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For teaching purposes:

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]

 

[Note:All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]

 

IRELANDíS OGAM INSCRIPTIONS *

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Introduction


††††††††† Both the early Irish and the succeeding Roman Catholic church used the Ogam script. As the following examples show, long sentences were condensed into very short Ogam inscriptions by compiling the first consonants of words of the indigenous Irish language into one "word" with a few vowels added in between. The resulting word usually made no apparent sense. It was not supposed to. Nyland (2001) suggested that the amazing thing about this Ogam script is that it was designed for, and could be used with, one language only. The encoded sentence could be decoded and read with considerable confidence, but only if the inscription was clearly legible. The language used was the universal (Gen. 11:1) Saharan Language a precursor of which we now know in western Europe as Basque. Many have tried to translate the inscriptions using the Celtic language, but without any success. Not a single genuine Ogam inscription is written in Celtic, and so far Edo Nyland had not found a single name in any of them. The Celtic language did not yet exist at the time these petroglyphs were made, as explained in the Benedictines' own operations manual the "Auraicept" . Only the Basque Language and a more ancient West African Igbo Language possess the vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) structure of the morphemes which allows the encoding into the Ogam script (see VCV Formula).

 

††††††††† The modern Basque-English dictionary by Gorka Aulestia is eminently suited to decode and translate many of these very old inscriptions, in combination with Nylandís VCV dictionary,. About half of the words in the Basque vocabulary start with VCV, and it was this VCV half which was used almost exclusively in the Ogam inscriptions. See also the "Saharan Language". One very special characteristic of both the Ogam script and the Saharan language is that numerical- and letter- magic is built into the structure of the inscription.This early Christian magic was intended to overpower the magic of the pre-Christian, or Ashera Religion (see Jackson 1993, chapters 7 and 8). For example, both Q and K are used in the inscriptions and both represent a K.However, the number of strokes in the inscription and the total value of the letters is different, which has to do with the numerical magic of the inscription. For a more detailed discussion of the all-pervading pre-Christian magic and its use, please see the section on magic in "The Timeless Society", a society very different from ours.

 

††††††††† The numbers behind the following inscription names refer to the "Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum" by R.A.S. Macalister (1949).

 

 

THE BALLISPELLAN BROCHE #27

 

 

†††††† The silver Ballispellan broche is located in the Treasury of the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Beside the broche was a description saying that the Ogam engraving on the backside had not yet been translated but that it was expected to give the name of the artist who made the broche. Two years later, this explanation was replaced with the suggestion that the inscription represented the names of four successive owners, even though the lettering was done in exactly the same hand. These remarks were obviously guesswork.This then became a challenge for Edo Nyland because the Ogam inscription is one of the longer known and has far too many letters to be merely an artist's name or even four names. In fact, the four carefully inscribed lines are one tragic story and there is no break in the interlocking between them. This inscription is #27 in the Irish National Register compiled by R.A.S. Macalister.

 

††††††††† This tantalizing inscription intrigued Edo Nyland and he was compelled to translate it. The lettering appeared to be in a code that had not yet been broken. It was obvious that the language could not be Gaelic so he tried Latin., which was the only other language that was known to be in use in Ireland. However, this was not productive. After months of groping with possible codes, involving comparisons with Ogam from Scotland, Ireland and West Virginia, the effort finally paid off when the surprise language showed up, thanks to an article by Dr. Cavalli-Sforza in Scientific American (November 1991 issue). The solution turned out to be deceptively simple. It involved a code so ingenious that only one consonant was required to express an entire complex word and still allow that word to be identified with confidence. The paucity of vowels did create a few problems in deciphering but none were insurmountable. Some value judgments were required in cases where more than one interpretation was possible, but the long and coherent text made this relatively easy. In the end it was the liberal scattering of vowels throughout this inscription that made it possible to translate its meaning.

 

††††††††† Here is the lettering as transliterated in Ireland:

 

CNAEMSECHCELLACHMINODORMUADMAELMAIREMAELUADAIG

 

††††††††† As the "C" is not part of the original Ogam alphabet, this letter had to be written as "K". The complete coding would show alternating vowels and consonants: VCVCVCV etc. However, many vowels and some h's were removed so that only those (mostly monks) knowledgeable of the system could read it at the time. The removed vowels and H's are represented here by dots. The three spaces indicate the places where the vowel interlocking is interrupted.

 

.K.NA.EM.SEK.H.KEL.LAK.H.   .MINODOR.MU.AD.   .MA.EL.MA.IRE   .MA.ELU.ADA.IG.

 

.k.†††††††††† aka††††††††††† akabu†††††† ††††† death
.na†††††††††† ana††††††††††† anai††††††††††††††brother
a.e†††††††††† ahe††††††††††† aihezka†††††††††† grieving
em.††††††††† ema†††††††††† emazte††††† †††† wife
.se†††††††††† ase††††††††††† aserregorri †††††fury
ek.†††††††††† eka††††††††††† ekaizte †††††††††††storm
.h.†††††††††† ahi††††††††††† ahituezin†††††††† endless
.ke†††††††††† ike††††††††††† ikertu†††††††††††to explore, search
el.††††††††††† ele†††††††††††† ele†††††††††††††††††story
.la††††††††††† ela†††††††††††† elaberriti††††††††† talker, story teller
ak.†††††††††† aka††††††††††† akabu††††††††††††† dead
.h.†††††††††† aha††††††††††† ahaideko†††††† ††relative
.mi†††††††††† ami†††††††††† amilketa††††††† fell down cliff
ino†††††††††† ino††††††††††† inolaz†††††††††††† somehow
odo††††††††† odo†††††††††† odolgaizto ††††††violently
or.†††††††††† ora††††††††††† oratu†††††††††††††seized
.mu††††††††† amu††††††††† amultsuki †††††††affectionately, gently
u.a†††††††††† uha†††††††††† uharka †††††††††††waterbody
ad.†††††††††† ada††††††††††† -ada ††††††††††††††††roaring
.ma††††††††† amai††††††††† amaitu††††† ††† †††endlessly
a.e†††††††††† aihe†††††††††† aihenatu†† ††† †††to disappear
el.††††††††††† ele†††††††††††† elegile††††††††††††† storyteller
.ma††††††††† ama†††††††††† emakumezko††† woman
a.i††††††††††† ahi††††††††††† ahitortu †††††††††††to witness
ire††††††††††† ire†††††††††††† irensle †††††††††††††swallowing by the sea
ema†††††††† emai†††††††† emaitza†††† †††† ††ending
a.e†††††††††† aihe†††††††††† aihenegarri†††† lamentable
elu†††††††††† elu††††††††††† elurtu††††††††††††to freeze
u.a†††††††††† uha†††††††††† uhalde†††††††††††coast
ada††††††††† ada††††††††††† adarreztatu††††† to cover with branches
a.i††††††††††† ahi††††††††††† ahizpa†††††† ††† ††woman
ig.††††††††††† iga†††††††††††† igar ††††††††††††††††dead
 
 

††††††††† My dead brother's grieving wife searched endlessly in the fury of the storm. The story teller's dead relative had somehow fallen violently down a cliff, was seized gently by the endlessly roaring water and then disappeared. The storyteller witnessed the woman being swallowed by the sea. The lamentable ending on that frozen coast was the covering of the dead woman with branches.

 

 

††††††††† Note: The word irensle (swallowing) comes from the verb irentsi (to swallow). In the context it is a shortening of itzasoak irentsi hura (the sea swallowed her). Nyland (2001) has estimated that the inscription on the Ballispellan broche was made between 600 and 700 A.D.

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

DRUMMIN #11

 

CUNAVATO corrected to: KUNABATO

 

.ku-una-aba-ato
.ku   †††† aku   ††† akuilatu    to stimulate
una   †††† una  †††
unadora     boredom
aba   †††† aba   †††
abade        priest
ato   †††† ato   †††
ator        ††† Come!


"The priest will stimulate your boredom; come!"

 

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

AHALISKY #70

 

CUNAGUSOSMAQIMUCOIVIRAGNI
corrected to:
KUNAGUSOSMAKIMUKOIBIRAGNI

 

 

.ku-una-agu-uso-os.   .ma-aki   .mu-uko-oi    .bi-ira-ag.-.ni
.ku    iku   †††† ikuste      the act of seeing
una    una   ††
unatu       †† to tire
agu    agu   ††
agur egin    to worship
uso    uso    ††
uso          †† dove, holy man
os.    oso   †††
oso          †††† sincere

.ma    ama   
ama         ††† mother
aki
  aki   ††† akiarazi   ††† to tire, to age

.mu    amu  ††
amultsu     affectionate
uko    uko   
uko egin    †† to renounce
oi  ††   oi    †††
oiheskeria  †† vulgarity

.bi     ubi   †††
ubil         ††† whirlpool
ira   ira   ††††
irauti       ††† patient
ag.    agu  †††  
agur egin   to worship
.ni     uni   ††
unibertsal  †† general


"After seeing the tired and sincere holy man in worship, our aged and affectionate mother renounced the vulgarity of the whirlpool by patient general worshiping".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

CARHOOVAULER #73

 

DOMNGEN

.do-om.-.n.-.ge-en.
.do   ado     adoratu   to worship
om.    oma   
oma        †† grandmother
.n.   ana   ††
anaia     †† religious brother
.ge    age   ††
agerian   †† openly
en.    ene   ††
enetan    †† always


"Grandmother's religious brother always worshiped openly".   

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

BALLYKNOCK #89

 

BOGAIMAQIBIRACO
corrected to:
BOGAIMAKI    BIRAKO

 

.bo-oga-ai    .ma-aki   .bi-ira-ako


.bo    abo   †† abonau         to approve of, to voice
oga    oga   ††
ogasun         wealth
ai   ††† ai   ††††
aiene         ††† lament

.ma    ama    
ama            mother
aki  †† aki   ††
akiarazi        to tire, to age

.bi  ††† obi   
obi           †††††† grave
ira   †† ira   ††
iraunkor     ††  suffering
ako    ako   
akorduan euki†† to remember


"Voicing a wealth of lament, we remembered our aged mother's suffering at her grave".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

BALLYKNOCK #94

 

DEGOMACI VEDUKURI
corrected to:
DEGOMAKIBEDUKURI

 

††††††††† Macalister, because of lack of clarity here, had to decide between DOMMOMACI and DEGOMACI and he picked the first one that was impossible to translate. He also rejected someone else's transliteration VEDUCURI in favor of his own VEDUCERI. Again his chosen interpretation was impossible to translate because there exists no such letter combination in Basque as UCE (UKE).

 

.de-ego   .ma-aki   .be-edu-uku-uri


.de   ede    eder egin †† to be pleased
ego  ego   
egon     †††   to stay

.ma    ama   
ama        mother
aki
  aki    akitu     ††† to be exhausted

.be    abe   
abelgorri   cattle
edu    edu   
eduki     †† to keep
uku    uku   
ukuilu     stable
uri    uri   
urrindu    to smell


"The exhausted mother was pleased to stay with the cattle, kept in the smelly stable".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

BALLYKNOCK #95

 

ANM MEDDOGENI.

 

an.-.m. / .me-ed.-.do-oge-eni


an.   ana   anaia      religious brother
.me  ame   
amestu    to imagine, to wonder

.me    eme   
emen       here
ed.     edi   ††
ediren     to find
.do   ido   ††
idor     ††   dry
oge    oge   
oge       ††††† bed
eni   eni    
enitzat   ††† for me


"The religious brother wondered: 'How to find a dry bed here for me'?"

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

BALLYKNOCK #96

 

COVALOTI
corrected to:
KOBALOTI

 

.ko-oba-alo-oti
.ko   oko    okolu         stable
oba     oba   
oba          better
alo   alo   
alorgizon      farmer
oti   †† oti   
otzikaratu     to shiver


"The shivering farmer (felt) better in the stable".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

BALLYHANK #100

 

AB ULCCAGNI
corrected to
AB.ULKKAGNI

 

ab.  ul.-.k.-.ka-ag.-.ni


ab./   aba    abade       ††   priest
ul.    
ula    ulatu        †††† to welcome
.k.    aki   
akigabe       †† tirelessly
.ka    ika   
ikaserazi    †† to teach
ag.    agu   
agur egin    †† to worship
.ni   uni   
unibertsal   †† general


"The welcome priest tirelessly taught general worship."

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

KILMARTIN LOWER #109

 

UDDMENSACELINETTASLOGI

 

ud.-.d.-.me-en.-.sa / seli-.ne-et.-ta-.as.-.lo-ogi


ud.   uda    udazken    †† autumn
.d.   ade   
adelatu   ††††† to prepare
.me    eme   
emen      ††††† here
en.   ena   
-ena      ††††††† (superlative) great
.sa     asa   
asaldaketa††† excitement

.se    ase   
asete     ††††††††  period of abundance
eli
  eli   †† elikatura ††††† food

.ne    ane    
anega     †††  grain measure/supply
et.   
ete   †† etenkatu †††   to interrupt        
et.   
eta     -eta      †††††††† action/work
as.    ase    
asegaitz †††   craving
.lo    alo   
alorgizon ††† farmer
ogi    ogi    
ogi       ††††††† bread


"In the autumn we prepare here for the great excitement of the period of abundant food of the grain supply, the work only interrupted by our craving for farmer's bread."

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

KNOCKSHANAWEE #112

 

MICANAVVIMAQLUGUNI
corrected to:
MIKANABBIMAKLEGUNI

 

 

††††††††† Macalister comments that the two U's are very faint, and indeed the first U is incorrect because there is no morpheme UGU in the Basque language. The following translation will show why it should have been an E.

 

.mi-ika-ana-ab.-.bi  .ma-ak.  .le-egu-uni


.mi   umi    umil           ††††† humble
ika   ika   
ikasi          ††††   to learn
ana    ana   
anaia          ††††† religious brother
.ba    aba   
abantailadun    privileged
ab.  
abi   abilitate      †††   talented

.ma    ema   
eman           †† to teach
ak.  †† aki   
akigabe        †† tirelessly

.le   †† ele   
ele            †††††††† story    
egu    egu   
egundainoko    eternal
uni   †† uni   
unibertsal     †† universal


"Humbly learn from the talented and privileged religious brother who is teaching tirelessly the eternal story of the universal God".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

KNOCKSHANAWEE #113

 

VEQIKAMI MAQI LUGUNI
corrected to:
BEKIKAMO MAKI LEGUNI

 

.be-eki- ika-ami   .ma-aki   .le-egu-uni


.be    ebe   ebertar       ††††† Hebrew, Jesus
eki    eki   ††
ekinalean    †† as much as possible
ika    ika   ††
ikasi        ††††††† to learn
ami   amo   
amodio       †††† love

.ma   ema   
eman        ††††   to teach
aki    aki   
akigabe      †††† tirelessly

.le    ele   †††
ele          ††††††††† story
egu   egu   
egundainoko   eternal
uni    uni   
unibertsal   †††† universal


"Learn as much as possible of Jesus' love, then teach tirelessly the eternal story of the universal God".   

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

MONATAGGERT #118

 

VEQREQMUCOIGLUNLEGGET
corrected to:
BEKREKMOSOIGLUNLEGGET

 

††††††††† In the entrance hall of the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin stands a tall slim stone, one of the thousands of megalithic stones that were placed upright by the pre-Christian Irish. It was found in 1872 and had been used as building material in an underground chamber in Monataggert, County Cork. On this stone (#118 in Macalister's National Register) an Ogam inscription was carved which to this day is regarded as the grave-marker of Mr. Glun Legget, whoever he may have been. They say this only because the last letters of the inscription read GLUNLEGGET. The fact that this "name" is written in one word is explained as a "typo" made by the inscriber, who "forgot" to leave a space after GLUN (McManus 5.29). The binomial system of naming was not introduced until several centuries later. However, so ingrained is the belief that all Irish Ogam stones are grave markers and that the inscriptions say something like: "here lies Johnny mourned by Mary", that any suggestion a quite different explanation could exist was rejected right out of hand by museum staff. The letters "Legget" were adopted by an Irish family as their tribal name.

 

.be-ek.-.re-ek..mo-oso-oi.g.-.lu-un.-.le-.eg.-.ge-et.
 
.be†††††††††† abe††††††††††† abe†††††††††† †††††† cross
ek.†††††††††† eku†††††††††† ekurutasun††††††† peace of mind
.re†††††††††† ure††††††††††† urentasun††††††††† nobility
ek.†††††††††† eka††††††††††† ekarri†††††††††††††††† to bring
.mo††††††††† amo††††††††† amodio †††††††††††††love
oso††††††††† oso††††††††††† osoro†††††††††††††††totally
o.i††††††††††† ohi††††††††††† ohilkor†††††††††††† oppressed
.g.††††††††††† agi†††††††††††† aginbide†††††††††† authority
.lu††††††††††† ilu†††††††††††† ilun†††††††††††††††††dull
un.†††††††††† una†††††††††† unagarri†††††††††† darkness
.le††††††††††† ale†††††††††††† alegera†††††††††††† rejoicing
eg.†††††††††† egi†††††††††††† egiazki ††††††††††††true
.ge†††††††††† ige†††††††††††† iges†††††††††††††††††escaping
et.††††††††††† eto††††††††††† etorki †††††††††††††††caste, clan
 

The peace of mind of the noble Cross brings love to the totally oppressed. It has the authority (to change) dull darkness into true rejoicing when escaping from the clan.

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

COOLMAGORT #197

 

DEGOSMAQIMOCOITOICAKI
corrected to
DEGOSMAKIMOSOITOIKAKI

 

.de-ego-os.  .ma-aki  .mo-oso-oi   .to-o.i-ika-aki


de    †† de     deboziotu  †††† to be devoted
ego    ego   egoki    †††††  †† to be concerned
os .   oso   †† oso       †††††††† sincere

.ma    ama    ama       ††††  mother
aki   aki    akigarri  †††††† aging

.mo    emo    emonkor††    generous
oso    oso   oso       †††††††  sincere
oi    †† oi    oialgin   †††††  weaver

.to   eto   †† etorri    †††††††† inspiration
oi    oi     oituraz   ††††††  always
ika    ika    ikaserazi †††††† teaching
aki    aki   ††
akigabe   ††††† tireless


"Devoted, concerned and sincere, our aging mother was an inspired weaver, always teaching tirelessly".

 

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

 

COOLMAGORT #199

 

CUNACENA
corrected to:
KUNAKENA

 

††††††††† Seven stones found in a souterrain in 1838 were presented by the owner to the Irish people and were brought to the surface and protected from the elements. This is stone #3.

 

.ku-una-ake-ena


,ku     uku    ukur         ††† evil
una     una    
unagarri      annoying
ake     ake    
akela        priestess
ena     ena    
ena         †††   (superlative) extremely


"The priestess is extremely evil and annoying".

 

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KILCOOLAGHT #211

 

RITTUVVECCMAQIVEDDONOS.
corrected to:
RITTUBBEKKMAKIBEDDONOS

 

.ri     eri   erio       †††††† death
it.   iti   †††
iti      †††††    to denounce
.tu    itu   ††
ituragabe  senseless
ub.    ubi   
ubil       ††††† whirlpool
.be    ibe   
ibeni      ††††† to bring about
ek.    eko   
ekoizpen     fertility
.k.    oka   
okaztagarr i disgusting

.ma    ama   
ama        mother
aki     aki   
akiarazi   aged

.be    ebe   
ebertar    ††† Jew, Jesus
ed.    eda   
edangura   thirsting for
.do    ado   
adoratu      to worship
ono   ono   
onon       wonderful    
os.    oso   
oso        †††† sincere


"While denouncing the senseless death in the whirlpool, to bring about disgusting fertility, our aged mother thirsted for Christ's wonderfully sincere worship".

 

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WHITEFIELD #215

 

ALATTOCELIBATTIGNI
corrected to:
ALATTOKELIBATTIGNI.

 

ala    ala    alabeharreko   necessary
at.    ate   
ateratu       ††††  to leave
.to    eto   
etorri        †††††† come!

.ke    ike   
ikertu       ††††   to visit, to go to
eli   eli   
eliza        †††††   church

.ba   aba   
oba           †††††† better
ati    ati   
atiki         ††††††  to gather
ig.   
iga    igar           †††††† dead, body
.ni    ani   
ani            ††††† anitz


"It is necessary to leave. Come, let's go to the church. It is better to gather the many bodies at the refuge.

 

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WHITEFIELD #216

 

GOSOCTEASMOSACMAKINI

 

.go    ago   agortu        to dry up
oso    oso   
oso          †† perfect
ok.    oka   
okaldi         bellyful
.te  ate   
atera        ††† to get
as.    ase   
asearazi     to stuff

.mo    umo   
umo           sensible
osa    osa   
osaketa      healing
ak.    ako   
akorduan euki to remember

.ma    ama   
ama          †† mother
aki   aki   ††
akiarazi      aged
ini    ini   
ini          †††† my   


"It is perfect to dry up and get your belly stuffed full. We remembered the sensible healing of our aged mother."

 

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KINGULBIN EAST #1086


BLADNACHCOGRADEDENA and BLADNACHCUILEN
BLADNAKKOGRADEDENA and BLADNAKKUILEN

 

††††††††† These inscriptions are found on a bronze hanging bowl, probably an incense burner, dug up from a swamp in CountyKerry. McManus (7.6) writes: "They are inscribed along the upper surface of the rim and on one of the escutcheons". This bowl may be seen in the National Museum in Dublin.

 

Bladnak:
 
.b.-la-ad.-.na-ak
.b.†††† abe†††† abe†††††††††††† cross
.la††††† ela††† ela††††††††††††story
ad.†††† ade†††† adelatu†††† to prepare
.na†††† ena†††† ena††††††††††that

†††††††††††††† ak.†††† aka†††† akabu †††††ultimate, superior

 

††††††††††††† kogradedena:

 

.ko-og.-.ra-ade-ede-ena
.ko ††††††††† ako ††††††††† akorduan euki†††† to remember 
og. ††††††††† ogi †††††††††† ogizatitze††††††††††††† breaking of the bread 
.ra ††††††††† ira ††††††††††† iragan ††††† ††††††††††to suffer 
ade †††††††† ade †††††††††† adelatu††††† ††††††††† to prepare 
ede †††††††† ede †††††††††† edergi ††††† ††††††††††to confide in 

††††††††††††††††† dena††††††† dena ††††††††Deuna††††††††††††††††† Lord

 

†††††† The story of the Cross-prepares us for that ultimate remembrance while preparing for the breaking of the bread (for His) suffering (while we) confide in the Lord.

 

kuilen:
.ku†††† eku††† ekurutasun†††† peace of mind
ile†††††† ile†††† ilezin †††††††††††††everlasting
en.†††† ene†††† eneganatu ††††††to come over me/us
 
The story of the cross prepares us for that ultimate everlasting peace of mind (which will) come over us. 
 

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THE BALLINTAGGERT STONE

 

Transliteration:
B.Fell:
Ma-q -q -i -i -a -r -i y i m a
E.Nyland: .
MAK. KI.IARI. E.A.IMA

 

††††††††† This rather startling Ogam inscription is included here to give an impression of the great variety of topics written on stone in Ireland. The Ballintaggert text is inscribed on a phallic stone from County Kerry, Ireland (James P.Whittall II). The transliteration was published in Barry Fell's book "America B.C." (p.22) and corrected by Nyland (2001). He inserted dots to show where the author of the inscription had eliminated vowels. Fell's "y" in the transliteration could not be used as this letter is not part of the Ogam alphabet. Also, the "X" shown in the inscription is the standard forfeda character for "EA". More about the five Forfeda characters in Translating Ogam.

 

.ma-ak-.ki-i.a-ari-i.e-e.a-ima
 
.ma††††††††† ema†††††††††† emagose††† †† sexual desire
ak.†††††††††† aku†††††††††† akuilatu†††††††† stimulate
.ki††††††††††† uki††††††††††† ukitu ††††††††††††to touch
i.i†††††††††††† ihi†††††††††††† ihizitegi ††††††††secret place
i.a††††††††††† iha††††††††††† ihardun†††††††to spend time
ari††††††††††† ari†††††††††††† arrigarri††††††† marvelous
i.e††††††††††† ihe††††††††††† ihesaldi ††††††††escape
e.a†††††††††† eha††††††††††† ea†† †††††††††††††††(emphasis)
a.i††††††††††† ahi††††††††††† ahigarri††††††† exhausting
ima††††††††† ima†††††††††† imatz††††††††††wattle shelter
 
Stimulate your sexual desire by touching your secret place and spend a marvelous time in exhausting escape in the wattle shelter. 
 
 

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CILLE BARRA STONE

 

TIRTHURKIRTHUSINRRISKURSSIARISTAA

 

††††††††† This stone was removed in 1865 from the ancient Cille Barra cemetary and taken to the Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh. It was always thought to be a gravestone, which it obviously is not. The transliteration was copied from a local tourist pamphlet. Barra-Vatersay is the most southerly populated island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Dots indicate where vowels were removed by the author. In this inscription, only one 'h' was removed, also indicated by a dot.

 

.ti-ir.-.t.-.hu-ur.-.ki-ir.-.t.-hu-us.     in.-.r.-.ri-is.-.ku-ur.-.s.-.si-i.a-ari-is.-.ta    a


.ti   †† uti     utikan         get away from here!
ir.   †† iro   
irol           †† run-off
.t.   †† ota   
otamendi †† brush covered mountain
.hu    ahu   
ahulkor      weakened   
ur.    ure    
ure            water
.ki   eki   
ekin            to continue
ir.   iru   ††
irudi           to look like
.t.   utsi  
utsitu          to empty, to surge
.hu    ihu   
ihurtzuri     thunder
us.    usta  
ustakatu     to scourge

in.   ino    inor             everyone
.r.   ora   
orratio         dismayed
.ri   ari   
arritu          petrified
is.   isi   
isiltze          overwhelmed
.ku    iku   
ikustaile     eye-witness
ur.    ura   
uraldi          flood
.s.    asa   
asaldagarri    shocking
.si    asi   
asialdi         beginning
i.a    iha   
ihartu          to dry up
ari    ari   
arinari        to escape
is.    isi   
isiltoke      †† shelter
.ta    ita   
itaizur       †† leaky

a      ?      ?


††† Get away from here! The run-off has weakened the brush-covered mountain and it looks like (the water) will continue to surge and the thunder to scour. Everyone is dismayed, petrified and overwhelmed to see this shocking flood from the beginning; to dry up we escaped to this leaky shelter.

 

 

Bibliography