<bron114.htm>     [Bronze Age Text]


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          A Norse iron battle-axe discovered at Rocky Neck, near Gloucester, on the coast of Massachusetts (Goodwin Collection, Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, CT).  The Tifinag inscription shows that it was a royal award given to battle veterans and widows of warriors killed in battle (Fell 1982).


          The inscription reads:  L-A-N S-M E-K-M, M-M S-M E-L = Lae sami ekjum emum, sami eli  ("Royal award for the honor of battle widows, and for the honor of old age.") (Fell 1982).  If this implement could be dated to the time of the late Bronze Age, it would account for the absence of bronze utensils in early America.