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(= Rhodesgrass Scale)


Antonina graminis (Maskell)--Homoptera, Pseudococcidae




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       Rhodesgrass mealybug (often called Rhodesgrass scale) became an important pest of forage and lawn grasses in Texas after 1940.  Of Asiatic origin, this mealybug infests at least 69 species of lawn and turf grasses (Dean et al. 1979).  A classical biological control project resulted in the introduction of several species of parasitoids (Schuster et al. 1971).  However, complete control was attained by the flightless encyrtid Neodusmetia sangwani (Rao), imported from India after being disseminated by aircraft (Schuster et al. 1971, Dahlsten & Hall 1999).  By 1976 it was estimated that the parasitoid saved ca. 17 million dollars annually in turfgrass management costs (Dean et al. 1979).


       For greater detail on biological control effort and biologies of host and natural enemies, please also see the following (Riherd 1950, 1951; Ferris 1953, Questel & Genung 1957, 1961; Narayanan et al. 1957, Dean & Schuster 1958, Chada & Wood 1960, Dean 1960, Parker 1960, Beardsley 1961, Dean et al. 1961, Anonymous 1965, Rao 1965, Schuster 1965, 1967; Coronado & Sosa-Esquiliano 1966, Fonseca 1967, Bartlett 1978).



REFERENCES:          [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Anonymous.  1940.  The felted grass-coccid.  Queensland Agr. J. 54:  398.


Anonymous.  1965.  Instrucciones para el manejo del parásito Dusmetia sangwani Rao, un enemigo natural de la escame algodonosa de los pastos (Antonina graminis (Maskell)).  Fitofilo 18:  14-18.


Bartlett, B. R.  1978.  Pseudococcidae.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review.  U. S. Dept. Agric., Agric. Handbk. 480.  545 p.


Beardsley, J. W.  1961.  A review of the Hawaiian Braconidae (Hymenoptera).  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 17:  333-78.


Brimblecrombe, A. R.  1966.  The occurrence of the genus Antoninae (Homoptera: Coccoidae) in Queensland.  J. Ent. Soc. Queensland 5:  5-6.


Burks, B. D.  1957.  A new parasite of the rhodes-grass scale (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae).  Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 52:  124-27.


Chada, H. L. & E. A. Wood, Jr.  1960.  Biology and control of the Rhodes grass scale.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1221.  21 p.


Clausen, C. P.  1951.  The time factor in biological control.  J. Econ. Ent. 44:  1-9.


Coronado, R. & E. Sosa-Esquiliano.  1966.  Campaña contra la mosca pinta y la escame algodonosa de los pastos.  Fitofilo 19:  5-51.


Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall.  1999.  Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments.  In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.


Dean, H. A.  1960.  Introduction and establishment of Anagyrus antoninae on Rhodes grass scale in Mexico.  J. Econ. Ent. 53:  694-95.


Dean, H. A. & M. F. Schuster.  1958.  Biological control of Rhodes grass scale in Texas.  J. Econ. Ent. 51:  363-66.


Dean, H. A., M. F. Schuster & J. C. Bailey.  1961.  The introduction and establishment of Dusmetia sangwani on Antoninae graminis in south Texas.  J. Econ. Ent. 54:  925-54.


Dean, H. A., M. F. Schuster, J. C. Boling & P. T. Riherd.  1979.  Complete biological control of Antonina graminis in Texas with Neodusmetia sangwani (a classic example).  Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 25:  262-67.


Dean, H. A., M. F. Schuster & J. C. Bailey.  1961.  The introduction and establishment of Dusmetia sangwani on Antonina graminis in South Texas.  J. Econ. Ent. 54:  952-54.


Ferris, G. F.  1953.  Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America.  VI.  The Pseudococcidae (Part II).  p. 279-506.  Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., & Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford Univ. Press, London.


Fonseca, J. Pinto da.  1967.  Una cochonilha de capim recentemente introduzida no Brasil.  Biológico 33:  57-61.


Green, E. E.  1908.  Remarks on Indian scale insects (Coccidae).  Pt. 3.  Dept. Agr. Mem., Indian Ent. Ser. 2.  p. 15-46.


Guagliumi, P.  1963.  Insectos y Arachnidos de las plantas comunes de Venezuela.  DIPUVEN.


Kerrich, G. J.  1964.  On the European species of Dusmetia Mercet, and an new oriental genus (Hym., Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae).  Entomophaga 9:  75-9.


Machado da Costa, J., R. N. Williams & M. F. Schuster.  1969.  Cochonilha dos Capins, "Antonina graminis" no Brasil-Parte II-Introducae de Neodusmetia sangwani, inimigo natural de cochoxilha.  O. Biologico. (1969).


Marrow, J.  1959.  The relationship of soils, precipitation, phosphorous fertilization and live stock grazing to vegetational composition and forage production of native vegetation on the Encino Division of the King Ranch.  Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A. & M. Univ.


Maskell, W. M.  1897.  On the collection of Coccidae principally from China and Japan.  Ent. Mon. Mag. 33:  239-44.


Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subba Rao & H. S. Sangwan.  1957.  New species of the parasites of the Rhodes grass scale from the Indian Union.  Indian J. Ent. 19:  65-6.


Nord, E. C.  1956.  The influence of drought, fertilization and clipping on native range vegetation in south Texas.  Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A. & M. Univ.


Parker, H. L.  1960.  Parasites and predators associated with some grass scale found in France.  Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 62:  167-79.


Questel, D. D. & W. G. Genung.  1957.  Establishment of the parasite Anagyrus antoninae in Florida for the control of Rhodes grass scale.  Fla. Ent. 40:  123-25.


Questel, D. D. & W. G. Genung.  1961.  Effects of a severe winter on survival of the recently established parasite of the Rhodes grass scale in Florida.  Fla. Ent. 44:  115.


Rao, B. R. S.  1957.  Some new species of Indian Hymenoptera.  Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 46:  385-90.


Rao, V. P.  1965.  Shipment of Dusmetia sangwani Subba Rao, a parasite of the Rhodes grass scale to U.S.A.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Bull. 5:  145-48.


Richardson, B. H.  1953.  Insecticidal control of rhodesgrass scale on St. Augustine grass lawns.  J. Econ. Ent. 46:  426-30.


Riherd, P. T.  1950.  Biological notes on Anagyrus antoninae Timberlake (Hymenoptera--Encyrtidae) and its host Antonina graminia (Maskell) (Homoptera--Coccidae).  Fla. Ent. 33:  18-22.


Riherd, P. T.  1951.  Status of the Rhodes grass scale parasites in Texas.  J. Econ. Ent. 44:  622-23.


Schuster, M. F.  1965.  Studies on the biology of Dusmetia sangwani (Hymenoptera--Encyrtidae).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58:  272-75.


Schuster, M. F.  1967a.  Notes on Neodesmetia sangwani in Texas.  In:  Internatl. Adv. Com. Biol. Control, Biol. Control Inform. Bull. 2:  60.


Schuster, M. F.  1967b.  Response of forage grasses to rhodesgrass scale.  J. Range Management 20:  307-09.


Schuster, M. F. & J. C. Boling.  1970.  Biological control of rhodesgrass scale in Texas by Neodusmetia sangwani (Rao); effectiveness and colonization studies.  Texas A. & M. Univ. Press.


Schuster, M. F., J. C. Boling & J. J. Marony, Jr.  1971.  Biological control of rhodesgrass scale by airplane releases of an introduced parasite of limited dispersing activity. p. 227-250.  In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control.  Plenum Press, New York.  511 p.


Wene, G. P. & P. T. Riherd.  1950.  Oil emulsion to control rhodes grass scale.  J. Econ. Ent. 43:  386.


Williams, R. N. & M. F. Schuster.  1969.  Cochonilha dos capin (Antonina graminis) no Brasil.  Part I.  Distribuicao E. Plantas Hospldeiras.  Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira.