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[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]

 

       [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]

 

BASQUE PLACE NAMES IN AMERICA

AFRICA & THE PACIFIC

[Contacts]

 

 

          Many of the place names in America, Africa and the Pacific were constructed in a kind of shorthand using the Basque language or its precursors (Nyland 2001).  It is believed that the individuals responsible for creating these names were ancient migrants from North Africa and during the Christian Era, Roman Catholic clerics.  These people had a detailed knowledge of an ancient formula for constructing languages called the Vowel-Consonant-Vowel Formula (see VCV Dictionary).  This formula was being used to increase the size of vocabularies since Neolithic times (see Saharan).  The Benedictine clerics who were sent to spread Christianity through Europe beginning in the 6th Century had full knowledge of the formula (see Benedictines).  Frequently they used clever innovations to add double meanings to words and sentences, for purposes that are not entirely understood.  [Also see:  Human Migrations & Language]

 

          The Roman Catholic church indeed had full knowledge of this formula and used it to create many of the modern European languages.  However, it was not until the late 20th Century that the formula’s existence was brought to the public’s attention by Edo Nyland.  He discovered that prior to Christian times there was a common language in use over most of Europe, Africa, and parts of Asia and in the Pacific that had its ancient origin in North Africa, which he called Saharan that we know now was preceded by a more ancient language from West Africa that was spoken by the Igbo people.   Nyland noted that modern Basque was most closely related to it, also he found that the Roman Catholic clergy continued to use the ancient language into the 19th Century to create new words and place names wherever they happened to travel.  The Basque/English dictionary written by Gorka Aulestia (1989) is a valuable source for the meanings of words of the ancient Saharan language.  Nyland derived the name Saharan from its use being found at archeological sites in the Saharan Desert when a higher human population density flourished during a  wetter and greener North Africa.

 

          While translating ancient inscriptions and place names, Nyland discovered the Basque origin of many of the names in America and throughout the Pacific that were commonly thought to be of European or native dialects. He noted that the name “America” did not originate with the Italian Amerigo Vespucci, but instead came from the Basque verb “amerikak egin”, which means, “to make a fortune.” 

 

          Following are some of the places that Nyland found with Basque roots in their names.  The traditional meanings of these names are included when possible.  For a complete discussion of how the translations were made please refer to Nyland (2001) and Etymological Dictionary.

 

 

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     [Also see World Place Names]

 

Africa

af.-.ri-ika, afa-ari-ika: afa (happy) arinari eman (to escape) ikaragarritasun (tragedy): "We are happy to have escaped the tragedy".

 

Agiguan (Marianas)

agi-igu-an., agindu (orders) igurika (to wait for) -an (inside): "Wait for orders on the island".

 

Agrihan (Marianas)

agiri-iha-an, agirian (obviously) ihar (arid) -an (inside): "The island is obviously arid".

 

Alabama, USA

Traditional Meaning = Tribal Town (Creek Indian)

 

Basque Meaning =  The many opportunities fill us with joy.

 

Alaska, USA

Traditional Meanings= Object to which the action of the sea is directed.  &/or An Aleut word for mainland.

 

Basque Meaning = Indescribable miracles.

 

Ailinglapalap (Marshall Islands)

ai-ili-ing.-.la-apa-ala-apo, ai (strong desire) ilinti (burning) ingiratu (to get ready) il (to die) apaiz (priest) alabear (fate) apokeria (human sacrifice): "I have a burning desire to get ready to die the priest's fate of a human sacrifice".

 

America

ameri-ika, ameriketak egin (to make a fortune) ikaragarri (enormous): "Make an enormous fortune".

 

Arizona, USA

Traditional Meanings = Silver Bearing & Place of the small spring (Papago)

 

Basque Meanings = An awfully icy wind here &/or One risks freezing here.

 

Arkansas, USA

Traditional Meaning = An Indian tribal name

 

Basque Meaning = The heartbreaking deaths in the shocking civil war anger me.

 

American Samoa, USA

Traditional Meaning = Polynesian name.

 

Basque Meaning = Basque meaning not yet translated.


Aur (Marshall Islands)

aur (child): "Child of Maloelap".

 

Australia

aus.-.tra-ali-iha, ausa-atra-ali-iha: ausarta (courageous) atrakatzaile (robber, convict) alizan (capable) ihaurri (to scatter, to go everywhere): "Courageous and capable convicts went everywhere"

 

Bethlehem

.be-et. h.-.le-em., abe-ete he-ele-eme: abeletxe (stable) etenune (time of birth) hementxe (right here) ele (cattle) emekiro (peaceful): "The time of birth came right here in the stable between the peaceful cattle."

 

Bikar (Marshall Islands)

bika-ar., bika-arra, bikain (extraordinary) arrantza (fishing): "Extraordinarily good fishing".

 

Brasil/Brazil

.b.-.ra-azi-il., eba-ara-azi-il: ebasle (thief) arrapatu (to plunder) azienda (wealth) ilki (to leave): "The thieves plundered our wealth and then left".

 

California, USA

Traditional Meaning = A mythical country named Califia &/or An invented name for an imaginary island.

 

Basque Meaning = The disgusting killing of a person by the quarrelling gold miners is frightening.

 

Canada

.ka-ana-ada, akabu (the far end) anaitu (to get together) ada (the noise of the last word): "At the far end we'll have a party".

 

Carolina (North & South)

Traditional Meaning = Carolina named in honor of England’s King Charles I.

 

Basque Meaning = no Basque found.

 

Chad

txa-ad., txa-adi: txankaldu (to divide the land into fields) adiskedigisa (in a friendly manner): "They divided the land into fields in a friendly manner".

 

Colorado, USA

Traditional Meaning = Spanish word for “red”

 

Basque Meaning = I adore the colors.

 

Connecticut, USA

Traditional Meaning = Mohican and Algonquin Indian for “Place beside the river.”

 

Basque Meaning = Remember the wonderful blessings of productivity and tenacity when you visit our utopia.

 

Dakota (North & South)

Traditional Meaning = Amerindian name meaning “Alliance of friends.”

 

Basque Meaning = No Basque meaning.

 

Delaware, USA

Traditional Meaning = Believed to have been named after governor Thomas West, Lord de la Warr.

 

Basque Meaning = Spread the word of the Redeemer.

 

Ebon (Marshall Islands)

ebo-on., ebo-ondi, eboluzio (development) ondikotsu (unfortunate): "Unfortunate development".

 

Egypt

egi-ip.-.t., egi-ipu-uto: egin (to create) ipuin (legend) utopia (utopia): "They created the legend of utopia".

 

Florida, USA

Traditional Meaning = Spanish word for Pascua Florida &/or Flowery Place (for the flowering trees).

 

Basque Meaning = None found.

 

Galilee

.ga-ali-ile, iga-ali-ile, igarle (prophet) alienatu (to kill a person) ileta (lament, mourning): "Lament for the killed prophet".

 

Georgia, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for King George II of England.

 

Basque Meaning = None found.

 

Guam  (Marianas) , USA

Traditional Meaning = Pacific Islander name.

 

Basque Meaning =.gu-am., agu-ama, agur (greetings) ama (mother): "Greetings for mother".

 

Guguan (Marianas)

.gu-.gu-an, agu-agu-an, agur (good bye) agur (good bye) andana (people): "God buy, good buy people".

 

Hawaii, USA

Traditional Meaning = Hawaiian word for homeland, “Owhyhee.”

 

Basque Meaning = This one is exhausting to reach.

 

Hilo ,Hawaii

ilo, ilobi (tomb, grave): "Site of the grave".

 

Hudson (Bay)

.hu-ud.-.so-on., uhu-udi-iso-ona, uhui (cry of happiness) udikan (to get out) isolamendu (isolation) (isolation) onargaitz (intolerable, hostile): "He cried for joy to get out of the hostile isolation".

 

Idaho, USA

Traditional Meaning = Amerindian “E Dah Hoe” or Gem of the Mountains.

 

Basque Meaning = An exaggerated description.

 

Illinois, USA

Traditional Meaning = Algonquin word for “warriors.” or “men and warriors.”

 

Basque Meaning = This quiet place possibly will do for a lifetime.

 

Indiana, USA

Traditional Meaning = Land of the Indians.

 

Basque Meaning = Our American brothers.

 

Iowa, USA

Traditional Meaning = Kiowa name.

 

Basque Meaning = Be warned about the thunderstorms.

 

Jerusalem

je-eru-usa-ale-em., jentil (pagan) errukigabe (cruel) usadio (custom) alegia (fake) emankortasun (fertility):"Cruel pagan custom for fake fertility."

 

Kansas

Traditional Meaning = Sioux Indian “South wind people”

 

Basque Meaning = The deaths in the shocking civil war anger me.

 

Kaula ,Hawaii

.ka-aula, akabu (the end, when we get there) aulagotu (to weaken): "When we got there we were weakened".

 

Kentucky, USA

Traditional Meaning = Iroquois word “Ken-tah-ten” meaning Land of Tomorrow &/or Meadow Land

 

Basque Meaning = I explored that stony place and rejected it completely.

 

Kenya

.ke-eni-iha, ike-eni-iha: ikertu (to pay a visit) eni (to me) ihardun (to spend time): "Pay a visit to me and spend some time".

 

Kwajalein (Marshall Islands)

.ku-aja-ale-in., aku-aja-ale-in., akuila (to urge on) ajaja (laughter) -ale (agent, cause) indar (strength): "Laughter urges on and creates strength".

 

Lanai ,Hawaii

.la-anai, ala-anai, alabear (fate) anai (brother): "The fate of my brother".


Laysan ,Hawaii

lai-izan, laino (foggy) izan (to be): "It is foggy".

 

Louisiana, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for King Louis XIV of France

 

Basque Meaning = None searched for.

 

Maine, USA

Traditional Meaning = From mainland, changed to French province.

 

Basque Meaning = Cunningly neutral.

 

Maloelap (Marshall Islands)

ma-alo-ela-ap., maiburuko (guest speaker) alogerekotu (to be paid money) ela (story) apaindu (to embellish, to trump up): "The guest speaker was paid money to embellish the story".

 

Maryland, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for Virgin Mary &/or Henrietta Maria, the wife of England’s King Charles I.

 

Basque Meaning = The many tall oak groves are reduced to ash.

 

Massachusetts, USA

Traditional Meaning = Algonquian word meaning “At the big hills” or “A large hill place.”

 

Basque Meaning = Our task is to bring about statehood, tilling of the soil, harvesting the abundance and to do subdivision.


Maug (Marianas)

.ma-ug., ama-uga, ama (mother) ugalkor (prolific): "Prolific mother".

 

Maui ,Hawaii

.ma-uhi, ema-uhi, eman (to beat repeatedly) uhin (wave): "Constantly beaten by waves".

 

Michigan, USA

Traditional Meaning = Amerincian word “meieigama” meaning “Great Water.” &/or Algonquian word meaning “Forest  clearing.”

 

Basque Meaning = The military had to leave because of the unpredictable food supply.

 

Minnesota, USA

Traditional Meaning = Sioux Indian word for “Sky-tinted water.” &/or “Cloudy water.”

 

Basque Meaning = It is marvelous anywhere in these exotic wild hills.

 

Mississippi

Traditional Meaning = Chippewa Indian words “mici zibi” meaning “Great river.”

 

Basque Meaning = To my unspeakable horror he fell into the very deep torrential rain like into the legendary whirlpool.

 

Missouri, USA

Traditional Meaning = Amerindian name meaning “Town of the large canoes” &/or Algonquian for “Muddy River.”

 

Basque Meaning = Hide from this miserable torrential rain which keeps falling down.

 

Montana, USA

Traditional Meaning = Spanish word for “Mountainous.”

 

Basque Meaning = I loved it among those pastures in the wonderful wild mountains.

 

Nebraska, USA

Traditional Meaning = Oto or Sioux Indian word for “Flat water” [= Platte River].

 

Basque Meaning = Happily the evangelist comes here to begin his teachings.

 

Nevada, USA

Traditional Meaning = Spanish for “Snowy.”

 

Basque Meaning = Nowhere is firewood to be cut.

 

New Hampshire, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named by John Mason who hailed from Hampshire county, England.

 

Basque Meaning = None searched for.

 

New Jersey, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named by Sir George Carterer after his home island.

 

Basque Meaning = None searched for.

 

New Mexico, USA

Traditional Meaning = named after Mexico.

 

Basque Meaning for Mexico = Gently we introduce elementary teachings.

 

New York, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named after the Duke of York, brother of Charles II.

 

Basque Meaning = Always caring and stimulating.

 

Oahu ,Hawaii,

oa-ahu, oaratu (in heat) ahuntz (female goat): "Female goat in heat".

 

Ohio, USA

Traditional Meaning = Iroquois word for “Good river.”

 

Basque Meaning = Get used to the thunderstorms.

 

Oklahoma, USA

Traditional Meaning = Choctaw word for “Red man.”

 

Basque Meaning = Her entire lifetime grandma was giving advice.

 

Quebec, Canada

ke-ebe-ek., ke-ebe-eku: kementze (act of encouraging) ebertar (the Hebrew, Christ) ekurutasun (peace of mind): "Christ encourages peace of mind".

 

Rota (Marianas)

.ro-ota, arro-ota, arro (proud) otargile (basket maker): "Proud basket maker".

 

Rhode Island, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for Greek Island of Rhodos &/or by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, “Rhoode Eylandt.”

 

Basque Meaning = Awful thunder clouds.

 

Sahara

.sa-aha-ara, iza-aha-ara, izadi (nature, character) ahalguzti (Almighty) aratz (pure): "The Omnipotent's character is pure".  The previous translation has been: zahar (old): "The Old Country?” This is not likely.

 

Saipan (Marianas)

sai-aipa, saiaketa (attempt) aipatu (famous for): "Famous for attempt".

 

Senegal

.se-ene-ega-al., ase-ene-ega-ala: asezin (insatiable craving) enegan (within me) egape (shelter, home) alai aldi (happiness): "Within me there is an insatiable craving for a home and happiness".

 

Taka (Marshall Islands)

taka, takada (Gentle push): "Give me a gentle push".

 

Tennessee, USA

Traditional Meaning = Cherokee Indian villages called “Tanasi.”

 

Basque Meaning = The blessed one who knows will nourish and protect the afflicted; so pay attention.

 

Texas, USA

Traditional Meaning = Indian tribal name, “Tejas.”

 

Basque Meaning = Seek shelter from the many frightening storms.

 

Utah, USA

Traditional Meaning = Ute Indian name meaning “People of the mountains.”

 

Basque Meaning = They left their kinship behind.

 

Uganda

uga-anda, ugaldu (to grow a crop) andanaka (in large quantities):"They grow crops in large quantities".

 

Utirik (Marshall Islands)

uti-iri-ik.: utikan (go away) irrikatu (to desire vehemently) ikara (terror): "I desire vehemently to get away from the terror".

 

Vermont, USA

Traditional Meaning = French “verts monts,” meaning “Green Mountains”

 

Basque Meaning = We improve the wilderness and give thanks for nature’s blessings.

 

Virginia, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for England’s “Virgin Queen, “ Elizabeth I.

 

Basque Meaning = The digging of the canal bed was accomplished by the engineer’s expertise.

 

Washington, USA

Traditional Meaning = A personal name from England

 

Basque Meaning = Well spoken of person with a carefree disposition who laughs a lot.

 

Wake Island, USA

ake, akela (priestess): "Home of) the priestess".

 

Wisconsin, USA

Traditional Meaning = Chippewa word “Ouisconsin,” meaning “Grassy place.” &/or Algonquian for “Long river.”

 

Basque Meaning = During the torrential rain we hid from the thunder, safe and sound, in a stable.

 

Wott (Marshall Islands)

ot., ota, otalur (land covered with furze): "Island covered with furze (Leguminosae)".

 

Wyoming, USA

Traditional Meaning = Algonquin or Delaware word meaning “Large prairie” or “Broad plains.”

 

Basque Meaning = The thunder is drawing near from all around.

 

Oregon, USA

Traditional Meaning = Not clear (early map shows “Ouaicon-sint.”

 

Basque Meaning = So many wonderful opportunities.

 

Pagan (Marianas)

.pa-aga-an., opa-aga-ana, opari (sacrifice) -aga (abundance of) anaigo (group of worshippers): "Group of worshippers with an abundance of sacrifice".

 

Papua (New Guinea)

apapua (living in poverty): "They live in poverty".

 

Pennsylvania, USA

Traditional Meaning = Named for Admiral William Penn and “sylvan” meaning woodland.

 

Basque Meaning = Pena/pen in Basque means suffering.

 

Peru

.pe-eru, ape-eru: apez (priest) errukigabe (cruel): "The priests are cruel".

 

Puerto Rico, USA

Traditional Meaning = Spanish for “Rich port.”

 

Basque Meaning = No Basque searched for.

 

 

 

  ======================================================

  Reference:

 

          Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
               Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

                ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p. [ see abstract & summary]