For teaching purposes:
[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]
[Note: All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN SUMERIA *
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An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001). He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of Sumeria seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which he called Saharan. It appears that the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan, and the Igbo Language of West Africa predated most languages Following is a discussion of this relationship:
The first change made by the men, who were now in charge of the tribe, was to dispose of the annual voluntary sacrifice of a special young man (Tammuz), which had been felt essential to bring back the summer and nature's productivity. He had experienced the exalted position of king, a bridge between the deity and the people, wearing the purple robe for six months after participating in the Sacred Marriage around May 1, and was supposed to have gone to his death on November 1 but refused, as was so well documented in the Gilgamesh epic. The end of female leadership can be deducted from the following quote in "In the Wake of the Goddesses" by Frymer-Kenski:
"The dynasty of Kish was founded by Enmebaragesi, a contemporary of Gilgamesh, who it now appears may have been a woman" (p. 79)
The "name" Enmebaragesi" tells us a story. When separating this "name" into its VCV components it becomes immediately clear that in this Samerian "name" we are dealing with a scholarly manipulated statement in the Saharan/Basque language:
en. - .me - eba - ara - age - esi
The 'harvest female' mentioned was no queen, and she did not found a dynasty, but she likely was a priestess associated with agriculture, a real historical person. Her "name" tells us in no uncertain terms that the time of the Goddess was on the decline, because male domination had arrived. With this change in society and abundant agricultural production came an astonishing outburst of scholarly inventiveness. Some educated people were now able to devote their lives to pursuits other than survival. They decided that the time had come to disband the tribal system and to create city states and nations. The old, highly evolved, language of Africa was considered too closely associated with the Goddess society and had to be changed, as is clearly shown in the creation of new languages such as Samerian and Akkadian.
Somewhere in West Africa the center of the first civilization on earth had developed and all people were taught the same highly developed language which Nyland later calls Saharan. Those migrants who subsequently settled in the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia, the Ukraine and the Indus valley therefore all spoke the same Saharan Language, which evolved from the more ancient Igbo Language: "Now the whole world spoke one language (Genesis 11:1)". In the areas where male domination had taken hold priest/scholars were assigned to develop new languages that had no likeness to the original. The people settling in the Indus valley taught the Saharan language to the endemic population which today is spoken in the little manipulated Dravidian family of languages (see Lahovary). The first efforts of manipulating the foundation language were probably made in Sameria and at first were quite unorganized, some using the original Saharan vowel-interlocking agglutination formula while others just put original words together, or combinations of both systems. Examples of vowel-agglutination are the new words invented for king shown here in several extinct near-eastern languages:
An example of assembling parts of Saharan words into new words and names without the VCV formula is: Nunbarsegunu, (an alternate name for the Goddess Nisaba, mother of Ninlil):
nun ' bar ' segunu
From these and following translations Nyland (2001) shows that both Samerian and Akkadian words and names are assembled by scholarly manipulation from Saharan/Basque vocabulary. The modern Basque-English dictionary by Gorka Aulestia is still perfectly suitable to translate these ca 4,800 year old names and words. This means that the modern Basque language has changed very little since that time. Other vowel-interlocking name are: Sumer, which tells of the peoples' arrival in Mesopotamia:
su - ume - er.
Akkadia, the nation of builders:
ak. - ka - adi - ia
All school children are taught that Mesopotamia is 1) a Greek word and 2) that it means "land between the rivers". Both statements are obviously incorrect:
.me - eso - opo - ota - ami - i.a
In the flat land the two rivers are usually sluggish but in the mountains both are wild. The name Mesopotamia is agglutinated from pure Saharan/Basque vocabulary, not Greek. The proper pronunciation of Mesopotamia has to be Mesopotamian because eso (advice) makes no sense in the description, exo does.
Two large rivers dominate Mesopotamia, the Euphrates and the Tigris, the pre-historic names of which are reported to have been Buranun and Idiglat. Both names are obviously made up out of Saharan/Basque:
When male domination arrived new languages were created and all geographical features renamed, but the new names carry the same message as the old ones:
eu - uf. - .ra - ate - es.
.ti - ig. - .ri - is.
Notations on stone, bone and clay have been known from as far back as 16,000 bce., according to Marija Gimbutas in "The Language of the Goddess". The Igbo of southern Nigeria are known to have written texts on sticks and clay vessels (See: Acholonu), but most writing did not come into being until the clay tablets were written in the City of Uruk some time before 3000 bce. in a pictographic script. This script evolved into the extremely durable cuneiform script by 2,800 bce.., which was used on clay for nearly 3,000 years. The first translation efforts were made around 1850 but no real progress occurred until 1923 when the first Samerian grammar appeared. In the intervening period, masses of clay tablets had been found and distributed to museums around the world. Many were treated as curiosities, carelessly dug up, stored without protection and often separated from the ones they were found with and even knocked in half to bring in more money. Much effort has now gone into reading them, but there still remains a massive amount to be done. In the meantime, the political uncertainties in Iraq have seen to it that excavation was effectively stopped. Whole libraries are thought to await discovery, to be brought to light by the next generations of students. A Goddess is given credit for the invention of writing:
ni - isa ' ba
Samerian is closely tied in with the Akkadian language, which is supposed to be a Semitic language. Akkadian myths were told in Samerian, Hittite, Hurrian and Akkadian. Samerian words have few, or no, vowels, but Akkadian words have vowels. The Akkadian writers appear to have considered Samerian to be a classical language, similar to our academics using Latin. People in positions of command had their names designed in Samerian, such as King Sargon:
.sa - ar. - .go - on.
Nin'Hursag was known as the Mountain Lady, Lady of the Foot-hills, Ninmah the Supreme Lady, Mother of all Children, Mistress of the Gods etc. The name Hursag is traditionally translated as either 'foothills' or 'mountains', however, although she had something important to do in the hilly country beyond the valley, this was not the translation. In order to supply the people in the valley with an adequate and reliable, potable water supply, an astonishing 80 km conduit was built from lakes existing in the eastern hills, much of it a tunnel, deep underground, cut through living rock. It still functions to this day, as planned so long ago. The translation of her name tells us what she did:
.ni - in. ' .hu - ur. - .sa - ag.
Stephany Dalley, in her "Myths from Mesopotamia" (p. 2) provides us with seven different names for the man who survived the great flood by building a boat. The Samerian name is thought to be the oldest:
.zi - i.u - usu - ud. - .ra
atra - aha - asi - is.
Utnapishtim, the wise priest of Shuruppak, mentioned in the Gilgamesh Epic (ca 2700 B.C.). This name is also thought to be Akkadian, however, the translation of his name appears to have nothing to do with the big flood or the ark. However, what Ms. Dalley thought to be his hologram: Ud.Zi could very well refer to the flood: udi-izi, udikan-izi (go away - it's frightening).
ut. ' na ' pish ' ti
xu - uru - up. - .pa - ak.
k. - .zi - isu - ut. - .h. - .ro - os.
Of the above seven names for the boatman who survived the flood, listed by Stephany Dalley, Utnapishtim and Shuruppak do not appear to belong in the story of the Ark. Atrahasis, Ziusudra, Noah, Kzisuthros and even UdZi qualify as authentic flood names.
A first millennium lamentation which refers to the flood is the "Uruamirabi Congregational Lament".(Mark Cohen in "The Canonical Lamentations of Ancient Mesopotamia" Potomac Md, 1988.)
uru - uha - ami - ira - abi
Ama'ushumgalanna, supposedly the name by which the Priestess called the king who was her partner in the Sacred Marriage feast (Frymer-Kenski p.59). More likely it is the traditional cry uttered by the Priestess at the start of the sexual union:
ama ' ushu - ume - galan - na
Ammisaduqa (king of Babylon):
am. - .mi - isa - adu - uka
Anduruna (home of the gods), andu - uruna
Aruru (mother goddess):
aru - uru
Assurbanipal (king of Assyria who succeeded king Esarhaddon and then extended the Assyrian empire to reach from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean and the Caucasus):
as. - .su - ur. - .ba - ani - ipa - al.
Astarte (one of the three prominent goddesses of Ugarit):
asta - arte
Badtibira (early city, rival of Uruk?, hardly):
bad ' ti ' bira
Enheduanna, (daughter of Sargon):
en. - .he - edu - u.a - ana
Enki (god of pro-creation):
en. - .ki
Geshtinanna (goddess who sang laments for the return of her brother Dumuzi (Tammuz) from the
gestina - ana
Gudea (king of Lagash, ca 2200 B.C.):
gud. ' ea
Hammurabi (early Babylonian king and law-giver):
ham. ' mu. - ura - abi
Kazallu (early city?):
kaz ' alu
Lugal'raggesi, (king of Umma who laid siege to the city of Lagash and destroyed it". The following translation is obviously not his real name, but instead was written by one of his victims.)
.lu - uga -
al. ' .za - ag.
- .ge - esi
Meskiaggasir (possibly the first king of Uruk):
.me - es. - .ki- ag.-.ga - asi - ir.
Urukagina (king of Lagash who protected his citizens from bureaucratic injustice.)
uru - uka - agi - ina
Zabalam (early city):
zabal - am.
Zulummar (goddess who dug the clay for Enlil to create humanity):
.zu - ulu - um. - .ma - ar.
It is astonishing to me that the Neolithic language of the Sahara has survived the millennia almost intact, while virtually all of the later languages, derived from the Saharan substratum, were greatly altered over time or by design, or have not survived the test of time. The fact that the very early Saharan Language is still spoken in almost the same condition by the Basque people must have a very special reason behind it, possibly something to do with the incredibly accurate oral transmission of the legends and literature, which required a very high standard of education. Another reason may be that the vowels are extremely stable in Basque, while the consonants are stable in Indo-European and the vowels very unstable (e.g. sing - sang - sung), which may well have been done on purpose in the 'turning around' process.
The migrating peoples from the Sahara appear to have created the high civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Indus valley. Several archaeologists working in Sameria commented on the fact that the Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations appeared to have no primitive base locally i.e. the people arrived there from elsewhere with all the knowledge of how to build such a civilization. They therefore must themselves have experienced this civilization in their place of origin, probably in southern Nigeria, and later northward where extensive irrigation canal systems have been spotted (NASA photography) and standing stones are still prominent. The Saharan Language, that is now known to have its origins in the more ancient Igbo Language of Nigeria, is clearly detectable in all four early civilizations, as is shown above for Sumer and Akkad and in the following: Old Egyptian, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Dravidian.