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For teaching purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract.

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]

 

              [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]

 

OLD EGYPTIAN NAMES *

[Contacts]

 


          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by
Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of Egypt seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which is being called Saharan.  It appears that the Basque language is a close relative of the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:

 

 

EGYPTIAN GODS

 

Amun
amu - un.
amultsu - unibertsalki
affectionate - universally
"Universally affectionate".
This has to be a Goddess.

 

Aten
ate - en.
aterpe - ene
refuge - my
"My refuge".

 

Ra. There are at least four possible origins for Ra. My guess is that #1 is right.


aRa meaning pure (
aratz)
eRa meaning devotion (
eraspen)
irRa  meaning radiating (
irradiatu)
oRa meaning for ever (
orain)

Re also has a few possible derivations, the most likely being:
arRe meaning Redeemer (
arrerosle)

 

 

FOUR CHILDREN OF THE SUN GOD

 

Geb, (the Earth, a male principle)
.ge - eb.
age - ebo
agerian - eboluziozko
evidently - evolving
"Evidently evolving".

 

Shu, (the Air).
.xu, 
uxu (yodel cry of happiness)

Tefnut, (the Water)


.te - ef. - .nu - ut.
ete - ebo - onu - uto
etengabeki - eboluzionatu - onuts - utopia
constantly - to evolve - perfect - utopia
"Constantly evolving perfect utopia".

 

Nut (the Heaven, the Stars and the Ether; a female principle)
.nu - ut.
onu - uto
onuts - utopia
perfect - utopia
"Perfect utopia".

 

 

GEB AND NUT’S FOUR CHILDREN

 

Osiris, (personification of all that is good)
osi - iri - is.
osintsu - irrikitasun - izate
very deep - desire - life
"Very deep desire for life".

 

Isis, (the Goddess, introduced immortality of the soul and individual salvation)
.si - is.
izi - izi
izigarri - izigarrikeria
terrible - atrocity
"Terrible atrocity".

 

Seth, (introduces evil)
.se - et. - .h.
ase - eta - aha
asegaitz - -eta - ahalmen
craving - abundance - power
"He craves an abundance of power".

 

Nephthys, (introduces evil with Seth).
.ne - eb. - .t. - .hi - is.
ene - ebe - eto - ohi - izu
enetan - eberu - etorri - ohinazestatu - izugarriki
every time - Hebrews - to come - to suffer - horribly
"Every time the Hebrews came we suffered horribly."

 

Horus, (son of Isis and Osiris)
.ho - oru - us
eho - oru - usa
ehortzi - orube - usa
to bury - site/place - dove/holy man
"He buried the holy man in this place".

 

Abydos, burial place of the head of Osiris.
abi - ido - os.
abia - idolo - oso
nest/home - idol - simple
"Simple home for the idol".

 

 

MAGICAL NAMES

 

          It was surprising to learn that to decode many of these very old names was straightforward, although time-consuming. The names were all agglutinated according to the VCV formula, but the words of the spoken language were not formulaically constructed. To agglutinate these names, the Egyptian priests used only those words of the Neolithic Saharan language, which started with vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV). The ancient Saharan language may have been the language in popular use during the first two dynasties and after that was probably maintained as a liturgical or secret language. It still is spoken in close to its original condition as Basque in Europe. Aulestia's Basque Dictionary (University of Nevada Press) was used for both decoding and translating. In the name-assembly process the priests stuck religiously to the VCV vowel-interlocking formula. In general, every consonant represents one word.

 

          The same formulaic name-encoding system was used in unaltered form throughout Egyptian history. Names such as Rosetta, Pharaoh, Nile and Egypt may be relatively recent name creations, but they still yield their hidden meanings in the same manner the very earliest Pharaohs' names. It appears that all personal names have two meanings, the publicly known one and the secret one, which meanings may not be the same or even closely so. The VCV system is designed to decode the secret meaning of the name, which may or may not have been divulged to the bearer.

 

Rosetta
.ro - ose - et. - .ta
ero - ose - ete - eta
erotegi - ozen - etengabeko - -eta
insane asylum - penetrating (voice/cry) - incessant - overpowering
"The incessant penetrating (screams) from the insane asylum are overpowering."

 

          The scribes creating the inscriptions gave themselves appropriate names such as:


          Nesmeterakhem, son of Nesmeterpanakhet at the time of Hadrian, AD 117-38 (
Parkinson p.178)

 

.ne - es. - .me - ete - era - ak. - .he - em.
ene - esa - ame - ete - era - ako - ohe - ema
ene - ezangarri - ameskile - etengabeko - erran - akordiozko - ohetoki - emai
my - symbols - fanciful - continuous - saying/epigram - traditional - burial chambre - gift
"My fanciful symbols (form) a continuous epigram,
a gift for the traditional burial chambre."

 

          His father, Nesmeterpanakhet, used the same introductory sentence, then adds:

 

.pa - ana - ak. - .he - et.
apa - ana - ako - ohe - ete
apaindu - anaia - akordiozko - ohetoki - etengabetasun
to make up - religious brother -  traditional - burial chambre - in perpetuity
"My fancyful symbols (form) a continuous epigram,
made up for the religious brother's traditional burial chambre in perpetuity."

 

 

THE ROSETTA STONE


          In contrast to the VCV method used to agglutinate names, the Egyptians' writings on stone, papyrus etc. made use of all words in the ancient vocabulary, as shown here in a sentence borrowed from the Rosetta stone. Parkinson in his book "Cracking Codes, the Rosetta Stone and Decipherment" (p. 54) supplies us with the pronounciation of the transliteration of the last sentence on the Rosetta Stone. Nyland shows the corresponding Basque words and his translation underneath (English 'sh' = Basque 'x'):

 

Rosetta:   her                    ahay                neti                        aat           rudj               em              sech      
Basque: 
herrikatu          ahaide           netik                      atx          irudipetu      eman         sekretu  
English:  
proclamation - our people - from this date on - stone - to symbolize - the above - secret script


Translation: "Proclamation to our people. From this date on the stone will symbolize the above in the secret script

ni    medu                     netcher           sech              ni     shay                  sekhay       ni      hau-nebu
? -  eme'edukitsu         txera              sekretu          ?  -   xeheki               asekhai    ?   hau - uneburu
? -  female'powerful -  intelligent  -  secret script - ? -   in great detail - abundant - ? - this - important place


of the Goddess in intelligent secret writing in great and abundant detail in this important place."

 

          My translation differs considerably from the translation shown by Parkinson in his book which reads:


"Upon a stela of hard stone in hieroglyphic writing, in demotic writing, and in the script of the Aegians".

 

 

THE TITLE "PHARAOH"?


          The title "pharaoh", more accurately spelled "faraoh", is no Egyptian invention because it is appropriate for males only:

 

.fa - ara - a.o - oh.
afa - ara - aho - oha
afa - aragikeria - ahokatu - ohaide
pleasing - fornication - to engage in - concubine
"Engaged in pleasing fornication (with a) concubine".

 

          Otto Muck in "Cheops et la Grande Pyramide" (1978) p.114, claims that the Shepherd Philitis brought the title to Egypt from the north, witness Stonehenge in England. Diop calls this an insipid notion. Pharaoh is an agglutinated title, likely of Latin origin; neither the Egyptians nor Greeks pronounced the 'ph' as 'f'.

 

Nile
.ni - ile
uni - ile
unibertsal - ilezkor
universal - immortal
"Universal and immortal".

 

Pyramid
.pi - ira - ami - id.
epi - ira - ami - ide
epika - iragartzapen - amildu - ideadura
epic - to prophesy - destruction - ideology
"The epic prophesied the destruction of our ideology".


That's why they built for eternity.

Egypt
egi - ip. - .t.
egi - ipu - uto
egin - ipuin - utopia
to create - legend - utopia
"They created the legend of utopia".

 

Dynasty
.dina - asti
adina - astiz
so many - bright future
"So many bright futures".

 

 

FIRST DYNASTY. (c.3100-2890 B.C.)


           (The dates of the dynasties are taken from "Who were the Pharaohs?" by Stephen Quirke, Dover Publications, 1990.). A few of the following names can hardly be called names because they sound like warnings to scare off tomb robbers. Likely a case of mistaken identity).

 

Menes, (probably his funeral name).
.me - ene - es.
ome - ene - esa
omendu - -enetan - ezarle
to honor - always - founder
"Always honor our founder".

 

Narmer, (same person as Menes).
.na - ar. - me - er.
ana - aro - ome - ere
anaitu - -aro - omenezko - erreinu
to unite - all - honorable - kingdom
"I/He united all into an honorable kingdom".

 

Hor-aha
.ho - or. - aha
oho - ora - aha
ohoratu - orain - ahalguzti
to praise - always - almighty
"Always praise the Almighty".

 

Berner-Ib, wife of Hor-aha.
(Note that the name is hyphenated at the interruption of vowel-interlocking)
.be - er. - .ne - er.  '  ib.

abe - ere - ene - ere  '  ibi
aberaski - erregina - enetan - erregekiro '  ibili
elegant - queen - always - royally  '  to act
"My elegant queen always acts royally".

 

Zer
.ze - er.
eze - ere
ezezagun - errege
unknown - king
"Unknown king".

 

Meryet-nit
.me - eri - i.e - et.  '  .ni - it.
ume - eri - ihe - ete  '  uni - itu
ume - eriotze - ihesezin - etenkor  '  unibertsal - itundu
child - death - unavoidable - fragile  '  general - sadness
"The death of her fragile child was unavoidable. (There was) general sadness.

 

Uadji
u.a - ad. - .ji
uha - adi - iji
uhaldu - adi - ijito
to fasten down - watch out - Gypsy
"Fasten (everything) down; watch out for the Gypsies".


This must be a warning for the people doing the burial.

 

Udimu, this name only makes sense if written
Udi ' mu:
udi  '  amu
     udikan  '  amure egon
get out  '  to be distrustful
"Get out! I don't trust you."


This is no name but a warning to scare off tomb robbers. 

 

Hemaka (Udimu's chancellor).
.he - ema - aka
hegaztiazti - emankizun - akatsbako
diviner/augur - performance - perfect
"Diviner of perfect performance."

 

Semti, name somehow associated with Udimu.
.se - em. - .ti
ase - ema - ati
asete - eman - atxikidura
period of abundance - to celebrate - unity
"In this time of abundance we celebrate unity".

 

Enezib
ene - ezi - ib.
-enetan - eziakin - ibiltari
always - illiterate - nomad
"Always an illiterate nomad."

 

Semerkhet (same person as Sozer-Teti)
.se - eme - er. - .k. - .he - et.
ese - eme - ere - eki - ihe - ete
ezezagun - emeki - errege - ekile - ihesegin - etendura
anonymous - peaceful - king - enterprising - to escape/to be missed - lineage
"Anonymous peaceful and enterprising king who was missed from the lineage."

 

Sozer-Teti, alternate name for Semerkhet)
.so - oze - er.  '   .te - eti
eso - oze - era  '  ate - eti
esonde - ozen - erran  '  aterbe - etika
advice - penetrating voice - to say/speak  '  safety - ethics
"He speaks his advice about safety and ethics with a penetrating voice ."

 

Zezer'kerasonb,
(his dynasty and place in it is uncertain to me at this time).
.ze - eze - er. '  .ke - era - azo - on. - .b.
eze - eze - ere  '  ake - era - azo - ona - abe
ezezagun - ezegin - errege  '  akela - eraspen - -azo - onaldi - aberatstasun
anonimous - to omit - king  '  Goddess - devotion - to bring about - prosperity - riches
"Anonymous, omitted king". "His devotion to the Goddess brought about prosperity and riches".

 

 

SECOND DYNASTY. (c.2890-2686)

 

Hotepsekhe'mui
.ho - ote - ep. - .se - ek. - .he  '  emu - u.i
oho - ote - epe -eze - eki - ihe  '  mu - uhi 

ohoratu - otseinketa - epetu - ezezagun - ekin - ihesezin  '   murgilarazi - uhin
to honor - service -  set time limit - unknown - to persevere - inevitable  '   to drown - waves
"We honor his service for the set time period. He persevered
into the unknown and inevitably drowned in the waves."

 

          The "set time period" for a king who had participated in the "Sacred Marriage" was usually seven and a half years from May 1 until his death on November 1. He reigned as a semi-god, the bridge between the people and the deity, and when his time was up, he was sacrificed by drowning in the waves, possibly in one of the Cataracts. This was also practiced in Scotland in the Whirlpool of Corrivreckan, until Christianity arrived. From his name, we now know that this was also done in early Egypt during the first two dynasties.

 

Ra-neb
.Ra '  .ne - eb.
aRa '  ene - ebe
aRatz '  -enetik - ebertaren
Pure? '   from that time on - patriarchy
"From that time on (there was) patriarchy".

 

Neteren, (a funeral name?)
.ne - ete - ere - en.
one - ete - ere - -ena
onegite - etengabeki - errege - -ena
doing good - constantly - king - 'superlative'
"Our 'wonderful' king was constantly doing good".

 

Netermu, same person as Neteren
.ne - ete - er. - .mu
one - ete - era - amu
onegite - etengabeki - eraspen - amultsutasun
doing good - constantly - devotion - tenderness
"Constantly doing good with devotion and tenderness".

 

          Sekhemib. The name tells us that this was a queen and not a king as is stated. Archaeologists have long wondered why she abandoned her allegiance to the god Horus and switched to Set. Her name tells us why. The name should be spelled:

 

Sekhem - ib because the vowel-interlocking is interrupted.
.se - ek. - .he - em. '  ib.
ese - eki - ihe - ema  '  ibi


esetsi - ekimendu - ihesari eman - emarrapaketa  '   ibili
to attack - to take the initiative - to escape - abduction of a woman - to go along
"She was attacked and took the initiative to escape
by going along with her abductors".

 

Perabsen, same person as Sekhem-ib.
.pe - era ab. - .se - en.
pe - era - aba - ase - ena
petralkeria - erasan - abade - aserrekor - -ena
villainy - to attack - priest - infuriating - 'superlative'
"The villainy of the priests' attack was 'extremely' infuriating."

 

Sendji
.se - en. - .di - .ji
ase - ena - adi - iji
azeri - -ena - adi - ijito
shrewd - 'superlative' - watch out - Gypsy
"Gypsies are 'extremely' shrewd, watch out".


This is no name. It is another warning for the workers building the tomb.

 

Neterka
.ne - ete - er. - .ka
one - ete - era - aka
onegite - etengabeki - eraspen - akatsbako
doing good - constantly - devotion - perfect
"Constantly doing good with perfect devotion".

 

Neferkara
.ne - ebe - er. - .ka - ara
ane - ebe - era - aka - ara
añendu - eberu - erratu - akargarritu - arakintzatu
to curse - Hebrews - to wander - to infuriate - to massacre
"The cursed wandering Hebrews infuriated and massacred".

 

Kha - sekhe'mui
.k. - .ha  '  .se - ek. - .he  '  mu - u.i
ako - oho  '  ase - eki - ihe  '  mu - uhi
akorduan euki - oharti  '  asezin - ekin - ihesezin  '   murgilarazi - uhin
to remember - thoughtful  '  craving - to persevere - inevitable  '   to drown - wave
"Remember his thoughtful craving to persevere in
the inevitable and be drowned in the waves."


Another courageous Tammuz went honorably to his sacrificial death.

 

 

THIRD DYNASTY (c.2686-2613)

 

Djoser, builder of the step pyramid.
.d. - .jo - ose - er.
ida - ajo - ose - era
idazlan - ajola - ozen - erran
writing - interest - penetrating voice - to say/to speak
"He speakes his interest in writing in a penetrating voice".

 

Imhotep, architect, physician, and everything else of Djoser.
Vowel-interlocking is interrupted; the name should be spelled:


Im-Hotep.
im.
' .ho - ote - ep.
ima ' oho - ote - epa
imajina ' ohoratu - otseinketa - epaile
statue '  to honor - service - judge
"This statue honors his service as a judge".

 

Khaba, (of the Layer Pyramid)
.k. - .ha - aba
aka - aha - aba
akabu - ahalguzti - abade
high/superior - almighty - priest
"High priest of the Almighty".

 

 

FOURTH DYNASTY (c.2613-2494)

 

Seneferu
.se - ene - ebe - eru
ese - ene - ebe - eru
esetsi - -enetan - eberu - errukigabe
to attack - every time - Hebrews - cruel
"Every time he attacked the cruel Hebrews.

 

Djedefre,
.d. - .je - ede - eb. - .re
ada - aje - ede - ebe - ere
-ada - ajene - ederrakhartu - eberu - eremu
noise of the action - lament - to be defeated - Hebrews - desert
"The Hebrews lamented loudly when they were defeated in the desert".


It appears that the Hebrews were unsuccessful in their long persisting efforts
to conquer Egypt and then turned to Canaan.

 

Nebka
.ne - eb. - .ka
one - ebe - eka
onera hartu - ebertarren - ekarri
to accept - patriarchy - to bring
"Accept the patriarchy I bring".

 

 

FIFTH DYNASTY (c.2494-2345)

 

THE KHU'FU FAMILY

 

Snofru, father of Khu'fu
builder of the Bent Pyramid
.s. - .no - ob. - .ru
aso - ono - obi - iru
-azo - onon - obi - irudi
to bring about/create - wonderful - tomb - symbol
"He created his wonderful tomb as a symbol."

 

Hetepheres, mother of Khu'fu.
.he - ete - ep. - .he - ere - es.
ihe - ete - epo - ohe - ere - esa
ihezin - etenkor - epotu - ohealdi - erregina - esaeratsu
inevitable/fated - fragile - to loose weight - time spent in bed - queen - wise
"Fated to be fragile and losing weight, our wise queen spent her time in bed."

 

          Cheops. This is the Latin spelling because neither Egyptian nor Greek possesses the 'c'. The name should be spelled: Keops, the 'h' had to be added when the 'k' was changed to 'c' otherwise the name would have been pronounced Seops. Therefore, the 'h' was added much later and does not belong in the name translation.

 

Keops
.ke - e.o - op. - .s.
ake - eho - opa - asa
akela - ehortzetak - opakuntza - asaba
Goddess - funeral - offering - ancestor
"The Goddess' funeral offering to the ancestors".

 

          This translation tells us that Keops cannot have been the name of the pharaoh but instead must have been the name of the Great Pyramid itself. The most impressive stone building, ever constructed, was not built as the tomb for just one king, but instead for all the people. The mighty sarcophagus always stands open and was intended to be available for all the beloved departed of the world. Strabo in his "Geographica" tells about a stone in the side of the pyramid that may be taken out. Petrie interpreted this statement to mean that there was a flap-door composed of a single slab of stone (Edwards). It could have been there to allow access to the sarcophagus for the funerals of the people. This explains why the great pyramid has no decorations to show scenes of the dead pharaoh's life. The huge sarcophagus was never intended for the pharaoh alone, although it is possible that he was the first one to use it. His real grave may yet be found, hidden deep under the pyramid, where his personal life would have been depicted on the walls. If this is indeed the case, the grave will likely be found intact. Herodotus tells about subterranean chambers where vaults were constructed on an island, surrounded by water brought from the Nile by tunnel. On this island, he was told, the body of Khufu lies. Nothing of that description has ever been found. It is interesting that a Japanese expedition has recently found evidence of just such underground caverns while sounding the underlying rock with sophisticated equipment.


          The name "Akela'', meaning Goddess, is still used in many Indo-European languages but now means 'witch', a meaning-change enforced by the Christian and Judaic clergy. As male domination throughout the following millennia has made every effort to eliminate the memory of the Great Goddess, this is likely the reason why the spelling of the name Keops was changed to Cheops, to hide the '.ke' of 'ake'.

 

          Khufu. This must be the real name of the "great pharaoh" Keops because Khufu'khaf was the name of his son who died in infancy. The final letters 'ufu' are untranslatable therefore, an interruption of the vowel interlocking must be assumed. The 'f' is interchangeable with 'b':

 

Khu'fu
.k. - .hu  '  fu,
aka - ahu  '  bu

akabu - ahurrelaritza  '  bukatu
perfect - leadership  ' to bring to a finish
"Perfect leadership brought (the pyramid) to a finish."

 

Rekha'ef, alternate name for Khu'fu.
.re - ek. - .ha  '  ef.
ere - eki - iha  '  eba
errege - ekinaldi - ihaiotasun  '  ebatzizko
king - perseverance - expertise  '  decisive
"The king's perseverance and expertise were decisive."

 

Hardjedef, son of Khu'fu
.ha - ar. - .d. - .je - ede - ef.
oha - ari - ida - aje - ede - ebe
oharrezko - arrisku - idatzi - ajeru - edendun - ebertar
to warn - danger - to write about - suspicion - poisonous - patriarchy
"He warned about the danger and wrote about his suspicions of the poisonous Hebrews."

 

Redjedef, son of Khu'fu
.re - ed. - .je - ede - eb.
are - eda - aje - ede - ebe

arrenkuratu - edangabetu - ajenatu - ederrak eman - eberu
to become impatient - to deprive of water - to drive away - to defeat -  Hebrews
"He was impatient to deprive the Hebrews of water, then to defeat and drive them away."

 

Khufu'khaf, infant son of Khu'fu
Khufu  '  .k. - .ha - ab.
Khufu  '  ki - iha - aba
Khufu  ' 
kirikaldi - ihar - -aba
Khufu  '  period of vigilance - to waste away - family relation/heir
"(During) Khufu's period of vigilance his heir wasted away."

 

Khnumbraf,  infant son of Khu'fu.
.k. - .h. - .nu - um. - .b. - .ra - af.
ako - ohi - inu - uma - abo - ora - afa
akorduan euki - ohihaldu - inudetu - uma - abots - orain - afa
to remember - wrapped in diapers - to nurse - child - voice - always - happy
"Remember the nursing child in diapers, whose voice was always happy."

 

Hetephras, daughter of Khu'fu.
.he - ete - ep. - .h. - .ra - as.
ohe - ete - epe - ehi - ira - asu
ohekoi - etenkor - epel - ehihargarri - iragan  - azurruts
tends to sleep a lot - fragile - weak - wilting - to suffer - very skinny person
"She tends to sleep a lot, is fragile, weak and wilting, and very skinny".

 

Meresankh (daughter of Khu'fu, wife of Khephren), obviously a funeral name.
.me - ere - esa - an. - .k. - .h.
ome - ere - esa - ana - aka - ahi
omendatu - erregina - esaeratsu - anaitu - akabu - ahienekatu
to honor - queen - wise - to gather - death - to lament
"To honor the wise queen we gather for a death lament".

 

Kawaat, eldest son of Khu'fu.
.kawa - a.a - at.
akawa - aha - ate
akabatu - ahalguzti - aterpe
to end a life - almighty - refuge
"His life ended in the refuge of the Almighty".

 

Menkhaf, (son of Khu'fu)
.me - en. - .k. - .ha - af.
ume - ena - ako - oha - afa
ume - -ena - akorduan euki - oharkabetasun - afa
child - 'superlative' - to remember - innocent - full of joy
"Remember this 'wonderful' child, so innocent and full of joy".

 

Kephren (Khaef - Re)
.ke - ep. - .h. - .re - en.
ake - epa ' he - ere - ena
akela - epaitu - herentzia - errege - -ena
Goddess - to decide - inheritance - king - 'superlative'
"The Goddess decided the great king's inheritance".

 

Khaef - Re, same person as Kephren.
.ka - .ha - a.e - eb.  '  .re
ake - eha - ahe - eba  '  ere
akela - ahalguzti - aherentzia - ebatzi  '  errege
Goddess - unlimited power - inheritance - to decide  '  king
"With her unlimited power the Goddess decided the inheritance of the king."

 

Mycerinus (Men-kau-Re)
.mi - ike - eri - inu - us.
umi - ike - eri - inu - uso
umilki - ikertu - eri - inurritze - uso
humbly - to examine - sickness - inspiring - holy man/dove
"(The doctor) humbly examined the illness of the inspiring holy man."

 

Men - kau - Re, same person as Mycerinus.
.me - en. '  kau   '  .re
ome - ene  '  kau  '  are
omendatu - enetan  '  kauta  '  arrerosle
to honor - always  '  obligation  '  Redeemer
"Always honor your obligations to the Redeemer."

 

Khamerernebti, queen of Mycerinus
.k. - .ha - ame - ere - er. - .ne - eb. - .ti
aka - aha - ame - ere - era - añe - ebe - eti
akargarri - aharrari - ameskaitz - errege - erasan - añendu - eberu - etikagabe
infuriated - troublemaker - nightmare - king - to attack - to curse - Hebrew tribe - unethical
"Infuriated with the nightmare caused by the troublemakers,
the king attacked and cursed the unethical Hebrew tribe."

 

Khentkaues, mother of Userkaf
.k. - .he - en. - .t.  '  kau  '  es.
aki - ihe - ene - ete - eka  '  kau  '  es.
akitu - ihesezin - enetan - etenkor - ekarri  '  kauta  '   esaeratsu
to be tired - fated - always - fragile - to bring  '  responsibility   '  wisdom
"She was fated to always be tired and fragile, but
she brought responsibility and wisdom."

 

Userkaf
us. - er. - .ka - ab.
uste - ere - eka - abo
uste oso - errege - ekarpen - aboskatu
complete faith - king - contribution - to proclaim
"The contributions of the king with his complete faith were proclaimed."

 

Sahure
.sa - ahu - ure
asa - ahu - ure
asaba - ahutoizendatu - urentasun
ancestor - to appoint oneself - nobility
"Ancestor who appointed himself to nobility".

 

Unas
una - as.
una - asa
unai - asaba
cowherd - ancestor
"His ancestors were cowherds".

 

Neferefre
.ne - ebe - ere - eb. - .re
ane - ebe - ere - eba - are
añendu - ebertar - eremutu - ebatsi - arestian
to curse - Hebrew  - to depopulate - to plunder - a short time ago
"The cursed Hebrews depopulated and plundered a short time ago".

 

Nuserre
.nuse - erre
inuze - errege
mentally defective - king
"Mentally defective king".


Another name made up by a historian, possibly Manetho.

 

Neferirkere
.ne - efe - eri - ir. - .ke - ere
ene - ebe - eri - ira - ake - ere
enerako - ebertaren - erioaldi - irakitu - akela - errespedatu
before - patriarchy - agony - to fire with compassion - Goddess -  to respect
"Before the agony of patriarchy our passionate Goddess was respected".

 

Djedkare Izezi
.d. - .je - ed. - .ka - are      ize - ezi
ida - aje - ede - eka - are     ize - ezi
idatzi - ajenatu - edesti - ekarpen - aren     izen - ezinirakurrizko   
to document - to disappear - history - contribution - his  name - illegible   
"Documented (because) his contribution to history may disappear. Name illegible". 


This is probably Manetho's comment.

 

Menhauhor
.me - en. - .ha - au - uho - or.
ame - ena - aha - au - uho - ora
ameskaitz - -ena - ahazte - aundi - uholde - orraztu
nightmare - 'superlative' - action of trying to forget - enormous - flood - to despoil
"He tried to forget the 'terrible' nightmare of the enormous flood which despoiled (the country)".

 

Shepseskaf, last pharaoh of the Dynasty.
.s. - .he - ep. - .se - es. - .ka - ab.
uso - ohe - epe - eze - ezu - uka - abi
uso - ohealditu - epel - ezeuskor - ezurruts - ukan - abiatu
dove/holy man - to spend time in bed - weak - fragile - very skinny - to have - to depart
"Our holy man, who spent his time in bed, weak, fragile and very skinny, has departed."

 

 

SIXTH DYNASTY (c.2345-2181)

 

Teti
.te - eti
ete - eti
etengabe - etikoa
constantly - ethical
"Always ethical".

 

Pepi
.pe - epi
pentsaketu - epika
to reflect on - epic
"He reflected on the epic (of utopia?)."

 

Ibi
ibi from ibiltari (nomad)
"Nomad".

 

Merenre
.me - ere - en. - .re
ome - ere - ene - ere
omendatu - errege - enetan - erregetza
to honor - king - always - royal power
"Always honor the king's royal power."

 

 

EIGHTH DYNASTY (c.2181-2130 B.C.)

 

Wadjkara  Demedjibtawy
u.a - ad. - .j. - .ka - ara
uha - ada - aje - eka - ara
uhalde - adaskadura - ajene - ekarri - arrailagarri
flood/cataract - being swallowed - lament - to cause - heartbreaking
"Being swallowed up by the cataract caused lament and heartbreak."


Another voluntary sacrifice was drowned in the Cataract.

.de - eme - edi - ib. - .ta - au - u.i
ade - eme - edi - iba - ata - au - uhi
adelatu - emekiro - ediren - ibar - atano - aukeramen - uhin
to prepare - venerably - to find - river - evergreen forest/hereafter - free will - wave
"Venerably he prepared to find the hereafter in the waves of the river on his own free will."


Obviously, the sacrifice of a king was still practiced at this time.

 

Qakara Iby
.ka - aka - ara  /  ibi
ika - aka - ara  /  ibi
ikaserazi - akatsbako - aratz  /  ibili
to teach - perfect - pure  /  to be
"His teachings are pure and perfect."

 

Min
in pain
"In pain."

 

 

NINTH and TENTH DYNASTY (c.2130-2040 B.C.)

 

Kheti
.k. - .he - eti
oki - ihe - eti
okitu - ihesleku - etikoa
completely - safe place to live - ethical
"A completely safe and ethical place to live".

 

Ankhtify
an. - .k. - .h. - .ti - .bi
ana - ako - ohi - iti - ibi
anaiarte - akorduan euki - ohinaze - itxiki - ibildari
gathering/everybody - to remember - suffering - faithfulness - nomad
"Everybody will remember the suffering and the faithfulness of the nomad."

 

Neferirkare
.ne - ebe - eri - ir. - .ka - are
añe - ebe - eri - ire - eka - are
añendu - ebertar - eriotza - irentsi - ekarri - arrenguratsu
to curse - Hebrews - death - to destroy - to bring - lamenting
"The cursed Hebrews brought death and destruction and lamenting".

 

 

ELEVENTH DYNASTY (C.2130-1991 B.C.)

 

Nebtawyrat  Mentuhotep
.ne - eb. - .ta - au - u.i - ira - at.
ine - eba - ata - au - uhi - ira - ate
inertzia - ebatzi - atano - aukeramen - uhin - iraun - ateri
passive - to decide - evergreen oak forest/hereafter - free will - wave - to endure - calm
"He passively decided to endure the waves calmly on his own free will (to enter) the hereafter."

 

.me - en. - .tu - uho - ote - ep.
ame - eni - itu - uho - ote - epa
ameskaitz - eni - itxuragabe - uhol - ote - epai
nightmare - to me - senseless - flood/cataract - perhaps - judgment
"To me the senseless nightmare in the Cataract is perhaps a judgment."

 

 

TWELFTH DYNASTY (c.1991-1786 B.C.)

 

Amenemhet
ame - ene - em. - .he - et.
ame - ene - emo - ohe - etsi
amesgaitz - enetan - emon - ohe - etsitu
nightmare - always - to produce - bed - to despair
"His nightmares always produced despair in bed."

 

Sebekneferu, (Queen)
.se - ebe - ekne - ebe - eru
ese - ebe - ekine - ebe - eru
esetsi - eberu - ekinez - ebertaren - errukigabekeria
to attack - Hebrews - persistently - patriarchal - cruelty
"She attacked the Hebrews persistently for their patriarchal cruelty".

 

Sesostris, (Amenemhet's successor)
.se - eso - os. .t. - .ri - is.
ase - eso - osa - ate - eri - isu
asetu - esonde - osalari - atera - erioaldi - izugarri
to crave - advice - doctor - to get - agony - terrible
"He craved to get advice from the doctor for his terrible agony".

 

Amenemes
am. - .me - ene - eme - es.
ama - ame - ene - eme - eza

ama - ametsetsi - -enetan - emekiro - ezagutze
Goddess - to idealize - always - peaceful - all knowing
Always idealize (our) Goddess; she is peaceful and all-knowing".

 

 

THIRTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1786-1674 B.C.)

 

Khendjer. This is a funeral name.
.k. - .he - en. - .d. - .je - er.
aka - ehe - -ena - -ada - aje - ere
akabu - ehe - -ena - -ada - ajene - errege
death - call attention - 'superlative' - sound of the action - lament - king
"They called attention to the king's death with 'loud' sound of lament".

 

 

FOURTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1700-1674 B.C.)

FIFTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1674-1567 B.C.)

SIXTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1674-1567 B.C.)

SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1674-1567 B.C.)

 

Apopis
apo - opi - is.
apo - opi - izu
apokeria - opio - izurreztatu
morally corrupt - opium - to be addicted to
"It is morally corrupting to be addicted to opium."

 

Kamose, either he or Seknerre drove out the Hyksos
and became the last pharaoh of the dynasty.
.ka - amo - ose
eka - amo - ose
ekandu - amorratu - osen
to be used to - to rage - penetrating voice
"He used to rage with a penetrating voice".

 

Seknerre, relative of Kamose
.se - ek. - .ne - erre
ase - eko - one - erre
asete - ekoizpen - onesan - errege
period of abundance - production - to praise - king
"Praise the king for a period of abundant production"

 

 

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY (c.1567-1320 B.C.)

 

Ahmosis
ah. - .mo - osi - is.
aha - amo - osi - ize
ahalguzti - amodio - osin - izenandiko
Almighty - love - very deep - celebrated
"The Almighty's very deep love is celebrated."

 

Amenhotep
ame - en. - .ho - ote - ep.
ame - ena - aho - ote - epo
amesgaitz - -ena - ahomoteldu - ote - epotu
nightmare - that - to stutter - perhaps - to grow a little
"It is a nightmare that he stutters and perhaps he will grow a little."

 

Nibmuaria
(praenomen of Amenhotep III; Parkinson p.54)
.ni - ib. - .mu - u.a - ari - i.a
ani - iba - amu - uha - ari - iha
aniztu - ibai - amure egon - uhalde - arritu - ihabali
to increase/to rise - river - be suspicious - flood - to surprise - frightened
"Be suspicious of the rising river; a surprise flood is frightening."

 

Tuthmosis
.tu - ut. - .h. - .mo - osi - is.
atu - uto - oha - amo - osi - isa
atutxa - utopia - ohartasun - amodio - osintsu - izan
evergreen forest - utopia - thoughtfulness - love - very deep - to exist/live on
"In the evergreen forest of utopia his thoughtfulness and very deep love will live on."

 

Menkheperre, same person as Tuthmosis
.me - en. - .k. - .he - epe - erre
ame - ena - ako - ohe - epe - erre
amesgaitz - ena - akorduan euki - ohealdi - epegabeko - errege
nightmare - 'superlative' - to remember - time spent in bed - continuous - king
"We remember his 'dreadful' nightmares and the continuous time spent in bed by the king."

 

Hatshepsut
.ha - at. - .s. - .he - ep. - .su - ut.
aha - ata - ase - ehe - epi - isu - uto
ahalguzti - atano - asegaitz - ehe - epika - isurialdi - utopia
Almighty - evergreen forest - craving - call attention - epic - inspiration - utopia
"Craving for the evergreen forest of the Almighty she called attention
to the inspiration (offered) in the epic of utopia."


          It was very likely during the reign of Amenophis III that the enormous There a volcano erupted (c 1420 bce.), bringing the Cretan civilization to its knees and wreaking untold grief on Egypt and most other countries around the eastern Mediterranean with tidal waves and volcanic ash fall. (See Diop, p.79-83).

 

 

Amenophis
ame - eno - op. - .hi - is.
ame - eno - opo - ohi - isu
amesgaitz - enoradun - oposagaitz - ohil - isurduhin
nightmare - afflicted - unopposable- savage - tidal wave
"Afflicted by the nightmare of a savage unopposable tidal wave".

 

Akenaten
ake - ena - ate - en.
akela - -ena - aterpe - ene
Goddess - superlative/great - refuge - my
"The Great Goddess, my refuge".

 

Nefertiti
.ne - efe - er. - .ti - iti
ane - ebe - era - ati - iti
añendu - ebertaren - eraberritu - atikitasun - itiki/idiki
to curse - patriarchy - to reform - faithfulness - to discover
"Reform the cursed patriarchy and discover faithfulness".

 

Tutankhaten
.tu - uta - an. - .k. - .ha - ate - en.
itu - uta - ana - ake - eha - ate - ene
itxuragabe - utsa - anaiarte - akela - eha - aterpe - ene
senseless - to dispossess - priesthood - Goddess - 'emphasis'  - refuge - my
"It is senseless to dispossess the priesthood of the 'Great' Goddess, my refuge."

 

Ankhesenamen, queen of Tutankhaten
an. - .k. - .he - ese - ena - ame - en.
ana - aki - ihe - ese - ena - ame - ena
anai - akigarri - ihesezin - esetsi - ena - amesgaitz - ena
religious brother/priest - exhausted - to escape - to attack - 'superlative' - nightmare - 'superlative'
"The exhausted priest escaped from the 'vicious' attack like from and 'awful' nightmare."

 

Keftiu,
This was the name used for the island of Crete, but only during the 18th Dynasty.
.ke - eb. - .ti - i.u
ake - eba - ati - ihu
akela - ebakin - atxikilotu - ihuodei
Goddess - harvested grain - to arrest/hold back - thunderclouds
"The Goddess of the harvest holds back the thunderclouds."

 

 

NINETEENTH DYNASTY (c.1320-1200 B.C.)

 

Horemheb
.ho - ore - em. - .he - eb.
oho - ore - eme - ehe - eba
ohoratu - orrek - emekiro - ehe - ebakin
to praise - that - peacefulness -  pay attention - harvest
"Praise the peacefulness that we have (so we can) pay attention to the harvest."

 

Ramesses
.ra - ame - es. - .se - es.
ura - ame - ese - ese - esi
urabazter - amesgaitz - esetsi - ezereztu - ezigabe
bank of the river -nightmare - to attack - to annihilate - savage
"(During) the nightmare on the banks of the river we attacked and annihilated the savages."


         
This huge battle took place c. 1180 B.C., during Ramesses III's reign (See Sandars for description on his temple at Medinet Habu). There were earlier attacks by the Sea Peoples during the reign of Ramesses I and II also, but probably none after that.

 

Merneptah
.me - er. - .ne - ep. - .ta - ah.
ame - eri - ine - epe - eta - ahi
amesgaitz - eri - inertzia - epel - eta - ahi
nightmare - sickness - debility - to weaken - and - cause sorrow
"Having nightmares is a debilitating illness which weakens and causes sorrow."

 

Siptah
.si - ip. - .ta - ah.
si - ipi - ita - aha
sinestu - ipini - itxaro - ahalguzti
to believe - to place - trust - Almighty
"To believe is to place your trust in the Almighty."

 

Meryptah (Parkinson p.83)
.me - eri - ip. - .ta - ah.
ame - eri - ipi - ita - aha
amesgaitz - eri - ipini - itxaro
nightmare - agony - to place - trust - almighty
"During the agony of a nightmare, place your trust in the Almighty."

 

Setnakht
.se - et. - .na - ak. - .h. - .t.
ase - eta - ana - aka - aha - ate
asetu - -eta - anaitu - akatsgabeko - ahalguzti - aterbe
to crave, pray - expresses an abundance - to gather - perfect - almighty - protection
"We pray that the abundant harvest is gathered under the protection of the Almighty."

 

 

TWENTIETH DYNASTY (c.1200-1085 B.C.)

 

Nesubenebded
.ne - esu - ube - ene - eb. - .de - ed.
añe - esu - ube - ene - ebe - ede - eda
añendu - ezurruts - ubeldu - -enerako - ebertar - ederrak hartu - edagale
to curse - very skinny - to bruise - as before - Hebrews - to be defeated - thirst
"As before, the cursed skinny and bruised Hebrews were defeated by thirst."

 

 

TWENTY FIRST DYNASTY (c.1085-945 B.C.)

 

Herihor
.he - eri - iho - or.
ihe - eri - iho - ora
ihesleku - eriotzaldi - ihortziri - orain
to seek shelter - agony - thunder - always
"He always sought shelter from the agony of the thunder."

 

Psusennes
.p. - .su - use - en. - .ne - es.
ape - ezu - use - eno - one - ezo
apez - ezustez - usei - enoradun - onetsi - ezongialdi
priest - unexpectedly - to sneeze - afflicted - to bless - indisposition
"The priest unexpectedly was afflicted by sneezing (so we) blessed his indisposition."

 

Amenemope
ame - ene - emo - ope
amegaitz - enetan - emonkor - operatu
nightmare - always - generous/prolific - to perform surgery
"Surgery was performed on his always prolific nightmares."

 

Pinudjem
.pi - inu - ud. - .je - em.
pi - inu - uda - aje - eme
pizkanaka - inular - uda - aienatu - emeriko
slowly - sunset - summer - to slip away - peacefully
"Slowly the summer sunset slips away peacefully."

 

Siamon
.si - i.a - amo - on.
isi - iha - amo - one
isilki- ihardun - amodio - onesan
quietly - to take time - love - to praise
"Quietly take time to love and praise."

 

Osorkon
oso - or. - .ko - on.
oso - ora - ako - ona
oso - orain - akordiozko - onarketa
sincere - always - traditional - welcome
"Always give a sincere traditional welcome."

 

 

TWENTY SECOND DYNASTY (c.945-715 B.C.)

 

Alara
ala - ara
alaitasun - aratz
joy - pure
"Pure joy".

 

Kashta
.ka - as. - h. - .ta
uka - ase - eha - ata
ukan - asegaitz - eha - atano
to have - craving - 'emphasis' - evergreen forest/hereafter
"I have a craving for a 'wonderful' hereafter."

 

Shepenwepe (Queen)
No translation found yet. The  'w', does not occur in the
Saharan language, but in Egyptian it often represents the 'u'..

 

Amonirdis
amo - oni - ir. - .di - is.
amo - oni - ira - adi - iza
amodio - oniraun - iradoki - adiskidego - izaera
love - goodness - to elicit/inspire - friendship - character
"Love and goodness inspire friendship and character."

 

          Shoshenk. We have two spellings, both tell about the same story. But what really happened? Compare   Psalm 106:9 ...   "the Red Sea became dry and he led them through...” and       Psalm 106:11 ... "and the waters covered their adversaries...". The translation   of the pharaoh's name sounds also like a tsunami or tidal wave. However, where would it have come from?


Shoshenk
.s. - .ho - os. - .he - en. - .k.
isu - uho - osi - ihe - ena - aka
isurialdi - uholatu - osin - ihesezin - ena- akabu
overflowing/cascading - flood wave - very deep - unavoidable -  'superlative' - death
"The overflowing flood was very deep and
unavoidable (and caused) dreadful death".
or:

 

Sheshonk. Second spelling. Not as neat a translation as the first one because of the VCCV (onda).
.s. - .he - es. - .ho - on. - .ka
isi - ihe - esu - uho - onda - aka
isilpetu - ihes egin - ezustez - uholatu - ondartu - akastun
to hide - to escape - unexpected - tidal wave -  to come ashore - defective/impossible
"To hide or escape was impossible, when the unexpected
tidal wave came ashore".

 

 

TWENTY THIRD DYNASTY (c.818-715 B.C.)

 

Piankhi
.pi - i.a - an. - .k. - .hi
opi - iha - añe - eka - ahi
opiozale - ihardun - añendu - ekandu - ahi
being fond of opium - spend time - to curse - habit - strong desire/addiction
"Being fond of opium to spend the time is a cursed habit (leading to) addiction."

 

Shabaka
.sa - .aha - aba - aka
esa - aha - aba - aka
esaeratsu - ahalguzti - abade - akabu
wise - almighty - priest - high
"Wise high priest of the Almighty."

 

 

TWENTY FOURTH DYNASTY (c.727-715 B.C.)

 

Tefnakhte
.te - eb. - .na - ak. - .h. - .te
ite - eba - ana - aka - aha - ate
itegun - ebakin - anaitu - akatsgabeko - ahalguzti - aterbe
work performed - harvested grain - to gather - perfect - Almighty - protection
"Harvesting of the grain is work performed under the protection of the perfect Almighty."

Piakhi


.pi - i.a - ak. - .hi
opi - iha - aka - ahi
opiozale - iharduki - akabatu - ahi
fond of opium - to spend the time  - to finish/end  - strong desire
"Being fond of opium to spend the time will end in addiction"

 

Bokkhorus
.bo - ok. - .k. - .ho - or. - us.
abo - oki - ika - aho - oru - usu
aboskatu - okilaso - ikasbide - ahozpetu - orube - usu
to proclaim - great grandfather - catechism/doctrine - kneeling down - place - usual
"Great grandfather proclaimed the catechism while kneeling down in his usual place."

 

 

TWENTY FIFTH DYNASTY (c.747-656 B.C.)

 

Sheb'iku
xe - eb  '  iku
xeratsu - ebazle '  ikusgarrizko
kind  - judge  '  admirable
"Kind and admirable judge"

 

Taharka
.ta - aha - ar. - .ka
ita - aha - ara - aka
itxaro - ahalguzti - aratz - akatsbako
to trust - almighty/deity - pure - perfect
"Trust the Almighty, pure and perfect."

 

 

TWENTY SIXTH DYNASTY (c.664-525 B.C.)

 

Psamtik
.p. - .sa - am. - .ti - ik.
ape - esa - ama - ati - ika
apez - esaeratsu - amaigabeko - atxikitasun - ikasbide
priest - wise - endlessly - faithfulness - to teach
"The wise priest endlessly taught faithfulness."

 

Nitocris
.ni - ito - ok. - .ri - is.
ani - ito - oke - eri - iso
anitz - itoarazi - okerkeria - erioaldi - isola
many - to drown - injury - agony - torrential rain
"Many were drowned or injured during the agony of the torrential rains."

 

Necho (son of Psamtik)
.ne - exo
nekebide - exorzizatu
cause of suffering - to eliminate
"Eliminate the causes of suffering."

 

Harmachis
High priestess who crowned Ptolemy V (Parkinson p.31).
.ha - ar. - .ma - ak. - is.
aha - ara - ama - aki - isi
ahaldun - aratusteldu - ama - akigabeki - isiljokatu
powerful - to corrupt - priestess - tirelessly - to scheme
"Powerful (but) corrupt priestess, tirelessly scheming."

 

Anemhor
Mother of  Harmachis (Parkinson p.31).
ane - em. - .ho - or.
ane -  ema - aho - ora
añendu - ematxar -  ahozuritu - orain
to curse - prostitute - cheating - always
"Cursed prostitute who is always cheating."

 

 

TWENTY SEVENTH DYNASTY (525-404 B.C.)

 

Mesutira (Egyptian name for Cambyses)
.me - esu - uti - ira 
ame - esu - uti - ira 
ametsegile - ezurruts - utikan - iragan 
dreamer  - very skinny - to go away - to go away - to suffer 
"You skinny dreamer, go away and suffer."

 

Cambyses
.ka - am. - .bi - ise - es.
aka - ami - ibi - ize - esa
akatsbako - aministratu - ibili - izenandiko - esaeratsu
perfect - administrator - to be - famous - wise
"Our perfect administrator is famous and wise."

 

 

TWENTY EIGHTH DYNASTY (404-399 B.C.)

 

Amyrtaeus
ami - ir. - .ta - e.u - us.
ami - iri - ita - ehu - usa
aministrari - irrikagarri - itxaro - eutsi - usario
administrator - ambitious - to be faithful - to maintain - tradition
"Our ambitious administrator was faithful and maintained the traditions."

 

Amenirdis
ame - eni - ir. - di - is.
ame - eni - ira - adi - isa
ameskaitz - eni - iragarpen - adi - izuarazle
nightmare - to me - warning - watch out - terrorist
"To me that nightmare was a warning to watch out for terrorists."

 

 

TWENTY NINTH DYNASTY (399-380 B.C.)

 

Maatibrat Hakor
.ma - a.a - ati - ib. - .ra - at.
ama - aha - ati - ibi - ira - ati
ama - ahalguzti - atxigarri - ibili - irakitu - atxiki
priestess - almighty - to be - faithful - fired with passion - loyal
(Our) priestess of the Almighty is faithful, fired with passion and loyal."

 

.ha - ako - or.
aha - ako - ora
ahalguzti - akorduan euki - orain
Almighty - to remember - always
"Always remember the Almighty."

 

Nectanebo
.ne - ek. - .ta - ane - ebo
ene - eki - ita - ane - ebo
enetan - ekineztu - itxaro - añendu - eboluzio
always - to persevere - to keep faith - cursed - development
"Always persevere and keep faith (during these) cursed developments."

 

 

THIRTIETH DYNASTY (380-343 B.C.)

 

Djedhor
.d. - .je - ed. - .ho - or.
-ada - aje - edu - uho - ora
-ada - aienatu - edukitsu - uhol - orraztu
action of being swallowed - to be frightened away - powerful - flood - to despoil
"We were being swallowed and frightened away by a powerful and devastating flood."

 

 

THIRTY FIRST DYNASTY (343-332 B.C.)

 

Darius
.da - ari - us.
ada - ari - usa
adarra sartu - arimagalduko - usantza
to deceive - ruthless - habit/character
"A deceiving and ruthless character."

 

Khababash
.k. - .ha - aba - aba - ax.
aka - aha - aba - aba - axo
akabu - ahalguzti - abade - abailtuta - axolazko
superior/high - almighty - priest - weary - grave
"The high priest of the Almighty was weary and grave."

 

 

KINGS OF MACEDON IN EGYPT (332-305 B.C.)

 

Meryamunt - Setepenrat
(Alexander the Great)
.me - eri - i.a - amu - un. - .t.
ame - eri - iha - amu -  uni - ito
amesgaitz - eriotzordu - ihar - amure egon - unibertsal - itobehar
nightmare - agony - weakness - distrust - general - anxiety
"The agony of nightmares weakened him (and caused) general distrust and anxiety."

 

.se - ete - epe - en. - .ra - at.
ese - ete - epe - ene - era - ata
esetsaldi - etengabeko - epe - -enetan - erakarri - atalbanaketa
battle - continuous - period of time - always - to cause - discent
"Continuous battles over a long period always cause dissent."

 

Haaibra - Setepenamun
(Philip Arideus)
.ha - a.a - a.i - ib. - .ra
iha - aha - ai - ibe - era
iha - ahalguzti - aiherkuntza - ibeni - erasoketa
almost - unlimited power - hatred - to introduce - aggression
"Almost unlimited power introduces hatred and aggression."

 

.se - ete - epe - ena - amu - un.
ese - ete - epe - ena - amu - uni
esetsaldi - etengabeko - epe - ena - amure egon - unibertsal
battle - continuous - period of time - 'superlative' - distrust - general
"Continuous battles over a long period (caused) serious and general distrust."

 

 

THE PTOLEMIES (305-30 B.C.)

 

Cleopatra
.k. - .le - e.o - opa - at. - .ra
uki - ile - eho - opa - ata - ara
ukitu - iletari - ehorzleku - opa izan - atano - arraitasun
to touch - mourners - funeral - to desire for - hereafter - happiness
"The mourners at her funeral were touched by her desire for happiness in the hereafter."

 

 

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