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For teaching purposes:  quote cited references only

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]


              [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]






          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of Germany seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which is being called Saharan.  It appears that the Basque language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:


          The Germans call their language "Deutsch." Where did the word "Deutsch" come from? Nyland (2001) has discussed how Benedictine clergy, while working in their many scriptoria, created words and names, many of which we now use daily, by manipulating the Basque language. To understand the following it is necessary to be familiar with discussions on  Ogam , the origin of English and Dutch,. Being religious types, it should come as no surprise that the clergy hid biblical phrases in important words. As they used the VCV vowel interlocking formula for word-agglutination, vowel linking was required. In the case of Deutsch the diphthong of both words overlaps:


"deu  -  eutsch,"
deun (Lord)  -  eutsi (to keep):
The Lord keep you


          This is obviously an abbreviation of "May the Lord bless you and keep you" (Numbers 6:24). The word "Deutsch" was probably at first designed as a greeting. (In Basque, the "s" is always pronounced with a slight "sh," and written as "x"). The Dutch language is called "Diets" in Holland, said to be a derivative of "deutsch," but no, it comes from .di-its., adi-itze: adibegiratu (pay close attention to) itzeman (promise): "Pay close attention to your promises" or "Be true to your word", or as they sing in Holland: "Een man een man, een woord een woord".




          Consider the name of the River Rhine. The Germans write it "Rhein" (same pronunciation). The river was renowned as one of the world's most productive salmon rivers. So much fish was caught in the Rhine before the 20th Century that many domestic servants in cities along the river had a clause in their contract saying that they would not be obliged to eat salmon more than twice a week. It is not surprising that the Basque word for fish is arrain. Put "ar" in front of "Rhine" and you know where the name came from.


          The name "Berlin" is slightly more complicated. The clergy assembled it from three words: .be-erli-in.: abe-erli-inu, abergikor (hospitable) erlijiozale (pious) inurritze (inspiring): A hospitable, pious and inspiring town. These words sound like they belong on the town's coat of arms, which happens to depict a bear. "Berlin" does sound like a little bear, however; bear in Basque is hartz, which is the name of the well-known mountainous area west of Berlin.


          The name of the fortified city of "Stettin" takes more time to decode but still conforms strictly to the VCV Formula


asaldatze (rioting) aterpe (refuge) eta (and) atxikitzaile (supporter) inurritu (to inspire):
A refuge from the rioting and inspiration for our supporters.


          On the other hand the name "Lübeck" falls quickly into place:


lu-ube-ek., lu-ube-eka
luzarotu (to last a long time) uberka (water reservoir) ekaizte (big rainstorm):
The reservoir will last for a long time (when filled by) a big rain storm.


Tirol is an easy one:

tirokaldi (shooting) oldartu (to begin, to start):
Start shooting.


Or Yodel,

jo (to sing) delako (supposed to be):
It's supposed to be singing.


          In Germany, it is impossible to get away from the Basque language, the place names, the family names, the mountains, even in music. In the well-known song "Ein Heller und ein Batzen," the Heller buys a drink of water; the Batzen buys a glass of wine. Heller comes from ele-er, ele (story) erdi (half): "half a story," we would say "for a song." Batzen comes from bat-zen: bat (one) zenbatu (to count): Count one. In the past, several German and other European students in linguistics have pointed out this unexplained relationship between Basque and German, especially in southern Germany, closer to the Alps where the pre-Christian language survived the longest and still is used in several isolated valleys in a number of dialects called Rhaeto-Romance or Ladin. However, like everywhere else in Europe and North America, the suggestion that the Germans spoke Basque before they spoke German was always squashed by more senior academics with the words: "That relationship has been looked into so many times and it doesn't exist." Nevertheless, none of them has been able to show where the results of this “looking into” were published. Things haven't changed; ask at any university and you will find that similar answers are still given. To these people the suggestion that German is an invented language, and created by the Benedictine clergy with formulaic manipulation of Basque, is academic heresy.  In an effort to overcome this problem, Edo Nyland will shows the Basque origin of a large number of German words.


          The monk/grammarians assembling these words did enjoy doing their work. Their number one rule was to create words that were totally unlike Basque. This was done by building into the new language peculiarities, which would make the artificiality unrecognizable from Basque. In this assignment, they succeeded admirably. As shown in the section on the Auraicept, they themselves admitted to having great pride in new word construction and introducing their creations to the public. They also liked their beer and wine as the German word "Kanne" (jug, can) shows, from .ka-anne, aka-anu, akabu (sublime) anu (passing out, bliss): sublime bliss. Consider "Kugel" (bullet): .ku-ugel, uku (awry) ugalpen (reproduction): reproduction gone awry; they couldn't be more right because that's what a bullet is supposed to do! Or German "Fest" (feast), from f.-est, afa (pleasing) este (intestine): Pleasing the intestine. The German vocabulary is full of such hidden wisecracks.


          In Basque, very few words start with "f," none start with "r" and none end with "m." These were peculiarities, which the grammarians could exploit. Our English and German dictionaries are balanced, with the first 13 letters (A-M) taking up half of the dictionary and the last 13 (N-Z) the other half. The Basque dictionary is quite different in that about 80% of all Basque words are found in A-M. The grammarians made every effort to tidy up this imbalance with the result that most European dictionaries are now balanced.





          Very few words in Basque start with "f" which was a reason for the early grammarians to make prolific use of this letter by creating many words that reversed this. The word most often selected to provide the "f" was afa or fa meaning "happy" or "pleasing." Words that could remotely be associated with happiness or pleasing, were then started with "f." An idea about the clergy' attitude toward women is seen in "Frau" meaning Happy (under/with) discipline.  The meaning of the word "Weib" (see below) is much more acceptable to modern women. Almost without exception, the letters following the "f" were clearly recognizable Basque words, easily translated. In the case of "Freund," the English equivalent "friend" sounds closer to Basque. Notice that for many of these agglutinations the standard vowel-linking rule has been ignored.


Fabel (fable): fa-abel, afa (happy) abel (herdsman): "Happy herdsman".
Faden (string): fa-adin,
fabore (help, relieve) adinagin (wisdom tooth): "Relieve the wisdom tooth".
Fabrik (factory): fa-abriko,
afa (happy) aberriko (patriotic): "Happily patriotic".
Fahne (flag): .fa-anai,
afa (happy) anaiti (united): "Happily united".
Fakkel (flare, torch): fa-akkel,
faltadun (guilty) akelarre (witch): "Guilty witch".
Feier (celebration): .f.-aier,
afa (happy) aier (tendency): "Tendency to be happy".
Feld (field): .f.-eldu,
afa (happy) eldu (to ripen): "Happy (to see it) ripen".
Fest (feast): .f.-este,
fa (pleasing ) este (glut, intestine): "Pleasing the intestine".
Festung (fortress): f.-estun,
familiar (familiar) estune (narrow street): "Familiar narrow streets".
Feuer (home fire): f.-eur,
familiarki (familiarly) euren (theirs, their own): "Familiarly their own".
Finger (finger): f.-ingur,
fabore (help) inguratu (grip): "Helping hand/grip".
Fish (fish): .f.-ish,
afa (happy) isho (quiet): "Happy and quiet".
Fjord (fiord): .f.-jor-di,
afa (happy) jori (abundance) -di (place of): "Happy place of abundance".
Flagge (flag): .f.-.laig,
afa (happy) alaigarri (comforting): "Happily comforting".
Flucht (escape): f.-.luk-et,
faltsu (deceptive) alukeria (stupid action) et (warning): "Warning: a deceptive and stupid action".
Forst (forest): .f..orritz,
afa (happy) orritza (foliage): "Happy foliage".
Fort (stronghold): fa-ort,
faboredun (favored) ortzeune (heavenly peace): "Favored heavenly peace".
Forum (tribunal): f.-orru-um,
afa (happy) orru (roaring) umeki (childish): "Happy childish roaring".
Fossil (fossil): f.-osi-il,
farra-farra (profusely) osi (deep down) il (dead): "Profusely deep down but dead".
Frage (question): .f.-.rag., afa (happy)
aragitu (to assimilate, to join): "Happy to join".
Frass (feed): f.-.ras,
familiar (familiar) arasa (cupboard): "Mother's cupboard".
Fratz (naughty child): f.-.ratz,
fa (happy) aratz (brilliant, bright): "Happy and bright".
Frau (wife): f-rau, fa-arau,
fa (happy) arau (discipline): "Happy with/under discipline".
frech (cheeky): f.-.rek,
fa (happy) arek (that one): "That one is happy".
Fremd (foreigner): f.-.rem-d,
afa (happy) arreman (relationship) da (he has): "He has a happy relationship".
Freund (friend): .f.-.rend,
afa (happy) arrendu (to call upon): "Happy to call upon".
Friede (peace): .f.-.rid.,
afa (happy) arridu (surprise): "Happy surprise".
frölich (joyfull):,
afa (happy) aro (everybody) oligetan (joking): "Everybody happily joking".
fromm (pious):,
afa (happy) arroki (proudly) omendatu (to praise): "Happy and proudly praising".
Fron (enforced labour): f.-.ron,
famababe (infamous) arronategi (stony place): "Infamous stony place".
Fuchs (fox): f.-uk.-.s.,
afa (happy) ukatu (to deny) asekeria (gluttony): "Happy to deny his gluttony".

Fuchtel (whipping): f.-ukat-el., faltsuki (falsely) ukatz (deny) ele (story): "He falsely denied the story".
Fug (justly): .f.-ug.,
afa (happy) ugal (abundance): "Happy abundance".
Fuhre (cartload): .f.-urre,
afa (happy) urreko (nearby): "Happy it's nearby".
führen (to lead): .f.-urren,
afa (happy) urrengo (following): "Happy to follow".
Führer (leader): f.-urrer,
afa (happy) urreratu (to draw near, come close to): "Happy to come close to".
Fülle (abundance): f.-ule,
afa (happy) ule (hair): "Happy full head of hair".
Funk (spark): f.-unek,
faro (flash) uneko (instantaneous): "Instantaneous flash".
Funsel (miserable lamp): f.-untzil,
farol (lantern) untzil (crewman): "Crewman's lantern".
Furcht (fear): f.-urkat,
famagabe (vile) urkatze (hanging, execution): "Vile hanging".
Furore (sensation): f.-ur-ore,
faltsuki (falsely) ur (water) ore (bread, dough): "Falsely on water and bread".
Furz (fart): f.-urez,
faltatsy (faulty, accidentally) urezko (watery, wet): "Accidentally watery".
Füsilier (fusilier): f.-uz-eliker,
afa (happy) uzkali (to vanquish) elikera (food): "Happy to vanquish the food".
Fuss (foot): f.-us,
afa (happy) ustikatu (to kick): "Happy to kick".
Fussel (fluff): f.-utsal,
afa (happy) utsaldi (nothingness): "Happy nothingness".




          No Basque word starts with "r," instead this letter is always preceded by a vowel or a vowel combined with a second "r," e.g. aran (plum), arran (cattle bell), eri (illness), erri (village), iri (city) irri (laugh, joke), ore (dough) orre (juniper tree), ura (this), urra (gold). The "rr" must be rolled, like the Scottish "r."


Rabulist (hairsplitter): .ra-abu-uli-ist., arra (always) aburu (opinioned) uli (fly) istilu (disturber): "Always the opinioned fly disturber".
Rad (wheel): .ra-ad.,
arra (repetitious) ada (noise): "Repetitious noise".
radikal (radical, utterly): ra-adi-ika-al,
arra (repetition) adi (watch) out) ikara (terror) al (power): "Watch out for the terrorist's power".
Ramm (ram, batterer): .ram,
arramaska (rush , haste): "Rush".
Reede (at anchor): .redu.,
aredun (sandy): "Sandy (beach)".
Regel (rule): .re-egil,
arrendu (to ask) egile (author): "Ask the author".
Regen (rain): .re-egun,
arre (grey, bleak), egun (day): "Bleak day".
Regierung (government): .re-egi-iri-ing,
arrendu (to request) eginak (works) iri (city) ingurumari (neighborhood). "Request the city to do works in our neighborhood".
Regiment (regiment): .re-egi-mend,
arean (real) -egi (overwhelming) mende (authority): "Overwhelming authority".
Rettung (salvage):,
arreta (concern) uni (general) inguru (vicinity, nearby): "General concern nearby".
Ritter (knight): .rit-tar,
arritze (admiration) -tar (member): "Admired member".
Roggen (rye): .ro-ogun,
arro (soft) ogun (wheat): "Soft wheat".
Ruder (rudder): .ru-udar,
arrunt (simple) udare (pear): i.e. lee-board. "Simply shaped like a pear".
Ruin (decay): .ruin,
urruin (contempt, reject) "Reject".
Rüste (rest): .ru-uste,
arrunt (simple) uste (trust): "Simple trust".




          The letter "v" does not exist in Basque. In German and Dutch the Latin "v" was introduced to displace the original "b" as was also done in the Romance languages.


veranker (to anchor, to moor): ber-anker, ber (repeat) ankerkeria (cruelty): "Repeated cruelty".
Verbau (rebuild): ber-abaunza,
ber (repeat) abaunza (mass of branches): "Again get a mass of branches".
verbergen (to hide): ber-berga,
ber (repeat) berga (rod, switch): "Again beaten with a rod)".
verbiegen (to bend): ber-bigun,
ber (repeat) bigun (malleable, bendable): "To bend again".
Verbund union (from Dutch verbond): ber-bon-ond.,
berezko (spontaneous) abonau (to speak well of) ondore (future): "(He) will speak well (of it)".
verboten (to forbid): ber-bota,
bereala (quickly) bota (to throw out): "Throw him out quickly".
verzerren (deformed): bertzeren,
bertzeren (happens to someone else): "It happens only to someone else".
Volk (people, folk): boladak,
bolada (group of people) -ak (plural): "Groups of people".
Vollmacht (full of power): bol-makat,
bolada (group of people) makatz (wild): "Wild bunch of people".
Vollstange (bar): bol-sut-ang,
bolada (group of people) sutan ipini (provoked) ango (local): "Provoked group of local people".
Vortrag (utterance): bor-trag,
borondatezko (voluntary) tragedia (tragedy): "Voluntary tragedy".




          The "w" does not occur in Basque.  We could have done without this invention. The invention of the "w" was another way to confuse the words borrowed from Basque. In general, the "w" proved to be meaningless, however, it sometimes makes the new word sound and look quite different. The word "Welt" (world), "wereld" in Dutch, comes from Basque eraldu meaning: "to be reformed, to be renewed," which, no doubt, was the church leaders' stated religious and political objective. The "w" words were easier to sort out than the "v" words, almost as if the grammarians who made the "v" words had more detailed knowledge of the original language.


wachsen (to grow): ak-zen, akuilu (to spur, to grow up) izan (to be): "To be growing up".
Wald (forest): ald.,
aldaerazi (to transform): "To transform (into fields)".
Wasser (water): ater,
atera (to go for, to get). "Go get it".
Webe (weaving, web): eba,
ebaki (to make decisions). "Making decisions".
Welle (wave): el.-.le,
ela (story) alegera (rejoicing): "Story of rejoicing".
Welt, from "wereld" (world): erald,
eraldatu (to reform, renew, transform): "Reform (the world)".
Wende (turn): ende,
endekoi (friendly): "Friendly (turn)".
Werk (work): erak,
erakarpen (contribution): "Contribution".
Wetter (weather): etor,
etorki (expecting, forecast): "Weather forecast".
Widder (battering ram): idor,
idor (insensitive): "Insensitive".
Wiege (cradle): ige,
iges (refuge): "Safe place".
Wind (wind): ind.,
indar (strength, force): "Force".
Wirt (host): irte,
irteera (arrangement): "Arrangement".
Witz (joke): itz,
itzalgabe (irreverent), "Irreverent".
Wolk (cloud): olak,
olako (resemblance): "It looks like..."
Wonne (delight): one,
onen (the best): "The best".
Wort (word): ord,
ordainbide (promise): "Promise".
Wunder (wonder, surprise): ondar,
ondare (inheritance): "Inheritance".
würgen (to choke): urgain,
urgain (to float to the surface): "To float to the surface".




Eme, meaning "female," "woman," "child" or "peaceful," was usually abbreviated to me and used in a number of German and Dutch words. Here follows a small selection:

melden (to report): .me-eldu-un., eme (woman) eldu (to arrive) une (place, here): "The woman is to arrive here".
Menge (amount, number): .me-engai,
emendatu (to increase, overestimate) engainatu (to cheat): "To cheat by overestimating the amount".
merken (to notice): .me-erka-an,
eme (woman) erkatu (to compare) andika (bulk, volume): "The woman compares the volume".
Mesner (sacristan): .me-esnaer,
eme (woman) esnaerale (awakener): "Female awakener".
Messer (knife): .me-eser,
ume (child) eseri! (sit down!): "Child, sit down!"

A similar list can be made up with words starting with ama or ma, meaning "mother," "priestess" or "goddess." Here are a few:

Magd (servant girl): ma-agud, ama (mother) agudo (diligent, active): "Diligent mother".
Magdalena (woman's name): .ma-aguda-alen-a,
ema (mother) agudota (diligent) alen (totally) a (the): "The totally diligent mother".
Mahagony (mahogany, mahogoni): .ma-ahogo-oni,
ama (mother) ahogozo (in good taste, favorite) oniraun (long lasting, durable): "Mother's favorite and durable wood".
Maid (maid): .ma-aid,
ama (mother) aide (relative): "Mother's relative".
Mammut (mammoth): ama-amu-ut,
ama (mother) amure egon (suspicious) uts (absence): "Mother is suspicious about its absence".




In the following pairs, German comes first, followed by Dutch:


Ärger - ergernis (annoyance): erge-era-aniz, ergel (foolish) -era (behaviour) anitz (frequent): "Frequent foolish behaviour".

Begriff - begrip (idea, conception): begirap (discretion), "Discretion".

Besen - bezem (broom): besom, besomotz (short arms): "Short arms".

Futsch - foetsie (poof, gone): futz (puff of air), "Puff of air".

frok - Frack (outer garment, dress coat): fraka (trousers), "Trousers".

gesund - gezond (healthy): gizondu (to grow up), "To grow up".

grob - grof (rude):, aga (blow) arozgo (blacksmith) obe (better than): "Better than a blow from the blacksmith".

kahl - kaal (bald): kalpar (bald spot), "Bald spot".

Kitzler - kittelaar (used to be "kiddelaar": clitoris), ki-ide-edi-ila-ar., uki-ide-edi-ila-ari; ukitu (to touch) idekidura (opening) ediren (hidden) ilaje (hair) arin (lightly/gently): "Gently touch the opening hidden by hair".

kauf (1)- koop (2) (purchase): 1) kau-auf, kausitu (to find) aufa (cry of happiness): "Happiness is finding". (2) kopuru (quantity): "Quantity".

Korb - korf (beehive, basket work): kofau (beehive), "Beehive".

Kraft - kracht (strength): .k.-.ra-ak.-.t., eka-arra-aka-ata, ekandu (to be used to) arranditsu (boastful) akabu (superior)atarramendu (advantage): "Used to boasting about a superior advantage" (a show-off).

krachen (to crack, to burst): kraken (to crack, to crunch): .k.-.ra-ake-en., aka-ara-ake-ene; akabu (the end of life) aragikoi (lustful) akela (witch) ene (screams of pain): "The life of the lustful witch ended in screams of pain".

Laster - laster (depravity, slander): laster (to press, push, force): "To force".

leiden - lijden (to suffer): lai-aide-en, laida (insult) aide (kinship) -en (superlative suffix, e.g. grievously): "Grievously insulted kinship".

Magen - maag (stomach): .ma-aga, ama (mother's) aga (abundance): "Mother's abundant (food)".

Messer - mes (knife): .me-ese-er, ume (child) eseri (sit down) erabaki (decision, order): "Child, Sit down!"

Mist - mest (manure): me-est, mehatxu (menace, threat) estaldu (to cover up): "Cover up the menace".

unartig - onaardig (rude, despicable): un-arti-ig, una-arti-iguin, unagarri (annoying) artikulu (article) iguindu (despicable): "Annoying despicable article".

Untat - ondaad (crime): ondatu (to ruin, to destroy), "To ruin, to destroy".

plötzlich - plotseling (suddenly): .pi-ilo-otsa-ali-ing, ipi-ilotz-otza-ali-ing, ipini (to throw) ilotz (cadaver) otza (wolf) alienatu (to destroy) ingira (composure): "Throw the cadaver of a wolf to destroy his composure". (What would his horse do?)

reigen - rijgen (to thread at a folk dance): .rai-.gun, arraia (line-up) egun (today): "Dance today".

Stadt - stad (city): .stat, ostatu (inn, hotel): "Inn".

Zweifel - twijfel (doubt): tzai-aifel, tzu-ufal, tzu (several) ufaldi (sighing): "Several are sighing. (That happens often when in doubt)".

Vieh - vee (cattle): bei, vei (cow): "Cow".

Verbesserung - verbetering (improvement): bera-abe-bete-erri-ing, berarizko (special) abeltalde (herd) betekor (productive) erritartu (to become naturalized) ingurumen (environment): "An especially productive herd to become naturalized in our environment".

Wirt - waard (host): irte, irteera (arrangement): "Arrangement".

Wunder - wonder (surprise): ondar, ondare (inheritance): "Inheritance".





Abend (evening): abend., abendu (Advent): "Season before Winter Solstice".
Arbeit (work):,
arrastakari (hard-working person) abe (family support) itxaro (to hope for): "I hope for a hard-working person as family support".
aufheben (to lift up): aufa-eban,
aufa (cry of happiness) ebanjelari (evangelist): "Evangelist's cry of happiness".
auskerben (to indent, to notch): auskor-ben,
auskor (fragile, easily dented) benturaz (perhaps): "Perhaps fragile".
Bakel (teacher's cane): bakeal.,
bakealdi (to make peace): "It makes peace".
bauen (to build): .baun,
abaunza (mass of branches): "Mass of branches (to build wicker walls)".
beherrschen (to control): beher.-xe-en,
behera (under, below) xedaketa (limitation) enetan (always): "Always under limitation/control".
dunkel (dark) from Dutch "donker,",
donkeria (evil, bad): "Bad".
Eber (boar): eber.,
ebertar (Hebrew): "Hebrew or Christ".
euch (you, to you):
euk, euk (you yourself): "You".
Eule (large moth):
eule, euli (fly): "Fly".
gesund (healthy) from Dutch "gezond,"
gizond, gizondu (to mature, to grow older): "Growing older".
Gurgel (throat):
gurge, gurketa (adoration, reverence): "Adoration".
Hand (hand):
handi, handiera (extension): "Extention".
Haus (dwelling): hau-aus,
haundi (large) ausarki (more than enough): "More than large enough".
Heim (home): hei-im,
hei (shelter) imaz (place of woven branches): "Shelter of woven branches". (i.e. a wattle shelter.)
Himmel (heaven):,
imaginatu (to picture, image) ametz (dream) ele (story): "I pictured the story in my dreams".
Herzog (duke): herts-og,
hertsatu (to coerce, extort) ogi (wheat): "He extorts wheat".
horch (hearken): hork,
horko (pertaining, relevant to): "Relevant to".
Kamin (fireside): kamain,
kamaina (miserable place to sleep, cow shed): "Miserable place to sleep".
Kanne (tankard): aka-anu,
aka (sublime) anu (passing out, bliss): "Sublime bliss"
Karte (card): karta,
karta (letter): "Letter".
Klage (complaint): kla-age,
klaskada (snapping, swooshing) age (rod): "Swooshing rod".
klug (smart, shrewd): kalku-uga,
kalkulatzaile (calculating) ugari (abundant, very): "Very calculating".
krank (ill): ka-aran-ak,
akabu (final) aran (bell) -ak (plural): "Final bells".
Kummer (grief): ku-umor,
uku (gone bad) umor (sense of humour): "Sense of humor is gone bad".
König from Dutch "koning" (king): kon-ing,
konde (nobleman's) ingira (disposition): "Nobleman's disposition".
Kugel (bullet): ku-ugal,
uku (gone bad, awry) ugal (reproduction): "Reproduction gone awry".
Küste (coast): ku-uste,
ekuru (quietly) uste (hopeful): "Quietly hopeful".
Kutsche (carriage): kutsha,
kutxa (trunk, chest): "Trunk".
Lage (situation): laga,
lagatze (tolerable): "Tolerable".
Last (freight): last,
laster (quickly): "Quick transport".
Lust (pleasure): luzat,
luzatu (to prolong, to stretch out): "Make it last".
Leute (crowd): letu,
eletu (to talk loudly): "Loud talk".
mein (mine): .mai-ain,
emai (gift) ainbat (many): "Many gifts".
meinen (to believe): .mai-ain-en,
emai (gift, own) aingeru (angel) ene (my): "My own angel".
Metall (metal): eme-eta-al,
emendatu (to increase) eta (amount) al (power): "To increase the amount of power".
Meteor (meteor): me-ete-eor,
mendi (mountain) ete (perhaps) ehortzi (to bury): "Perhaps to bury itself in the mountain".
Muhme (grandmother): .mu-ume,
amultsu (affectionate) ume (child): "She is affectionate towards the child".
Mutter (mother): mutu-ur,
muturka ibili (she is annoyed) ura (she): "She is annoyed".
neigen (to bend): naiga-an,
naigabe (suffering, afflicted) anatomia (anatomy, body): "Suffering body".
Ober (waiter): obr.,
obra (action): "Action!"
Opera (opera): ope-era,
opetsi (to offer) erakarpen (attraction): "To offer an attraction".
Orden (order): orde-er,
ordenamendu (organizing) erabide (method): "Method of organizing".
Pantzer (armour): pa-antza-ar,
paketu (to make peace) antzatu (to get ready) araubide (discipline): "Get ready to make peace (by using) discipline".

Pferd from Dutch "paard" (horse): pard, pardel (pack, load, parcel): "Pack (horse)".
rau (raw), .rau,
araubide (discipline): "Disciplined".
Reiter (rider): rai-tor,
arrai (gentle) aitor (legendary patriarch): "Gentle legendary patriarch (possibly St. Bonifacius)".
Saltz (salt): saltze,
gesaltze (to melt): "It melts".
Schwester from Dutch "zuster" (sister): zuzter,
zuzter (growing up fast): "She is growing up fast".
singen (to sing): zing-en,
zingle (fragile) enegana (to attract me): "The fragility attracts me".
Spinne (spider): zepi-in,
zepilu (to brush against) inon (somewhere): "I brushed against it somewhere".
Stein (stone): estai-in,
estai (stay, stay put) indar (strong, firm): "Stays firmly put".
Strasse from Dutch "straat" (street): sta-arrat,
asta (donkey) arrate (narrow passage): "Donkey's narrow passage".
Tante (aunt): tante,
tantai (large hefty log): "Big and hefty woman".
Tier (animal): tir.,
tiro (shot): "Shoot!
Tochter (daughter): toktu-ur,
tokatu (to behave properly) ura (she): "She is to behave properly".
trau (faithful): ta-arau,
ta (slap) arau (discipline): "Slapping discipline".
übel (evil): ubel,
ubel (purple): "Purple". (It was the official color of the pre-Christian priestess and therefore despised).
zeigen (to display): zai-gen,
zaildura (persistence) genuen (we had): "We had persistence".




          In the early days, the magical reproductive and child-nurturing abilities of women were even more a matter of awe than the wonderfully productive sea and land. It was this high position of respect accorded the women that the proponents of male dominance set out to change in the hope that the same level of respect would be transferred to them. To begin with, they made up the word "man" for themselves (German: "Mann") that came from manatu, meaning "to decide" or "to give orders." The men went to great lengths to make up disparaging names for the women, with the obvious intent to corrupt the position of honor that the women had occupied since times immemorial.


          The wearing of jewelry and beautiful clothes was associated with female authority. The Basque word for "adorned" is adelu, which later became the German word "Adel" (nobility). However, with the coming of male domination, the word adelu was attached to haidur (malicious), creating the derogatory girls' name adel-haidur or "Adelheid" meaning "maliciously adorned," which was used originally by the missionaries for the Priestess and her ladies in waiting. The name "Adelheid" is still used as a given name for girls, only today the original negative meaning has been forgotten. The general rule, clearly expressed in the Old Testament, was to portray all females as untrustworthy and in urgent need of male supervision and discipline. The proper word for a married woman in German is "Weib" (English "wife") from ai-be, ai (strong desire) be'ar (necessity): "strong desire for the necessity," which very good word the men made unacceptable by attaching "Fish" to form "Fishweib" in German, "viswijf" in Dutch, someone smelly. At the same time the word "Weib" was replaced with "Frau" (f.-.rau): agglutinated from afa (happy) and arau (discipline): therefore meaning "happy discipline" or "happy with/under discipline." There is no indication whether the word refers to her disciplining the children or that she is supposed to be happy under her husband's discipline.  However, there is no doubt that the German men accepted the meaning given in the Old Testament. This name-change alone must have caused a great deal of misery and no doubt, violence in the family. To this day women may not be without a man's supervision. She is taken to the altar by her father and officially handed over to her new owner, whose name she then takes. How long will women put up with this degrading tradition?


          It is difficult to imagine what it was that made someone coin a name like Brunhilda, from burun (insanity) hildako (death): "deathly insane," but there is little doubt that the object was to put down an independent thinking woman. Similarly, the making of a name like Rhonda, ro-onda, arro-ona: arrotasun (pride) ondagarri (ruinous, destructive): "ruinous pride" or Tamara, tama-ara: tamal (bad luck) arrabeteko (handful): "handful of bad luck" or: Wietska, itz (talk) -ka (incessant): "She talks incessantly." These names certainly do not indicate respect, but instead prove that the women were being used and "put in their place," not honored as before. As a result, Germany ended up with an odd assortment of girls' names, which had never existed before, courtesy male dominance run amuck. Here are some more:


Albine: albinu (threaded needle): "Seamstress".
Alida: ali-da,
alik (possible, suitable) -da (for me): "Suitable for me".
Barbara: barba-ara,
barbail (trouble making) arra (repeated): "Time and again she makes trouble".
bi (two) anka (leg): "Two legs".
Charlotte: xa-arlote,
xafratu (to scrub) arlote (dirty): "Scrub the dirt".
Doris: dor-iz,
dorpeki (clumsy) -izan (to be): "She is clumsy".
Else, Ilse:
eltze (stewpot): "Stewpot".
Erika: eri-ika,
eri (sickness) ikara (fear of): "Afraid of illness".
Eva: eba,
ebasle (thief): "Thief"; (she stole the apple).
Inge: ingi,
ingiratu (to make ready): "Servant girl".
Irmgard: irm-gard,
irme (steady, stable) gardari (one who cards wool): "Steady carder".
Jolanda: jo-landa,
jo (to go) landa (outside): "Go outside".
Karen: .ka-aren,
akatsbako (perfect) arengana (for him): "Perfect for him".
lisiba (washing clothes): "Washer woman".
Linnie: lina-ani,
linburketa (obscene, offensive) anitzetan (often): "Often offensive".
Margo: .ma-argo,
emakume (woman) argo (sex starved): "The woman is sex starved".
odeitu (overcast, storm on the way): "Stormy weather".
tama (bad luck), arra (handful): "Handful of bad luck".
Renate: .ren-ate,
arren (please) ate (door): "Please (shut) the door".




          As derogatory as some of the names for women were, as heroic the names for men were. In cases where two names have the same initial letters such as Herbert and Herman, this does not mean that they mean the same thing; the meaning depends largely on what follows, as shown below. First some male designations:


Ehemann (Husband): ehi-man, ehiztari (hunter) manatze (commanding): "Commanding hunter".
Gatte (husband): gatte, gate (chain): "He (feels) chained".
Gemahl (husband): ge-mal,
gehi (supreme) malerus (unhappy): "Supremely unhappy".
Germane (German): ger-mana,
gerai (tall) manatu (commanding): "Tall and commanding".
Held (hero):
heldu (maturing, healing of wound): "The wound is healing".
Herr (Sir): herr, herriko (popular): "Popular".
Mann (man): man,
manatze (giving orders). "He gives the orders!"
Mensch (person): men-sh,
men (power) sh (diminutive); "A little bit of power".
Onkel (uncle): onk.-.le,
onkote (easy going) oles egin (to call upon): "Call upon easy going."
Oheim (uncle): ohe-eme,
ohe (bed) eme (female): "In bed with a woman".
Sohn (son): .so-on,
esonde (advice) on (good): "Good advice".
Sohn (son):
sondatu (to inquire, to explore): "Exploring".
Vater (father): fa-ater,
fa (happy) aterpe (refuge): "Happy refuge". The boys received tough and heroic names under the new management:

Adolf: ado-dol-f, adoretsu (courageous) dolo (pain) ufakari (scornful of): "Courageous and scornful of pain".
Bernhardt: bern-hart,
bernoker (bowlegged) hartz (bear): "Bowlegged bear".
Dietrich: di-etor-ik,
dit (he me) etor (come) ikara (fear): "He has come to me out of fear".
Eberhart: from Aberhart, aber-hart, abere (brute) hartz (bear): "Brute bear".
Fritz: fa-aritz, afa (happy) arritze (admiration, praise ): Happy with praise.
Heinrich: hein-rik,
hein (large measure, many) arrikari (thrower of rocks): "Thrower of many rocks".
Helmken: helm-ken,
helmuga (goal) kendu (to charge towards): "Charges towards the goal".
Helmut: hel-mut,
heldura (to mature) mutil (boy): "The boy will mature. (Give him a chance)".
Herbert: her-bert,
herriko (popular) bertute (virtuous): "Popular and virtuous".
Herman: herrausle (destroyer)
manatzaile (giver of orders): "Gives orders to destroy".
horztun (having teeth): "Has teeth, (will bite)".
Johan: jo-han,
jokari (player) handi (important, famous): Famous player.
Kaspar: .kats-par,
akatsbako (perfect) paregabe (unequalled): "Perfect and unequaled".
ekarle (messenger): "Carrier of messages".
Norman: nor-man,
nor (worthy of) manatu (command): "Worthy of command".
Roland: .ro-land.,
arro (arrogant) lander (indignant): "Arrogant and indignant".
Rotbart: .rot-bart,
arroti (boastful) bart (last night): "He was boasting last night".
Rudolf: .ru-dol-.f,
arrunt (completely) dolo (pain) ufakari (scornful): "Completely scornful of pain".
Siegbert: zig-bert,
zigor (whip) bertan (right there): "Whip right there!"
Sigismund: zigi-iz-mund,
zigilu (stamp, seal) izudura (fear) mundu (world): "He put his stamp of fear on the world".
uhe, uher (naughty): "Naughty".
Werner: erner, ernera (fertile): "Fertile". (girls watch out! Danger!)
Wolf: ulu-uf, ulu (howl)
ufakari (scornful): "Scornful howl".
Wulfgang: ulu-uf-gang,
ulu (howl) ufakari (scornful) gangar (vain): "Vain and scornful howl".


          And then there were some names like Hans, from hanzkor meaning  'forgetful', or Haiko from haiko maikoka, meaning 'making excuses', for the non-aggressive boys.




          A great deal of linguistic effort went into replacing the early spoken language, however, less went into changing the original family names. "von" is supposed to indicate nobility but the translation does not support this. The "v" is always written as "b" in Basque therefore "von" becomes "bon," which is derived from bonbon (lavish spending) while the abbreviation "bon" indicates "rich." This is confirmed by some of the names like "von Baillou" ("rich, indeed miserly"), "von Grad" ("hankering for riches") or "von Sydow" ("riches are your misfortune"). Rich must therefore be placed (in most cases) before the following translations e.g. rich lancer, rich and concerned, rich and thoughtful etc. This does not apply to names such as "von Anrep" (a military command) or "von Goertz" (cross) in which cases "von" must have been added to the name after the original meaning had been forgotten and "von" was thought to mean "nobility."


von Aderkas: aderkatz, aderkatze (act of goring): "Lancer".

von Aesch: ash, ashola (care, concern): "Concerned".

von Anrep: an-re-ep, anai (brother) arre (advance) ep (carefully): "Brothers advance carefully".

von Baillou: bai-lu, bai (yes, indeed) lukur (miserly): "Indeed miserly".

von Barr: barrast, barrastatu (to distribute): "He distributed his riches".

von Bartko: bart-ko, bart (last night) kokolo (foolish): "Last night he made a fool (of himself)".

von Berner: bern-er, berna (calf of the leg) -era (action of): "Runner?"

von Borck: borrok, borrok (beligerent): "Beligerent".

von Escholtz: esholatz, asholatz (thoughtful): "Thoughtful".

von Faulhaber: fa-aul-aber, fa (happy) aul (feeble) aber (rich): "Happy, feeble and rich".

von Ferber: fa-eraber, fa (happy) eraberri (changes, reform): "Happy with the changes".

von Gaza: gaza, gaza (dull, insipid): "Rich and dull".

von Goertz: gurutz, gurutz (crucifix, cross): "Of the Cross".

von Grad: gura-ad, guratsu (wishing) adurtsu (lucky): "Wishing to be lucky".

von Hahn: ahan, ahanzkor (forgetful): "Rich and forgetful".

von Haimberger: hei-im-berga-ar, hei (shelter) imaz (place of woven branches) berga (twigs, coppice) arrunt (simple): "Simple shelter made from woven branches".

von Hockauf: ok-auf, okin (baker) aufa (happy): "Happy baker".

von Kaldenberg: kalda-an.-berga, kaldatu (to heat with) anitzetan (often) berga (twigs, branches): "Often heats with branches".

von Kanel: .ka-ane-el., ukan (to have) ane (measure, supply) elikagai (food): "He has a supply of food".

von Katzler: ka-atzelar, kabu (hit) atzelari (backplayer of jai-alai ballgame): "The back player hit the ball".

von Maltzahn: maltz-an, maltz (tricky, deceiptful) anai (brother): "Tricky brother".

von Rudloff: .ru-ud.-.lo-ob.-.b., oru-uda-alo-obe-eba: orubeketa (piece of land) udalarre (summer pasture) alordun (farmer) obeki (better) ebaluatu (to evaluate, consider): "The farmer considers the lower part of the summer pasture to be better".

von Sacken: sakon, sakan (deep ravine, gorge): "By the gorge".

von Schalburg: shal-burg, shalo (frank, candid) burgoi (arrogant): "Frank and arrogant".

von Schellwitz: shel-u'its., shelebre (funny) uitsu (tarred): "He looked funny tarred (and feathered?)".

von Schilling: tshilin, txilin (little bells on animals): "Little bells on (his) animals".

von Schlabbrenberg shal-laber-en-berg: tshal (calf) laberatu (to put in the oven) -enetan (always) berga (twigs, dry branches): "Always put the calf in the oven with dry branches".

von Sydow: zu-doa, zu (you, your) doakabe (misfortune): "Your misfortune".

von Tottossy: toto-osi, tot (round) osin (moat): "Moat all around".

von Welarp: el-arp, ele (story) arpa (harp): "Story sung with the harp".

von Zuben: tsu-ben, tsu (abundance, very) ben (honest, serious): "Very serious".




          This amazing book was written around 1060 A.D. by the abbot of the Ebersberg Benedictine monastery and had a profound influence upon the formation of German. The "Willeram" comments on Solomon's "Song of Songs” in the Bible. The "name" means: "I tell the eternal story of love" and therefore this title could not have been the name of the Benedictine abbot. The original manuscript is now in the University of Leiden, Holland.