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                                                                                   Table 1.1.

           Some examples showing the abundance of plants and animals dependent on the presence

                                             of one or a few organisms in the ecosystem.

 

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       Controlled Organisms                                                  Causative Agent(s) -- See <Detailed Cases> for discussion]

        _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Phytophagous Insects

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Alfalfa weevil in coastal California

Bathyplectes curculionis (Thoms.)

Apple mealybug in Canada

Allotropa utilis Muesebeck

Black scale in southern California

Metaphycus helvolus (Compere)

Blue gum scale in New Zealand

Rhizobius ventralis (Erichson)

Brown-tail moth in Canada

Compsilura concinnata (Mg.), Apanteles lacteicolor Viereck & Meteorus versicolor

California red scale in California & Europe

Aphytis melinus DeBach

Citrophilus mealybug in California

Coccophagus gurneyi Compere

Citrus blackfly in Cuba

Eretmocerus serius Silvestri

Citrus blackfly in Mexico

Amitus hesperidum Silvestri, Prospaltella opulenta Silvestri

Citrus mealybug in Israel

Clausenia purpurea Ishii

Coconut leaf mining beetle in Fiji

Pleurotropic parvulus Ferr.

Coconut moth in Fiji

Ptychomyia remota Aldrich

Coconut scale in Fiji

Cryptognatha nodiceps Mshll

Coconut scale in Mauritius

Chilocorus politus Muls. & C. nigritus Muls.

Coffee mealybug in Kenya            

Anagyrus nr. kivuensis (Compere)

Comstock mealybug in California

Allotropa burrelli Muesebeck & Pseudaphycus malinus Gahan

Cottony-cushion scale in >50 countries

Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) &/or Cryptochaetum iceryae (Willis.)

Diamond-back moth in New Zealand

Angitia cerophaga (Grav.)

Dictyospermum scale in Greece

Aphytis melinus DeBach

Florida red scale in Israel, Florida, Africa, S. Amer

Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach

Green vegetable bug in Australia & Hawaii

Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), etc.

Navel Orangeworm

Goniozus legneri, Goniozus emigratus & Copidosomopsis plethorica Caltagirone

Olive scale in California and Europe

Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) & Coccophagoides utilis Doutt

Oriental beetle in Saipan

Campsomeris annulata Fab.

Oriental fruit fly in Hawaii

Opius oophilus Fullaway

Purple scale in California

Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere

Red wax scale in Japan

Anicetus beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu

Rhodesgrass scale in southeastern United States

Neodusmetia sangwani (Rao)

Spiny blackfly in Japan

Prospaltella smithi Silvestri

Sugarcane borer in Barbados

Apanteles flavipes (Cameron)

Sugarcane leafhopper in Hawaii

Cyrtorhinus mundulus (Bredd.)

Tea tortrix in Sri Lanka

Macrocentrus homonae Nixon

Walnut aphid in central California

Trioxys sp. from Iran

Walnut aphid in southern California

Trioxys pallidus Haliday from France

Winter moth in Canada

Cyzenis albicans (Fall.) & Agrypon flaveolatus (Grav.)

Winter moth in England

Small rodents (feeding on overwintering pupae)

Woolly apple aphid in New Zealand

Aphelinus mali (Hald.)

 

 

Terrestrial Plants

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American chestnut in eastern North America

Endothia parasitica (Murr.)

American elms in eastern North America

Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) vectoring Ceratocystis ulmi (Buisman) C. Moreau

Apple trees in Europe

Prospaltella perniciosi Tow attacking San Jose Scale

Endemic cedars in Bermuda

Carulaspis visci (Schrank) & Lepidosaphes newsteadi (Sulc.)

Eucalyptus at <500 meters in South Africa

Patasson nitens (Girault) attacking eucalyptus snout beetle

Eucalyptus at >500 meters in South Africa

Patasson nitens, but at a higher density

Klamath weed in northwestern United States

Chrysolina hyperici (Forster) & C. quadrigemina (Suffrian)

Opuntia cactus in Australia

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg)

Opuntia cactus in Sri Lanka

Dactylopius indicus Green

Opuntia cactus on Santa Cruz Island, Calif.

Dactylopius sp.

Puncturevine in coastal California

Microlarinus lypriformis (Woll.)

 

 

Aquatic Plants

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Eichornia in Florida

Neochetina bruchi

Potamogeton the Imperial Valley, California

Tilapia zillii (Gervais)

 

 

Medical & Veterinary Pests

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Black stable fly in Mauritius

Tachinaephagus stomoxcida Subba-Rao

Chironomid midges in L.A drainage channels

Oreochromis hornorum Trewazas & O. mossambica (Peters)

Common housefly in S. Africa & New Zealand

Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead

Culex mosquitoes in California irrigation drains

Gambusia & Cyprinodon spp.

Culex mosquitoes in California rice fields

Mesostoma flatworms

Housefly and stable fly in Puerto Rico

Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, S. cameroni Perkins & S. endius   Walker

 

 

Vertebrates

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European rabbits in Australia

Myxomytosis virus #1

European rabbits in England

Myxomytosis virus #2