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RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID

 

Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko -- Homoptera, Aphididae

(Contacts)

 

 

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Russian wheat aphid is an invaded pest in the United States, attacking  wheat, barley and other small grain crops.  As of 1991 it has spread to 15 cereal-producing states and its range is still expanding.  Currently it is a threat to 63% of the wheat and 58% of the barley production.  Control by insecticides is not a viable approach because traditionally wheat and barley has not been extensively treated. 

 

The development of resistant varieties and biological control are two control strategies currently under study.  The aphid has a long term and widespread distribution in central Asia and the Mediterranean where it has been pestiferous only occasionally.  This points to the possibility of effective natural enemies or the presence of resistant plant varieties in those regions.  Native natural enemies in North America seem poorly adapted to Russian wheat aphid as a host, therefore biological control will require the introduction of exotic parasitoids and predators.  Explorations for natural enemies from areas with a long history of Russian wheat aphid presence at low densities, as in some parts of the Soviet Union, are being given the highest priority.  Some aphidiid and aphelinid parasitoids are currently under study at the University of California, Riverside.

 

Three parasitoids collected as of 1991 were Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), Ephedrus plagiator (Nees) and Aphelinus varipes (Foerster).  Diaeretiella rapae has a geographical affinity with the Russian wheat aphid because it has been collected from it in many different areas, climates and habitats.  However, examination of the relationship between the parasitoid and aphid reveals that D rapae does not typically occur on D. noxia when aphid densities are very low, or on this aphid in curled leaves early in the season (Gonzalez et al. 1991).  Surveys conducted in 16 countries for natural enemies of Russian wheat aphid during 1988-91 revealed E. plagiator collected only in 1988 in Turkey (Gonzalez et al. 1991).  This rare frequency of collection implies that E. plagiator rarely parasitizes D. noxia, which had already been suspected from an earlier examination of the literature.  The third parasitoid, A. varipes has been collected from D. noxia in seven of nine countries within the presumed native range of the host.  Additionally A. varipes was usually collected from D. noxia populations at low densities, and often from inside leaf whorls.  Aphelinus varipes has thus been ranked with the highest priority as a candidate for importation, while E. plagiator was a low priority candidate (D. Gonzalez, unpub. data).

 

 

REFERENCES:            [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

Anonymous.  1988.  The Russian wheat aphid:  a serious new pest of small grains in the Great Plains.  Great Plains Agricultural Council Publ. No. 124.

 

Aalbersberg, Y. K., F. du Toit, M. C. van der Westhuizen & P. H. Hewitt.  1987a.  Development rate, fecundity and lifespan of apterae of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordwilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), under controlled conditions.  Bull. Ent. Res. 77:  629-35.

 

Aalbersberg, Y. K., M. C. van der Westhuizen & P. H. Hewitt.  1987b.  A simple key for the diagnosis of the instars of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordwilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 77:  637-40.

 

Aalbersberg, Y. K., M. C. van der Westhuizen & P. H. Hewitt.  1988.  Natural enemies and their impact on Diuraphis noxia (Mordwilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations.  Bulll Ent. Res. 78:  111-20.

 

Aalbersberg, Y. K., M. C. Walters & N. J. van Rensburg. 1984.  The status and potential of biological control studies on Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae), p. 44-46.  In:  M. C. Walters (ed.), Progress in Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordw.) research in the Republic of South Africa.  Tech. Comm. No. 191, Dept. Agric., Rep. S. Afr.

 

Araya, J. E., C. Quiroz & S. G. Wellso.  1990.  Pest status and control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordwilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae).  A review.  Dept. Ent., Purdue Univ., USDA/ARS Sta. Bull. No. 588, April, 1990.

 

Bernal, J.  1991.  Temperature requirements of several parasites of the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordwilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae).  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Riverside. 

 

Botto, E. N.  1988.  Effect of temperature on the development, survival, and fecundity of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae).  M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Calif., Riverside.  70 p.

 

Burton, R. L. (comp.).  1990.  The Russian wheat aphid.  Third Ann. Rept. Agric. REs. Svc., U. S. Dept. Agr., Stillwater, Oklahoma.

 

Campbell, A., B. D. Frazer, N. Gilbert, A. P. Gutierrez & M. Mackauer.  1974.  Temperature requirements of some aphids and their parasites.  J. Appl. Ecol. 11:  431-8.

 

Carapia, V. & O. Garcia.  1989.  Enemigos naturales (artrópodos) del áfido ruso del trigo Diuraphis noxia Mordw. (Homoptera: Aphididae) en la región de Saltillo, Coah. y Navidad , N.L.  Mem. del XXIII Cong. Nac. de Ent., Oaxtepec, Morelos, México.  204 p.

 

Carver, M.  1989.  Biological control of aphids, p. 141-56.  In:  A. K. Minks & P. Harrewijn (eds.), Aphids their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control.  Elsevier Sci. Publ., New York.

 

Du Toit, F. & M. C. Walters.  1984.  Damage assessment and economic threshold values for the chemical control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) on winter wheat, p. 58-62.  In:  M. C. Walters (ed.), Progress in Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordw.) research in the Republic of South Africa.  Tech. Comm. Dept. Agr., Rep. Sth. Afr. 191:  58-62.

 

Ferres, A., J. E. Araya & J. E. Foster.  1986.  The Russian wheat aphid:  a new pest on cereal crops in the United States and a potential threat to soft red winter wheats.  Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. No. 510.

 

Flint, M. L.  1980.  Climatic ecotypes in Trioxys complanatus, a parasite of the spotted alfalfa aphid.  Environ. Ent. 9:  501-7.

 

Fuerte, L. H., M. D. Salas & E. Salazar.  1989.  Estudio preliminar de los parasitoides de los pulgones del trigo en Irapuato, Guanajuato,  Mem. del XXIII Cong. Nac. de Ent., Oaxtepec, Morelos, México. p. 203.

 

Gonzalez, D., F. Gilstrap, P. Stary & L. McKinnon.  1989.  Foreign exploration for Russian wheat aphid natural enemies:  A summary of cooperati8ve efforts by State University Agricultural Experiment Stations, USDA/APHIS, USDA/ARS, CIBC, SRC, ICARDA and ITGC, p. 113-28.  In:  Russian wheat aphid.  Proc. Conf. Albuquerque, NM.

 

Gonzalez, D., F. Gilstrap, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, N. Zareh, R. Whang, E. Dijkstra, L. McKinnon, P. Stary & J. Wooley.  1990.  Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Russian wheat aphid in China, Iran, Turkey and The Netherlands.  Proc. 4th Russian Wheat Aphid Workshop, Bozeman, Montana.  p. 154-65.

 

Gonzalez, D., F. Gilstrap, L. McKinnon, J. Zhang, N. Zareh, G. Zhang, P. Stary, J. Wooley & R. Wang.  1992.  Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Russian wheat aphid in Iran, and The Kunlun, Tian Shan, and Altai Mountain Valleys of The People's Republic of China.  proc. Russian Wheat Aphid Conf., Ft. Worth, TX.  (in press).

 

Gilstrap, F. E., D. Gonzalez, L. K. Mckinnon & P. Stary.

1990.  Natural enemies imported through the Texas quarantine for biological control of RWA.  Proc. Russian Wheat Aphid Conf., Bonzeman, Montana.  4 p.

 

Gonzalez, D., F. Gilstrap, G. Zhang, J. Zhang, N. Zareh, R. Whang, E. Dijkstra, L. Mckinnon, P. Stary & J. Wooley.  1990.  Foreign exploration for natural enemies of Russian whet aphid in China, Iran, Turkey and The Netherlands.  Proc. 4th Russian Wheat Aphid Workshop, Bozeman, Montana.  p. 154-65.

 

Hoelscher, C. E., J. G. Thomas & G. L. Teetes (n.d.).  Aphids on Texas small grains and sorghum.  Texas Agric. Ext. Svc. Publ. B-1572.

 

Hughes, R. D.  1988.  A synopsis of information on the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordwilko).  Div. of Ent. Tech. Paper No. 28, CSIRO, Australia

 

Meyer, W.  1989.  Observations on biological control agents in Colorado, p. 96-8.  In:  Russian wheat aphid.  Proc. Conf., Albuquerque, NM.

 

Stoetzel, M. B.  1987.  Information on the identification of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphid species colonizing leaves of wheat and barley in the United States.  J. Econ. Ent. 80:  696-704.

 

Wapshere, A. J.  1989.  Russian wheat aphid:  biological control, p. 29-30.  In:  D. E. Evans, B. S. Fletcher, R. D. Hughes & P. W. Wellings (eds.), Russian Wheat Aphid Workshop.  Towards a national management plan.  CSIRO Div. Ent.

 

Wratten, S. D. & W. Powell.  1991.  Cereal aphids and their natural enemies, p. 233-57.  In:  L. G. Firbank, N. Carter, J. F. Darbyshire & G. R. Potts. (eds.), Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford.