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Dr. Catherine Acholonu:

The Catherine Acholonu Research Center, Abuja, Nigeria


Dr. Erich Fred Legner

The University of California, Riverside and Berkeley, CA




Summary & Introduction


       The Catherine Acholonu Research Center (CARC) is the only organization on the African Continent that is engaged in Research on ancient African stone inscriptions and native Symbols as forms of linguistic expression. At the Rock Arts and Pan African Renaissance Methodologv Workshop held in Kenya (May 23-24) in 2007 under the auspices of the Trust for African Rock Art (TARA) and the Center for Slack and African Arts and African Civilizations (CSAAC), the Catherine Acholonu Research Center made the first ever scientific presentation on African Rock Art as a means of linguistic expression and historical documentation by the ancients, before a gathering of African and non-African stakeholders, archaeologists, historians and anthropologists. The Catherine Acholonu Research Center, through the submission made by its Director, Professor Catherine Acholonu, who is also the Country Ambassador of the UNCCD Forum of Arts and Culture, Nigeria, was able to place the Pre-historic stone inscriptions of Ikom in Cross River State, Nigeria (known as Ikom monoliths) in the 2008 World Monument Fund (WMF) Watch List 0/ 100 Most Endangered Sites. "rhe WMF entry on IKom monoliths emphasized that Ikom monoliths inscriptions represented "a lost form of writing before 2,000 S.c.". By thls the Catherine Acholonu Research Center has succeeded in putting it on global record that ancient Africans had an indigenous form of writing and that they wrote on stone betore 2.000 B.C. This is a great achievement of the Center and its Director, Prof. Catherine Acholonu who personally made the submission from scientific data gathered through her research.


       Ogam is one of the forms of linguistic expression invented by Africans in ancient times. We know this because, even though Ogam has not been translated by any of the international scholars who have been researching and transcribing it since the turn of the 20th Century, we have succeed, where others have failed, to translate Ogam into rneaningful passages, wise sayings, proverbs and philosophical statements (see our numerous articles on the subject -some, posted on our website, some published on the Christine Pellech website and others also published by UNESCO Nigeria). Our 20 years of research on the contributions of ancient Africans to World Civilizations (published in three full length publications totalling (1,600 pages of research findings) have provided conclusive evidence that aPrehistorie African world conqueror and civilizer, known in ancient mythologies of the world by the name of Kush had created aPre-historie civilization in West Africa from where he and his armies, and ministers travelled all around the world, bringing the first knowledge of religion, astronomy, alchemy or magie and writing.


       Kush had an empire in the African rain forest known in various mythologies by such names as Tilmun, Punt, Meluhha, Biafra, Western Ethiopia and Old Kingdom Egypt. Its capital city was excavated in the 1950s by British archaeologistThurstan Shaw. But Shaw (for reasons known to him alone) hid the fact that he had discovered a lost city. His dating of 900 A.D. was of course false, since he was operating ab initio from a perspective of withholding vital information. Catherine Acholonu Research Center has done extensive research on this lost civilization of Kush and discovered that the writings they gave to the world included Ogam, and Ogam has been successfully translated into the native language of the people in whose land the lost city is located. That land and its people and language are calied IGBO/IBO -the city itself was known in ancient Egypt as Yebu or Heliopolis. It is located in West Africa, Nigeria to be precise. Its old name was Igbo and lts new name since colonial times is Igbo Ukwu.




       This dictionary will help in simple and short expressions, but for very long and complicated ones, a comprehensive Dictionary of Igbo Language will be needed.


Important Pronouns:




m -I/me/my/mine; a ...m as in ß. ga m -I will; A na m -I am (present continuous tense)

i -you

o - he/she

a -impersonal pronoun/one (when the consonant is followed by open vowels e.g. a gaa, a lia);

e -impersonal pronoun/one (when the consonant is followed by open vowels e, i, e, o, e.g. e mee, e loo


       Examples of open vowels are Igbo /i/ as in English 'meat'; closed vowel as in Igbo /i/ (English 'kit'; Igbo sound /o/ as in English 'mutton' is closed, while /o/ as in English 'mould' is open.



unu -you (pi)

halwa/wo -they

ndi -those who




m/mu -me, to me

gi -you/to you

ya -him/her/to him/her

mmadu -one/someone (impersonal)


anyi-us/to us

unu -you (pl)/to you

ha -them/to them

ndi mmadu -people (impersonal, pl).


       A change of tone changes the same sentence into an affirmative statement (I si -You say. You said) a conditional statement (I si -If you say.), or a question (I si? -Did you say?). The word 'na' is very important because it is an all purpose gerund. It stands for 'and' (mu na gi -me and you); 'continuous tense' (I !19.-aga -You are going); 'that' (I si !19. -You say that); 'but' -ma na (e.g. but you are going -ma-na i na-aga); 'with' (He is going with you -Ya na gi na-aga).





     The following are Igbo words in which the second letter from the left is as shown at the beginning of the list.  (e.g.,  Aba  (2nd letter is a "b").  The first and last letter of the word is either spelled as a noun or sounds like one.



     CLICK  on letter to locate words with specific consonant:



          B,    C,    D,    F,    G,    H,    J,    K,    L,    M,    N,    NY,    P,    KP,    Q/KW


                                                R,    S,    T,    V,    W,    Y,    Z





1.    Aba a -When one enters ... (transitive)

2.    Aba -Not to enter into... ; also name of a town in


3.    A bia -When one comes ...; name of a State in Igbo

        land  (o bia -when he comes)

4.    Abu -Song

5.    Ebe -Where; Oracle; flying

6.    Ebi -Dwelling

7.    Ebo -Mound; when one is accused of...

8.    Ebu -Hornet; getting fat

9.    Iba -Fever; the process of entering

10.  lbe -PatrHineage; paternal relatives

11.  Ibi -Swelling of the scrotum

12.  Ibo -(Another spelling for 'Igbo'), accusing falsely,

        placing (a load) on ...

13.  Ibu -Fat; the process of carrying

14.  Oba -Barn

15.  Obe -Cross

16.  Obi -Heart; main hall of a man's homestead

17.  Obo -Scabbard

18.  Obu -Ibis bird

19.  Uba -Riches

20.  Ube -Native pear; cry; lance

21.  Ubi -Farm land

22.  Ubo -Scabbard

23.  Ubu -Scramble




24.  Acha -Name of a grain grown in Northern Nigeria

        assoeiated with famine

25.  A cho (o) -When one finds/looks fo... r; (na-aeho -

        is looking for)

26.  Achi -A seed for soup-making; name of a town

27.  Achu -Pursuing

28.  Eehe -Trimming a tree by cutting; thinking ,


29.  Echi -Tomorrow (fchlchi-Initation; fehl echiehi-

        taking an initiation)

30.  Echu -Beeome bad; collecting (water)

31.  Icha -Yellowing; passing (some on) by

32.  lehe - The Proeess of guarding; thinking (When a

       verb is preceded by the letter i, it implies a process

        or the second person pronoun.)

33.  lehi -Taking an initiation or eoronation

34.  Icho -looking for (a missing item)

35.  Ichu -Scaring away (something or someone)

36.  Oche -Seat/chair

37.  Ochi -Rectum

38.  Ocho -He who seeks

39.  Ochu -He who seeks

40.  Uche -Thought; mind

41.  Uchu -Curse; attention




42.  Ada - Daughter, fall, infant vomit

43.  Adi - Not being (in astate of... )

44.  Ado - Protecting; (ado o -when one plants)

45.  Adu - Seed yam

46.  Ede - Cocoyam; writing

47.  Edi - Hyana

48.  Edo - Yellow; raining

49.  Edu - Guiding (o na edu -he is guiding; i na edu -

        you are guiding)

50.  Ida - Falling

51.  Ide -Writing

52.  Idi - Being in astate of...

53.  Ido - Keeping; contesting for

54.  Idu - Leading; guiding

55.  Oda - He who falls

56.  Ode - He who writes

57.  Odi - It is (o di mma -It is good)

58.  Odo - He who insists on having

59.  Odu - Tall; elephant tusk as a symbol of initiation

60.  Uda - A kind of spice; loud sound

61.  Ude - Loud sound; fame

62.  Udi - Name of a place; type

63.  Udo - Peace; Robe

64.  Udu - Calabash pot; wine pot or jar




65.  Afa - Name; oracle; (afaa - when one squeezes…)

66.  Afe - Dress

67.  Afi (ko) - When … is crumbled

68.  Afo -Belly/ Stomach; year -Orlu dialect

69.  A fu -When one sees {transitive} ...

70.  Efe -Flying; dress; spare time

71.  Efi -Cow (migrant Igbo dialect)

72.  Efo -Dawning; Chi elo -The day is dawning.

73.  Efu -Baseless; getting lost

74.  Ifa -Squeezing

75.  lfe -Flying; Worshipping

76.  lfi -Maka ifi -Due to; because of

77.  Ifo -Folktale; pulling out (by the root)

78.  Ifu -Getting lost

79.  Ofa -(Ofaa) If he squeezes

80.  Ofe -Native soup; across

81.  Ofo -If it remains; Piece of wood used to invoke

        divine power

82.  Ofu -One

83.  Ufe -Flight; swindle; lies

84.  Ufo -Inner room of a titled man

85.  Ufu -Fox




86.  Aga -Childless, Will it be ... ? {e.g Aga as; na ...? -

        Will it be said that...?

87.  Ago -Defense

88.  Agu -Lion, a powerful person; Aguu/Aguru -hunger

89.  Ege -Listening

90.  Ego -Money; a girl's common name

91.  Egu -A kind of edible caterpillar

92.  Iga -Going; snatch (from)

93.  Ige -Listening

94.  Igo -Buying; offering to ,propitiating (a god)

95.  Igu -Counting; palm frond

96.  Oga -It will, he will, she will

97.  Oge -Time; when

98.  Ogo -In-Iaw; kindness; gracious

99.  Ogu -Fight; battle; stick; Divine Justice

100.  Uga -Name of place; passing of time

101.  Uge -Dregs ofthe palm-wine bottle (a nourishing


102.  Ugo -Falcon; eagle

103.  Ugu -A legume for cooking native soup




104.  Aha -Name (ahaa -to let go of)

105.  Ahi -Squeezing

106.  Aho -Choosing; year -Orsu dialect; a kind of dish

107.  Ahu -Body; one sees; shaking

108.  Ehe -Underbelly; (ehee/ehepu -removing


109.  Ehi -Cow in the autochthon dialect

110.  Ehuo -Bowing in reverence (Ehuo-ro -bowing in

          reverence tor)

111.  Ehu -bending down

112.  Iha/lra -To spare (a culprit, something cut in a net)

113.  Ihe Ilfe-A thing; light; to pull in ( the stomach

          throughbreathing in)

114.  Ihi/iti -Cause (maka ihi/ifl-because ot)

115.  Iho/ito -Folktale

116.  Ihu/iru -Face

117.  Oha --People; masses

118.  Ohe --Ohere (space)

119.  Ohu --Slave; twenty

120.  Uha --A legume for cooking native soup




121.  Aja -Sand; offering made to a god

122.  Aji --Hair; a kind of Big tree

123.  Ajo --Evil (adjective),

124.  A ju --When one refuses (transitive) ...

125.  Eje--Going

126.  Eji Holding on to

127.  Eju -Snail

128.  Ija -To Hide

129.  Ije -To go; walk; gait

130.  Iji -To hold; you are holding

131.  Ijo --To be ugly

132.  Iju --To be plentiful; you are full of

133.  Oja -Flute

134.  Oje --He who goes ...

135.  Oji -Kola-nut; Staff of spiritual authority; black;

          dark; tree with large trunk

136.  Ojoo -Ugly

137.  Oju --Broken piece of earthenware pot

138.  Uja --Dog's bark; shouting

139.  Ujp - Fear

140.  Uju - Bounty; plentiful




141.  Aka -Hand; A specie of snakes

142.  Aki -Oil palm nut/nut

143.  Ako -Wisdom; Prudence

(143b)  Akpu -Fufu; cassava start meal

144.  Aku -Termites; Cocoa nut; Oil paIm nut; (akuo -

          when one plants...)

145.  Eke -python; a name of one of the four Igbo

         market days; creation

146.  Eko -Swelling

147.  Eku -Wooden spoon; spooning, shoveling

148.  Ika -To be greater than; to speak forth

149.  Ike -Strength; to divide; to tie

150.  Iko -To tell; cup

151.  Iku -To carry (a baby)

152.  Oka -Maize; carver

153.  Oke -Rat; mouse; share

154.  Okiri -Ram Oko

155.  Skin scratching

156.  Oku -Fire; hot

157.  Uka -Word; religion; church

158.  Uke -Destiny

159.  Uko-Dearth




160.  Ala -Earth; ground

161.  Ali -Ground

162.  Alo -Placenta; Priest King's sacred Staff

163.  Alu -Abomination; Fighting

164.  Eie -Deer; God -EI; Consummate Shaman

165. Elo -Counsel; swallowing

166.  Elu High; heights

167.  lIa -To barb (hair); to go home

168.  lIe -To look at, to seil (also ire)

169.  lIi/ini -To bury

170.  lIo/ino -To swallow

171.  lIu -Bitter

172.  Ola -Ring

173.  Oie -How many

174.  Olili -Burying

175.  Olu -Neck; voice

176.  Ula -Escape, disappearance

177.  Ule -Examination

178.   Uli -Name of a place; tough rope clinging to a





179.  Ama -Compound; Original Divine Mother; open


180.  Ami -Slippery

181.  A muo -When birth is given ... ; When one learns ...

182.  Amu -Male genitals;

183.  Eme -Happening

184.  Emi -Deep (imi emt); omimi -mystery

185.  Emu -Gossip

186.  Ima -To know (i ma -you know; i ma mma -to be

          beautiful, good)

187.  Ime -To do (N'/me -inside of)

188.  Imi -Nose; nasal fluid

189.  Imo -Name of the longest river in Igbo land

190.  Imu -To give birth to (omumu -many children

          from a single woman)

191.  Oma -Mother Goddess of the Igbo

192.  Ome -Tender shoot

193.  Omi -Weil; cistern

194.  Omu -Tender shoot of a palm tree

195.  Omu-mu -Genealogy

196.  Ume -A caste; breath (iku ume -

197.  Umu -Children of



198.  Ana -Earth; ground

199.  Ani -earth; ground

200.  Ano -Four

201.  Anu -Meat; that cannot be heard

202.  Ene -Looking at

203.  Eni -Burying

204.  Eno -Swallowing

205.  Enu -High; heights (migrant Igbo dialect)

206.  Ina -To ask for; to tale from (ila/lna -to go home)

207.  Ine/ile -To look at

208.  Ini-To bury

209.  Ino -The stay; to return

210.  Inu -To hear; to marry (ilu); bitter

211.  Ona A kind of native potato!yam

212.  One -How many

213.  Onini -Burying

214.  Ono-na -He who is in ...

215.  Onu -Mouth

216.  Una -Going home

217.  Uno-House

218.  Unu -You {plural}





219.  Anya -Eye

220.  Anyi -We; heavy

221.  Anyu -Melon pod

222.  Enyi -Friend

223.  Enye -When one is given

224.  Enyo -Peeping

225.  Inya -To drive

226.  I nye • If you give

227.  Inyo -To peep

228.  Inyu -To excrete

229.  Onya -One who drives

230.  Onye-One/a person who ...

231.  Onyu -One who excretes

232.  Unyi-Dirt




233.  Apa -Being lifted

234.  Api -Being sharpened

235.  Apu -Silk cotton Tree (Igbo Ukwu dialect);

          beingdragged along

236.  Epu -Germinating

237.  Ipa/ibu -To carry

238.  Ipe -To break (firewood)

239.  Ipi -To sharpen (a knife); to squeeze out;

240.  Ipu -To germinate; to leave/step out (a room, a


241.  Opa -Round; moon-shaped

242.  Opi-Flute




243.  Akpa -bag;

244.  Akpi -Bed Bug

245.  Akpo -Calling

246.  Akpu -Fufu; cassava starch meal

247.  Ekpe A secret cult (iri ekpe -to inherit a dead

          person's  property)

248.  Ekpu -Wearing (a hat)

249.  Ikpa -Waste land; to keep (domestic animals)

250.  Ikpe -Case (in court)

251.  Ikpo -To call; to call; to dry up

252.  Ikpu -Vagina

253.  Okpi -Heavy stick

254.  Okpo --cat fish

255.  Okpu --Hat; cap; eternal

256.  Ukpa --Longish basket; a native nut, highly priced

257.  Ukpo -A native spiee for sou p-ma king, highly





258.  Akwa -Cloth; Wrapper; egg; sewing

259.  Akwo --Crushing, with stone or with blender

260.  Akwu --Silk Cotton Tree (Orlu dialect)

261.  Ekwe --Drum (ekwe ekwe --Stubborn)

262.  Ekwo --Being noisy

263.  Ekwu -Talking

264.  Ikwa --To sew; to push; to give burial rites (to)

265.  Ikwe --To agree; to sing a song --ikwe ukwe;

          mortar for pounding

266.  Ikwo --To crush in a mortar/grind on stone

267.  Ikwu --To say (ikwu udo/ima udo --to hang

          oneself on a rope/commit suicide)

268.  Okwa -Bush fowl; wooden saucer

269.  Okwe --Table games that use seeds or nuts;

          rubber tree/seeds

270.  Okwo --He/she who carries on his back ...

271.  Okwu --Word; talk; speech

272.  Ukwa --A native bean, delicacy, highly priced

273.  Llkwe -Song

274.  Ukwo --Popularity, farne, widespread noise

275.  Ukwu - Leg; waist, bundle




276.  Ara -Madness;

277.  Ari -Climbing (arir; -Suffering)

278.  Aro -Year (Anambra dialect)

279.  Aru -Abomination; body -Anambra dialect

280.  Ere -Selling; rotting

281.  Eri -God-man (thought to be the Egyptian god of

          letters Thoth)

282.  Eroo -Mushroom; if ... pu lied out

283.  Eru -Gathering (of a storm)

284.  Ira -To liek; to have sexual intercourse with a


285.  Ire -Tongue; to seil; to rot; to pronounce as

          from a god

286.  Ire -To choose (iho); to pull by the roots (ifo)

287.  Iru -Face; gathering of a storm

288.  Ora -Folk; people; a legume

289.  Ore -A place name

290.  Ori -He/she who eats; eczema

291.  Oro -He/she who plots

292.  Oru -Work; slave; across the river inhabitants

293.  Ura -Sieep; overnight food

294.  Ure -Rot; making faces

295.  Uri -Body painting/ tattoo; the paint

296.  Uro-Clay




297.  Asa -Eel; very beautiful woman

298.  Asi -Lies; asi na ... -had it been that. ..

299.  Aso -Holy

300.  Asu -Shrivelling; pounding

301.  Uru -Gain, cheat

302.  Ese -Quarrelling

303.  Esi -Smelling

304.  Eso -Following

305.  Esu -Millipede

306.  Isa -To wash; to pass by

307.  Ise -Five; to quarrel; to pull

308.  Isi -Head; leader (isii -six); isisi (topmost head)

309.  Iso -To follow (i so -you follow)

310.  Isu -A clan name of the autochthons

311.  Osa -Squirrei; Light colour

312.  Ose -Pepper

313.  Oso -Running

314.  Osu -Belonging to the Osu caste

315.  to the Osu caste Usa -Gluttony

316.  Uso -Sweetness (Nso -Holy, set apart, divine)

317.  Usu -Bat




318.  Ata -Chewing; drying up ( as in 'water is drying'

          -miri na-ata)

319.  Ato -Three; (ato uto -sweet)

320.  Atu -Divine Word; Sore, bad wound (atumatu"":


321.  Ete -Palm tree climbing rope

322.  Eti -Crushing (palm nut with stone)

323.  Eto -Growing (0 na eto -He is growing; i na eto -

          you are growing)

324.  Etu -How to; method

325.  lta -To chew; to blame

326.  Ite -Pot; pottery; earthenware; to rub

327.  Iti -To beat; a fool

328.  Ito -To be older than; to praise

329.  Itu -To point (itu aka -to point the hand)

330.  Ota -He/she who eats

331.  Ote -He who paints/rubs, etc)

332.  Oto -A native dish

333.  Otu -Vagina

334.  Uta -Bow; blame

335.  Ute-Mat

336.  Uto -Sweetness

337.  Utu -Penis



338.  Ava/Afa -Name; eracle (ava - the name of


339.  Avu -Song

340.  Evu -Carrying (I ga evu -You will carry; will you


341.  Ivu/lbu -Fat

342.  Ovu -He carries




343.  Awa a -When one cuts ...

344.  Awo-Frog

345.  A wii -When one pours ...

346.  Awu -One is ...

347.  Ewe-Taking

348.  Ewi -Rabbit

349.  Ewu -Goat} reigning} in vogue

350.  Iwa -To cut (iwa ji -to cut the vam; Iwa Ji -New

          Yam Festival)

351.  Iwe -Anger; to take

352.  Iwi -To fall (hair fall)

353.  Iwu-law

354.  Owa -Twinkling light; dawning

355.  Owu -Mermaid; water goddess

356.  Uwa-World

357.  Uwe-Dress




358.  Ayi -Befriending

359.  Eyi Wearing (a dress); notto resemble

360.  lyi -To resemble

361.  Oyi -Friend; sickness

362.  Oyo Musical Instrument




363.  Aza -One answers (to a call)

364.  Azo -Struggling for

365.  Azu -Fish, buying

366.  Eze King, tooth, teeth

367.  Ezi -Outside; good

368.  Ezu -Stealing; being complete

369.  Iza -To sweep; to sieve

370.  Ize -To avoid; to crash down (as in land slide)

371.  Izi -To show

372.  Izo -To save, to contest

373.  Izu -Week, to be complete

374.  Oze -That crashes

375.  Ozo -Cult of leaders and Princes; Initiate of the

          cult;  again; gorilla

376.  Ozu -Dead body

377.  Uzi A tree with large trunk

378.  Uzo Way, road, door

379.  Uzu -Noise

(380.  Placed correctly in "K" group)





    Presentation rearranged by:

     Dr. Erich Fred Legner

     University of California