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For teaching purposes:  quote cited references only

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]






          Also called the Grammarian's Dictionary. It was in this form that the Benedictine grammarians used the dictionary in their scriptoria to manipulate and agglutinate the original Saharan/Basque vocabulary in their efforts to create the Indo-European languages of Western Europe. Sixteen consonants are the basis of this organization, each of which is subdivided into 25 different VCV's for a total of 400 VCV's. Double R was used as another consonant, adding 25 more VCV's, for a total of 425, of which ca.107 were reserved for future expansion of the VCV dictionary, but never used (see Nyland’s (2001) VCV Formula)


          The grammarians apparently had made up cards for the 300+ VCV's which had meanings associated. Each card showed one VCV in large letters, with the varied meanings written under it in small letters. These cards were then laid out a large table with the interlocking vowels forming pairs of cards. This provided the grammarians not only with an enormous number of vocabulary possibilities but also creative entertainment. If a specific word needed to be assembled, a definition or related comment was written and the appropriate word cards arranged. New words would often be accidentally invented which had not yet been called for. In this manner a very large vocabulary was invented with many duplicating words. The result was that English now has so many words that the language needs a thesaurus to keep them all available and alive. It is the only language with such a thesaurus.


          The following is a simplified version of the dictionary developed by Nyland (2001). 






ABA. priest, rectory, occasion, chance, opportunity, slingshot, advantage, surpass, rower, almost, branch, shade.
ABE. support, cross, receive, hospitable, animal, manger, stable, cattle, race, fertile, elegant, wealth, rich, brutality, patriotic,  choir, concert, to sing.
ABI.   nest, speed, hurry, departure, impulsive, start, walk, talent, to begin, skillful.
ABO. voice, approve of, lawyer, to proclaim, to shout out.
ABU. opinion, agree, to express a thought.

EBA. cut, slice, harvest, remnant, evaluation, evangelist, gospel, fraud, plunder, hide-out, thief, to decide.
EBE. Hebrew, wild boar.
EBI.  N.A. (rarely
elebide = theme of conversation)
EBO. to develop, evolution.

IBA.  river, lowland, confluence, shore, ferry, valley.
IBE.  to place, to put on, to introduce, act of putting on.
IBI.   to ford, to cross, to walk, trip, route, roadmap, to run, vagabond, nomadic, impassible, to behave, to act, to recede,  to wade, to be, to go.

OBA. better, naturally, improvement.
OBE. preferable, to improve, well-meaning, obedience, to sin, guilty, blame.
OBI. tomb, cemetary, to bury.
OBO. oboe.

UBA. cormorant.
UBE. purple, livid, bruise, cistern.
UBI. canal, aqueduct, bruise, cistern, whirlpool.



ADA. noise, to mend, patch, horn, branching, to tease, to gore, firewood, deceive, long hair, ramification, trumpet sound.
ADE. temple, rude, gentle, adorn, courteous, to prepare.
ADI. watch out, announce, interpret, advice, meaning, suggestive, sign, symbol, logical, care-less, dumb, intelligent, judgment,  friendly, to explain, understanding, be careful.
ADO. courage, bravery, stimulate, agree, worship.
ADU. slobber, luck, to be charmed.

EDA. to drink, thirst, drunk, glass, poison, potable.
EDE. to take from, poison, beautiful, esteem, to be pleased, exaggerate, to be defeated, mislead, history.
EDI. to find.
EDO. or, anytime, common, anywhere, to suck.
EDU. to have, to keep, powerful, possession, snow.

IDA. to write, subject of writing, document, clerk.
IDE. companion, idea, invent, to open, same, to adjust, to compare, ideology, homogeneity.
IDI.  ox, crib, to open, wisent, bison.
IDO. mud, torrential rain, idol, dry, unfeeling, discovery.
IDU. to have, to appear, to imitate, to distrust, resemblance, apparently.

ODE. cloud, horizon.
ODI.  pipe, round opening.
ODO. blood, relative, martyr, rage, impulsive, nervous, apathy, cowardice, cruel, angry, butchery.

UDA. summer, spring, autumn, dog days, pear.
UDE. summerhouse.
UDI.  N.A. sometimes used instead of
uti (utikan = go away, get out).



AFA. happy, pleasing, supper, mealtime.
AFI.  N.A.

EFI.  N.A.

IFA. north, north wind.
IFE. hell, damned, infernal.
IFI.  N.A. sometimes used instead of
ibi (ibili = to go, to be).
IFU.  N.A.
OFI.  official, craftsman, job, living.

UFA. panting, scornful, to blow, to stink.
UFI.  N.A.
UFU.  N.A.



AGA. long pole/stick, abundance, hitting, to lash, to whip.
AGE. agency, rod, notorious, symbol, sign, to declare, document, public, revelation, obvious, sample, discovery, to appear,  honest, view.
AGI. may be, I wish, I hope, tooth, yew tree, dentist, powerful, to order, to promise, obedient, threat, reprimand, chief,  legacy, blame.
AGO. mouth, edge, be!, dry, sterile, hard, drought, yawn, scarcity, to dry, to be exhausted.
AGU. quick, active, good-bye, old man, worship, to greet, farewell.

EGA. wing, to fly, to evaporate, edge, escape, protection, thirsty, anxiety, aircraft, shelter, to favour.
to do, truth, likely, true, to verify, to be(come), you do, author, to create, to bet, possible, duty, mandatory, to make  (something), to undo, bargain, action, to convince.
EGO. south, resident, attitude, adequate, to fit, opportunity, to concern, to arrange, to stay, home, to boil, raw, sunburn, to  throw, to nurse, rest, to vomit, to expel.
EGU. day, noon, dawn, eternal, never, daily, life, modern, good morning, wage, punishment, strolling, cut wod, woody, to   beat, sunlight, east wind, to burn, sunset.

IGA. fruit, to rise, sunday, dress up, wilted, sign, prophet, to guess, to travel, bearable, tolerant, to notice, last year, dead,  unpredictable, Sunday.
IGE. frog, to plaster, mason, to swim, to float, escape, to evade.
IGI.  harvest, sickle.
IGO. to rise/lift up, to raise, to climb, sender, to anoint, to rub.
IGU. despite, to wait, expectation, tolerance, scraper, sun, east.

OGA. wealth, property.
OGE. bed, 20, 30.
OGI.  bread, crust, sandwich, baker, weasel, to thresh, maid, easy going.
OGU. to pronounce, to say out loud.

UGA. abundant, fruitful, to abound, bountiful, breast, stepchild, parent.
UGE. belt, dirty, swimmer, to rust, muddy.
UGI.  N.A.



AHA. I hope, perhaps, anger, argument, power, trial, capable, attempt, possible, almighty, shame, bold, shy, mouthful, to  forget, injury, ram, yawn, dirt, duck, to bark.
AHAI incest, relative, clan, affinity, anger, to argue, power.
AHE. disease of the mouth.
AHI. porridge, fatigue, custard, to end, sister, inexhaustible. (
ai = I hope, strong desire)
AHO. mouth, crater, cave entrance, tasteful, eloquent, flavor, bite, vocal, bad breath, tooth, to give advice, indiscrete, to  stutter, to pronounce, to bridle, to mention, spoken language, chaff, to exaggerate, to yawn, to kneel down, to deceive, to        utter.
AHU. weak, depression, female goat, palm of the hand, by the handful, goatherd, goat meat, concave, cheek. (
au = this  one, auek = these ones)

EHA. N.A. but often used as ea, the emphasis of an indirect question.
EHE. bleach.
hunting, game animal, net. (-ei = dry, certainly, to grind, to them)
EHO. to grind, milling, to digest, molar, grave digger, burial.
EHU. 100, century, to weave, textile merchant, centipede.

IHA. almost, jovial, expertise, dry, wallow, answer, frightened, argue, spend time, carnival, to scatter, to discuss. (ia= almost,  cheerful, hardly)
IHE. escape, inevitable, shelter.
IHI.  rushes, dew, to hunt, hunting blind, to cover.
IHO. thunder.
IHU. thunder.

OHA. bed, concubine, warning, comment, thoughtful, spontaneous, distracted, attention, look- out, counselor.
OHE. bed, brood, time in bed, mistress, canopy.
OHI.  custom, usual, to adjust, savage, stampede, timid, usual, to get used to, flower (archaic), forest, cloth, sailboat.
OHO. thief, accomplice, hideout, chalkboard, lumber, scaffold, honorable, famous.

UHA. belt, pebble, coast, flood, deluge, to fasten, water tower, riverbed, turbidity, island, to turn yellow, floodgate, lettuce.
UHE. grey, naughty, turbid, malicious, confusion, naughty.
UHI.  wave, ripple, undulate.
UHO. flood, deluge, ravine, torrential.
UHU. cry of happiness, to hoot.



AJA. ha-ha-ha, laughter.
AJE. to deteriorate, defective, upset.
AJI.  N.A.
AJO. care, concern, interest, negligent, to take care, heedless.
AJU. field of heather.

EJI.  N.A.

IJA.   N.A.
IJE.   N.A.
IJI.    gypsy, gypsy language.
IJO.  N.A.
IJU.  N.A.

OJA. edge of the forest.
OJI.  N.A.

UJA. N.A. (uha = archipelago)
UJE. N.A. but occasionally used in place of uhe= turbid, malicious)
UJU. shout of joy.




AKA. the end, death, ultimate, to argue, notched, defective, chip, fault, perfect, superior, to end a life.
AKE. witch, sheep tick, male goat, coffee, pointed beard, male pig, Goddess.
AKI.  fatigue, tiring, excuse, aged.
AKO. agreement, accordion, memory, traditional, to remember.
AKU. to incite, to spur on, to stimulate, to rent, to lease, acoustics.

EKA. substance, solstice, storm, to be used to, bringer, transport, contribution, to bring.
EKI.  sun, eastern, perseverance, initiative, attempt, as much as possible, militant, activist.
EKO. to produce, fertile, fruitful, administrator.
EKU. equator, worried, peace of mind.

IKA. familiar, fright, terror, enormous, timid, to terrorize, teachings, example, to learn, student, class, coal, fig trees, horror.
IKE. slope, to explore, research, scrutiny, examine, to visit.
IKI.  N.A.
IKO. that, swelling, mason's hammer, lump.
IKU. stable, touch, to mention, flag, motto, curious, watchful, visible, gift, scenic, curiosity, to look, good-bye, inspection,  spectator, to visit, to wash, bucket, hostility.

OKA. overfull, nausea, satiety, to vomit, bellyful, plum, occasional, disgust, despise, plentiful.
OKE. meat, twisted, mistakenly, bad, perverted, injury, error, astray, wrong, corrupt, oblique, winding.
OKI.  satiety, woodpecker, frightened, baker, to become bored, complete, total.
OKO. stable, chin.
OKU. fertile field.

UKA. hand, sock, boxer, forearm, pummel, elbow, to have, possession, wrist, to deny.
UKI.  to touch, intangible, contact, mention, to refer to, tangential.
UKO. refusal, denial, elbow, negative.
UKU. stable, to go bad, falsify, to rot, smelly.



ALA. in that way, even so, as, so-so, daughter, indeed, however, fate, casual, amen, fatally, I swear to, happy, similar, sudden,  wire fence, outcry, widow, to cause pain, miracle, feeding, widow, to fill with joy, destiny, necessary.
ALE. fruit, button, to be happy, grain, fake, certainly, rejoicing, fable, parable, simulation, trial, effort, carefully, grain abundance, total, barn, threshing.
ALI.  to destroy someone, to destroy a personality, possible, capable, pliers, to kill a person.
ALO. wage, hire, salary, to rent, wine storage, field, farmer, to engage, mercenary, marine algae.
ALU. stupid, vulva, feeble, repulsive action.

ELA. story, word, novel, talkative, swallow, elastic.
ELE. story, news, to talk, sacristan, sacraments, church, marriage banns, sacred, gossip, cattle.
ELI.  food, to feed, church, canon-law, pious, council, holy ground, oblation, procession.
ELO. thorn, spiny, thistle.
ELU. snow, slushy mud, avalange, edelweiss, snowball, reindeer, to freeze.

ILA. dead, month, hair, pea, in a row, to murder, moon, lunatic, tombstone, lifetime, white ash, to destroy, to weaken.
ILE. hair, fur, to comb, to cut hair, to turn grey, silky, teasing, joking, menstruation, barber, burning wood, toupee, balding,  grave yard, funeral, complaint, mourner, everlasting.
ILI.  burning wood, firewood, stir up, half burned wood, to revive, fiery brand, preacher, fiery, to revive.
ILO. nephew, niece, grandson, to bury, agony, grave, corpse.
ILU. darkness, shady, sad, confused, sunset, dim, mournful, to dye, to get angry. worry, vague, obscure, evening.

OLA. factory, foundry, cabin, plank, octopus, sledge, like this, canopy, wave, just like this.
OLE. last rites, poet, poem, summons, to call upon.
OLI.  annoint, oil, vendor, olive oil, holy.
OLO. oats, to feed oats to, oatmeal.

ULE. hair, example, intelligible, understanding.
ULI.  fly, coward
ULU. wail, howl, bark.



AMA. mother, Priestess, Goddess, 11, 12, 15, two weeks, end, many, to destroy, grandmother, rope, to fasten, to lace,              cunning, decade, to turn off, to quench, spoiled child, endless.
AME. oakum, burlap, make your fortune, dream, unreal, nightmare, delirium, fancy, whim, idealize, fantasy.
AMI.  stork, ravine, to throw off, cause to fall, tumbling, falling down, waterfall, administrator, amnesty.
AMO. love, kind, affectionate, grand-mother, clan-mother, mistress, gallantry, to yield, to oblige, strict, tolerant, fury, molest,  annoy, wrath, refund, blunt.
AMU. fishhook, line, affectionate, tender, distrust, bait.

EMA. female, vagina, prostitute, to calm, lust, result, generous, lady, to give, to hit, receipt, emission, performance, fruitful, to  abduct, wife, single, to get married, to produce, to teach.
EME. female, smooth, soft, shy, here, to enlarge, native, 19, peaceful.
EMI.  N.A.
EMO. present, to give, prolific, future.

IMA. statue, image, sculpture, magnet, wicker, wattle, idol.
IMI.  unit of measure, gesture, imitation, reproduction, exemplary, repeat.
IMU. to pinch.

OMA. grandma, house of Oma.
OME. honor, fame, rumor, tribute, famous, according to.
OMI.  All Saints' Day, Halloween, Hallowmass.

UMA. child, pregnant, procreation, fertile, birth, mature, ripening.
UME. child, young, offspring, give birth, litter, fetus, prolific, childish, overripe, nursery, womb, apple core, to adopt, orphan.
UMI.  humble, humility
UMO. ripe, mature, sensibly, uterous, humor, wit, mood, funny, bad tempered, prudent.



ANA. brother, congregation, religious order, civil war, anarchy, anatomy, to unite. (aña = wet nurse)
ANE. grain measure, (añe = to curse, swear).
ANI.  animal, many, often, multiple, increase.
ANO. food supply, portion, wine, anonymous, abnormal,
ANU. fainting, fall back in fear.

ENA. to swallow, that, -superlative.
ENE. my, exclamation (pain, surprise), property, in me, to me, to attract to me, come to me, when, my dear, before, always,  since.
ENI.  to me.
ENO. wart, covered with warts.
ENU. useless, inertia, weakness.

INA. hail, to swallow, to agitate, to shake, to open, to trim, pruning.
INE. inertia, passiveness, neutrality, do-nothing, downtrodden.
INI.  N.A. (
ainitz = many)
INO. ever, never, time to time, sometimes, in any manner, somehow, somewhere, absolutely not, dew, no-one, any place,  alienated, vacant, naive, stupid, to be cowed.
INU. to nurse, sunset, evening, twilight, ant, heath, prickly, tingle, inspiring, thunder, stupid.

ONA. here, closer, prosperity, unacceptable, welcome, approval, admit.
ONE. too good, kind, benefit, to enjoy, extreme patience, doing good, these, thus, like this, the best, to recover, exemplary,  piety, advantageous, improve, to come here, to accept, to praise, decent, tolerant, honesty, blessing, charity, right now, reconciliation.
ONI. real estate, success, safe and sound, funnel, consent, useful.
ONO. exquisite, very good, wonderful.
ONU. profit, earning, useless, beneficial, good faith, perfect, very nice.

UNA. boredom, annoyance, dull, cowherd, fatigue.
moment, place, spot, instant, short distance.
wet nurse, funnel, general, university.



APA. kiss, sit down, to cook, elegant, ornament, to make up, bathroom, to organize, luxury, priest, humble, shelving, dinner  guest, ravine, meek, poverty, foam, special, hoof, spongy.
APE. whim, fancy, priest, bishop, tendency, priest's dress.
API.  may be, accidental, April.
APO. toad, tadpole, to bet, apostle, filthy deed, insult, lodger, hoofed.
APU. breadcrumb, little bit, fragile, frugal, to shred, to destroy, to crush, to break.

EPA. decision, trial, court, judge, to cut, sentence.
EPE. term, postpone, due, indefinite, to defer, to warm, timid, to decrease, cool, give time, to expire, credit, indecisive,  prolong, bottom, glowworm, kinglet, short of time.
EPI.  epic.
EPO. dwarf, to grow small.
EPU. juniper, fragrant wood.

IPA. north, polar, N.W., Nordic, northern.
IPE. buttocks, rump.
IPI.  placeable, patch, to place, put on, installer, plantation of wicker.
IPO. dwarf, little chap.
IPU. story, legend, imaginary, narrative, moral, upside down, adulating, bottom, rump, anal, yoke pad, gospel, impatient.

OPA desire, offering, sacrifice, gift, rich, abundant, to wish for, to give.
OPE opera, operate, surgeon, out!
OPI  bun, roll, flatten out, baker, opium.
OPO vacation, time off, to do nothing, lazily, go against, opposition, wooden pouch.

UPA. barrel, cooper
UPE. wine cellar, store in vats, cask.
UPI.  N.A.
UPO. stave of a barrel.




ARA. there, proportion, according to, to adapt, to conform, agreement, apt, adequate, meat, lustful, scraped, carnivorous,  butcher, to assimilate, sexual, farther, curious, massacre, spider, plum, echo, prong, towards here, thorny, curse,  exorcise, interval, immediate, mediator, closet, duck, corrupt, pure, job, employ, worried, refine.
ARAU. discipline, proportion, legally, violator, regulation, code of laws, there.
ARRA. repetition, handful, scar, refine metals, gentle, split, to get drunk, fish, hell, reflection, curse, happiness, shouting,     `  boastful, to complain, careful, eagle, arrogant, weep, disorderly, plunder, greed, hastily, capture, rare, to drag, rat, evening, oar, egg, row, yawn, race, breed, reason, absurd, arbitrary, stone, infrequent.
ARRAU.oar, caviar, egg, yolk, to lay eggs, to row, to yawn, pancake, omelet, egg seller.

ARE.  even so, sand, more, to grow, rake, those, like that, his/her, approach, enemy hostility, recent, cover with sand.
ARRE. sister, sociable, please, prayer, to beg, impatient, welcome, redeemer, care, turbid, quarry, relationship, complaint,  equipment, kind, from then on.

ARI. mission, thread, to him/her, wire, active, until, exercise, wound, soul, ruthless, light, hasten, escape, race, thoughtless,  pertinent, oak grove.
ARRI. rock, stone, surprise, marvelous, amazing, awful, quarry, throwing stones, pebble, landmark, to risk, danger, fantastic,  to pave.

ARO.   weather, season, epoch, all, carpenter, blacksmith, forge.
ARRO. proud, riverbed, quarry, softening, excavation, vain, boastful, rose, rosary, yawn, stranger, innkeeper, exile.

ARU.    toward, farther, movement, to wander.
ARRU. chasm, vulgar, simply, commonly.




ERA. manner, appearance, opportunity, cause, to decide, sentence, entirely, reform, polite, use, profit, to move, available,  nonsense, exercise, effective, promote, influence, trouble, builder, murder, milk, scatter, active, method, sample, education, explain, to spend, patience, to suffer, sticky, attack, devotion, murmur, according to, convenient, ring (on finger), agitation, to carry.
ERRA. radical, bowels, rail, speaker, daughter-in-law, sunlight, radiant, giant, palm, rower, to say, to tell, to confess, gossip,   to wander, sting, to sweep, destructive, to burn, to cremate, negligence, easy.

ERE. too, as well, example, statue, ideal, to sow, to scatter, laurel wreath, wasteland, wilderness, hymn, occasion, side,   indulging.
ERRE. to burn, to bake, to smoke, reaction, realistic, irritable, root, to reform, proverb, gift, burnable, princess, throne, regal,  law, king, region, prayer, kingdom, stream, south wind, stream, care, to claim, corrosive, cure, to remedy, blacksmith's shop, tool, tugboat, charity, growl, cripple, refund, to surrender, row, limp, renter, roual road, tolling bells, slowly, to  reserve, respect, result, to retire, argument, touchy, simple, suspicious, welcome.

ERI. sickness, finger, vigil, noxious, death, recovery, agony, fatal, to have an opinion, unanimous, to compare, common, to  think, to call, to spill, to flow.
ERRI. village, town, public, region, to slacken, shore road, to argue, fight, raffle, native, shyme, strong, skillful, rite, common  people, castor oil.

ERO. crazy, every, carrier, to suffer, to tolerate, patience, transport, insane, to decline, ruin, risky, to fall, to die, slide, to  cause, to buy and sell, merchandise, bribe, to redeem, comfort, mourning, store, basket, erotic.
ERRO. root, origin, cause, crow, egg laying, crack, basic, romantic, narrative, pilgrim, to beg, twig, dispute, clothes, yawn,  mill, robust, to settle,to take root, secure.

ERU.   N.A.
ERRU. mistake, blame, guilt, innocence, wheel, to forgive, sadly, pity, mercy, cruel, compassionate, egg producing, to beg, abundant, to accuse.




IRA.  profession, profitable, to earn, to grow up, lucrative, victorious, paying, to mix, to make, suggestion, bargeman,  migratory, to spend time, to suffer, past, durable, constant, safe conduct, profit, warning, to announce, filter, offense, to injure, to leave, shot, school day, education, teacher, school, boiling, fervor, enraging, passion, reading, print, to stick, ghost, exciting, to wake up, to upset, to plow, revolt, to endure, perishable, patient, firmness, to ignite.
IRRA. radiating, to spread.

IRE.   your, opener, to open, to dig, hole, crack, to devour, destructive, to swallow, to absorb, to ruin.

IRI. town, city, to open, civic, to pulverize, wasteful, to squander, achievement, to acquire, to arrive, to get, to judge, opinion,  agreement, moderator, unanimous.
IRRI. malignant smile, mockery, laughable, funny, jovial, ridicule, to scoff, ambition, anxious, to whiney, risk, to slide, skate,  sled, to yearn for, sarcastic.

IRO.    reproach, toilet, manure pile, outhouse, garbage dump, irony, culvert.

IRU.  3, three sided, image, picture, to seem, to resemble, symbol, conceivable, worship idols, to simulate, false belief, to  represent, to appear, trimester, trio, weaver, to reverse, clover, one third, 60, 70, 300, fraud, trick, deceit, cheat, crook.




ORA.    dog, filling, present, now, modern, yet, right now, to catch, to grab always, update.
ORRA. there, up to that point, surprise, anger, eye of a needle, comb, to touch, sewing, to strip, to rob, to despoil.

ORE.    putty, dough, deer, mole (on skin), beauty mark, balance, aerialist, hour, o'clock, to watch, dentist.
ORRE. juniper, because of that, that one, thus, as much as, like that.

ORI.    that, yellow, gold colored, except, pale, to paint, freckle.
ORRI. leaf, sheet, to that one, foliage, banquet, feast, full of leaves, covered with leaves.

ORO. all, every, also, in addition, totality, similar, to unify, to monopolize, to buy up, to hoard, Creator, monument, memory,  to remind, universal, moss, ambitious.
ORRO. roaring, mooing, to shout, to scream.

ORU.     lower part of ground, building site, lot, place of oats.




URA.    he, she, that one, him, her, watery, bank of the river, to flood, ocean, watered wine, to float, washbasin, sugar water.
URRA. hazelnut, scratching, to touch, to move, closer, to claw, rupture, step by step, footstep, track, to tear, to violate, break  a law, lettuce.

URE.  waterfowl, boiled water, water carrier, nobility, dropsy, warm water, runny nose, irrigation ditch, riverbank, flood,  aquatic, water, to launch, beach resort, by the sea, to dilute.
URRE. gold, glitter, jewelry, to tarnish, next, to get closer, approach, silver.

URI.    city, communal forest, low tide, butter, grease, urban.
URRI. scarce, rare, defective, poor, miserable, to decrease, lack of, to be merciful, pitiful, reduction, repentant, aroma, scent, stink, freely, gratis, female animal, grove of hazel trees.

URO.    irrigation canal, brick casing, water pipe, marsh hen, cistern, reservoir, cold water.
URRO. hazel tree, grove of hazels.

URU. flower, to dip in flower.
URRU. to scorn, to reject, to despise, cooing of dove, sing a lullaby, far, distant, to leave, to move away, nostalgia.




ASA. ancestor, to go away, to reject, shocking, agitation, excitement, revolt, to disturb, scared, alarm, to get angry, to annoy,  enraged.
ASE. to be full, abundant, stuffed, greedy, to insure, craving, to anger, to irritate, to get tired.
ASI.  to begin, to start, initial, elementary, to bite, first fruit, origin.
ASU. nettle, new-born lamb.

ESA. to say, expression, witty, wise, phrase, speaker, gossip, weaving back and forth, to relate, meaning, lecture, moral of the  story.
ESE. to hang, to suspend, to and fro, to sit, chair, to attack, battle, to object, to argue, to debate. ESI. fence, siege, blockade,  to surround, to gather, round-up.
ESO. advice.

ISA. blow with a broom, long-tailed, short-tailed, broom, furze, gorse, tail.
ISE. joke, make fun of, derisive, to ridicule, act of satirizing.
ISI.  quiet, secret door, in low voice, bastard, reserved, to scheme, secret, in a whisper, to hide, to pause.
ISO. whoa!, torrential rain, isolation.
ISU. fine, to flow, to run, flowing ditch, canal, liquid, to shed, to spill, outlet, to inspire.

OSA. to get well, uncle, unfinished, therapy, composition, incurable, component, health, doctor, healer, sick, integrity,  perfection, hospital, to unify.
pit, abyss, very deep.
OSO. total, global, entire, sincere, simple, very, thorough, absolutely, perfectly.

USA. dove, usage, usual, get used to, sense of smell, suspicion, to guess, to stink, to smell, aroma, custom, habit, to use, holy  man.
USE. to sneeze.
USI.  to sneeze.
USO. dove, man of peace.
USU. often, frequently, habitual.



ATA. door, drummer, litel, main entrance, exterior, fragment, simple, to divide, whole, member, integral part, evergreen forest,  advantage, benefit, introduction.
ATE. gate, outside, porch, knock at the door, beggar, to take out, to leave, to get, abrupt, remark, result, protection, refuge,  clear, calm, shelter, door to door, to stretch.
ATI.  usually spelled ATXI: loyal to, faithful, to retain, to seize, to attach, to catch, to pinch.
ATO. tow, tugboat, to drag, to arrange, to prepare, to embellish, to solve, come!, shirt.
ATU. tuna, stony place, evergreen oak forest (= a better world).

ETA. and, abundance, era, stage.
ETE. perhaps, profit, wages, benefit, to break, to cut, to become tired, to interrupt, to break, continuously, to switch, to break  in, fragile, breaking point.
ETI. ethics, etiquette, formality, to label, to interrupt.
ETO. come! newcomer, origin, nature, caste, lineage, immigrant, original, inborn, docile, accommodating, arrival, welcome,  eloquence, to adapt to, to agree, inspiration.
ETU. bramble patch, (rarely:
etsitu = to despair, to be resigned to)

ITA. harvest with sickle, leak, drip, manger, to ask, interrogation, to question; ITXA: hope, trust, to await, have faith in
ITE. oxen's stable, work performed.
ITI.  ox.; ITXI: to close, to plug, to abandon, to denounce, to stop, to cloister, shut in, to permit, to allow.
ITO. to drown, to smother, to disgrace, to shame, to worry, anxiety, quickly, leak, drip, pigpen, filthy place, mud hole, anguish,  murderer.
ITU. leakage, agreement, testament, covenant, treaty, sad, melancholic, to agree, to be advised, spring, fountain, source,  frontal, origin, senseless.

OTA. gorse, stubble, crumb, basket, lobster, prawn, mouthful, bite, wild mountains.
OTE. perhaps, furze field, may be.
OTI.  grasshopper.
OTO. prayer, request, please, to beg, devout, rogation, mealtime, oratory, meal, chapel.
OTU. to occur to, meal.

UTE. N.A. (once used for ihute = carnival)
UTI.  go away! get out! (also written as
udikan); UTZI: omission, merely.
UTO. utopia, idealistic.
UTU. N.A. (rarely used for utsune= empty space).



AXI.  N.A.
AXO. care, concern, interest, worry, negligent, carefree.
AXU. shoelace, young/newborn lamb.

EXE. example, to sit.
EXI.  N.A.
EXO. exorcism, exotic.

IXA. pruning, to wake up.
IXI.  be quiet, calm.
quiet!, to light.

OXI.  oxide, oxygen.

UXA. to shoo away, beating for game.
UXI.  N.A.
UXU. yodel cry of happiness.



AZA. cabbage, bark of tree, skin, water surface, shallow, make-up, explanation, to scar, to appear, to warn, to discover, crust,  to show, manifest, to cover, difficult to explain, proposal, insincere, to peel, noise, planting season, sheaf, furrow, to dare.
AZE. starter, to speed up, fox, shrewd, cunning, burrow.
AZI.  to grow up, seed, big, acidity, livestock, wealth, birthplace.
AZO. open-air market, market day, merchant, cabbage, to cause to happen, bring about.
AZU. sugar, candy, to sweeten, boneless, bony, skeleton, carcass, bone deposit.

EZA. lack, shortness, negative, cancellation, to erase, signal, judgment, one who knows, knowledge, reason, evident, to  introduce, to guess, to recognize, ugly, to silence, to omit, founder, distinctive, discussion.
EZE. damp, green, nothing, humidity, omission, instability, somehow, any kind, that, anything, to destroy, needy, poor, useful,  to omit, to deny, disdain, fragile, unknown, except, not only, negative response.
EZI.  to tame, to domesticate, to train, educate, savage, except, without, invisible, educator, can't, impossible, destiny, fate,  impatient, excellent, supreme, grudge, ill-will, unbearable, inability, undeniable, precarious, nickname.
EZO. inexperienced, unaccustomed to, dishonor, to reject, unwell, wrong time, incomplete.
EZU. period of poverty, bone, skeleton, coincidence, spontaneity, by chance, unexpectedly.

IZA. nature, creation, character, to be, to exist, reality, past, entity, in fact, except, it will be, co-exist, procedure, star,  celebrity, moderation, to twinkle, island, identity, inborn.
IZE. aunt, name, fame, anonymous, to designate, specifically, to register, to discredit, nickname, signature, bad name, sweat.
IZI.  frightening, horror, enormity, to scare, atrocity.
IZO. salmon, pregnant, ice, frost, glacial, icicle, iceberg, to freeze.
IZU. panic, fright, to terrify, fearful, tremendous, very, daring, shocked, spooked, to terrorize, curl, epidemic, to infect.

OZA. cold, insolent, arrogant.
OZE. oceanic, sharp, penetrating voice, to resound, out loud.
OZI.  N.A.

UZA*. churlish, unkind, to drive away/off.
UZE*.  sneeze, name.
desire, ambition, to part, to divide.
UZO*. salmon.
UZU*.  frequently, epidemic, to irritate.



          A similar list can be made up for the many VCCV's such as azka, etxe, izki, ospe, uste, uzke, etc. Keep in mind that the "s" and "z" are frequently mixed up and therefore both must be tried to select the proper translation.