money) ela (story) apaindu (to embellish, to trump up): "The guest speaker was paid money to embellish the story".


Taka, taka,
takada (Gentle push): "Give me a gentle push".


Utirik, uti-iri-ik.:
utikan (go away) irrikatu (to desire vehemently) ikara (terror): "I desire vehemently to get away from the terror".


Wake, ake,
akela (priestess): "(Home of) the priestess".


Wott, ot., ota,
otalur (land covered with furze): "Island covered with furze (Leguminosae)".

 

Bibliography