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PURPLE SCALE

 

Lepidosaphes [= Cornuaspis ] beckii (Newman) -- Diaspididae

 

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This is one of the destructive insect pests of citrus worldwide.  Apparently of Oriental origin, it has posed major problems in citrus in Central and South America, Mediterranean areas, South Africa, Australia, Hawaii, Florida, Texas and California (DeBach & Landi 1961).  Highly specific to citrus, purple scale is rarely found on other plants. 

 

Purple scale became a major pest of citrus in coastal areas around 1908, and is thought to have invaded in 1889.  Two coccinellid predators, Orcus chalybeus (Boisduval) and Rhizobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) were introduced in 1891, when it was thought that this scale would become a major pest.  Both predators were established, but only Rhizobius lophanthae remained common.  However, no biological control is thought to have resulted from this establishment (Rosen & DeBach 1978).

 

During 1948-1950 the parasitoids Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere and Coccobius (= Phycus) fulvus (Compere & Annecke) were imported from the Oriental Region (DeBach & Landi 1961).  After efforts to colonize this parasitoid, it was recognized as established throughout all infested areas (Kennett et al. 1999).  Colonization attempts of C. fulvus were successful in only one area (Rosen & DeBach 1978).  The rate of scale population growth was greathly reduced with the action of A. lepidosaphes (DeBach & Landi 1961); nevertheless, some oil spraying was deemed necessary for grower satisfaction. 

 

Aphytis lepidosaphes was translocated to other countries and states during 1952-1968, with complete biological control occurring in most attempts (DeBach 1971).  Reports of success were from Texas (Dean 1961), Mexico (Maltby et al. 1968), Peru (Herrara 1964), Chile (Gonzalez 1969), France (Benassy et al. 1974), Greece (DeBach & Argyriou 1967) and South Africa (Bedford 1973, Annecke & Moran 1982).  DeBach (1971) reported that A. lepidosaphes seemed responsible for substantial to complete control in almost every area where accidental colonization (ecesis) occurred (Rosen 1967, Fabres 1974).  Fortuitous biological control involving ecesis has also taken place with other speices of Aphytis (DeBach 1971).

 

For additional details of biological control effort and biologies of host and natural enemies, please see the following (Isaac 1905, Flanders 1936, 1950, 1952, 1953; Ferris 1937, Quayle 1938, Rojas 1954, Dean 1955, Clausen 1956, Jimenez-Jimenez 1958, Clancy & Muma 1959, DeBach 1959, Ebeling 1959, Dean & Bailey 1960, Muma & Clancy 1961, Wood 1963, Rosen 1965, Gonzalez & Rojas 1966, Muma & Selhime 1967).

 

 

REFERENCES:            [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]

 

Annecke, D. P. & V. C. Moran.  1982.  Insects and Mites of cultivated plants in South Africa.  Butterworth & Co., South Africa.  383 p.

 

Bedford, E. C. G.  1973.  Biological control proves successful.  Citrus and Subtrop. Fruit J., Feb. 1973, p. 5-11.

 

Benassy, C., H. Bianchi & E. Franco.  1974.  Note sur l'introduction en France d'Aphytis lepidosaphes Comp. (Hymenopt., Aphelinidae) parasite de la cochenille virgule des Citrus (Lepidosaphes beckii Newm.) (Homopt., Diaspididae).  Compt. Rend. SCAN. Acad. Agri. France 60:  191-96.

 

Clancy, D. W. & M. H. Muma.  1959.  Purple scale parasite found in Florida.  J. Econ. Ent. 52:  1025-26.

 

Clausen, C. P.  1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States.  U . S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1139.  151 p.

 

Dean, H. A.  1955.  Factors affecting biological control of scale insects on citrus.  J. Econ. Ent. 48:  444-47.

 

Dean, H. A.  1961.  Aphytis lepidosaphes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), an introduced parasite of purple scale.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 54:  918-20.

 

Dean, H. A. & J. C. Bailey.  1960.  Introduction of beneficial insects for the control of citrus scale insects and mites.  Rio Grande Val. Hort. Soc. J. 14:  40-6.

 

DeBach, P.  1959.  New species and strains of Aphytis (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) parasitic on the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) in the Orient.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 52:  354-62.

 

DeBach, P.  1971.  Fortuitous biological control from ecesis of natural enemies.  In:  Entomological Essays to Commemorate the Retirement of Professor K. Yasumatsu.  Hokuryukan Publ. Co., Tokyo.  389 p.

 

DeBach, P. & L. C. Argyriou.  1967.  The colonization and success in Greece of some imported Aphytis spp. (Hym.: Aphelinidae) parasitic on citrus scale insects (Hom.: Diaspididae).  Entomophaga 12:  325-42.

 

DeBach, P. & J. Landi.  1961.  The introduced purple scale parasite, Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, and a method of integrating chemical with biological control.  Hilgardia 31:  459-97.

 

Ebeling, W.  1959.  Subtropical Fruit Pests.  Univ. of Calif. Div. Agric. Sci. Publ.  436 p.

 

Fabres, G.  1974.  Contribution O l'etude d'A. lepidosaphes (Hym.: Aphelinidae) parasites de Lepidosaphes beckii (Hom.: Diaspididae) en Nouvelle Caledonie.  Ann. Soc. Ent. France 10:  371-79.

 

Ferris, G. F.  1937.  Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America, Series I.  The Diaspididae.  Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif.  275 p.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1936.  Coccidophilus citricola Brethés, a predator enemy of red and purple scales.  J. Econ. Ent. 29:  1023.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1950.  An enemy of purple scale recently established in California.  Calif. Citrog. 36:  64-5.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1952.  Another parasite of purple scale established in California.  Calif. Citrog. 37:  234, 256-57.

 

Flanders, S. E.  1953.  Hymenopterous parasites of three species of Oriental scale insects.  Portici R. Scuola Super. di Agric. Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agric. Bol. 33:  10-28.

 

Gonzalez, R.  1969.  Biological control of citrus pests in Chile.  Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2:  839-47.

 

Gonzalez, R. H. & S. P. Rojas.  1966.  Estudio analítico del control biológico de plagas agrícolas en Chile.  Agric. Tech. 26:  133-47.

 

Herrara, J. M.  1964.  Ciclos biólogicos de los queresas de las cítricos en la costa central.  Peruana Ent. 7:  1-8.

 

Isaac, J.  1905.  Bug vs. bug.  Calif. State Hort. Comm. 1st Bienn. Rept., 1903-04:  79-107.

 

Jimenez-Jimenez, E.  1958.  Aphytis lepidosaphes, un enemigo natural de la escame purpurea Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.).  Fitofilo 11:  37-42.

 

Kennett, C., J. A. McMurtry & J. Beardsley.  1999.  Subtropical and tropical crops.  In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.

 

Quayle, H. J.  1938.  Insects of Citrus and Other Subtropical fruits.  Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, New York.  583 p.

 

Maltby, W. L., E. Jimenez Jimenez & P. DeBach.  1968.  Biological control of armored scale insects in Mexico.  J. Econ. Ent. 61:  1086-88.

 

Muma, M. H. & D. W. Clancy.  1961.  Parasitism of purple scale in Florida citrus groves.  Gla. Ent. 44:  159-65.

 

Muma, M. H. & A. G. Selhime.  1967.  Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Florida citrus.  Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. (1966) 79:  86-91.

 

Rojas, P. S.  1954.  Aphytis sp. X, enemigo natural de la "Concheuela Morada" de los citrus.  Agric. Tech. Chile 14:  112-15.

 

Rosen, D.  1965.  The hymenopterous parasites of citrus armored scales in Israel (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 58:  388-96.

 

Rosen, D.  1967.  Biological and integrated control of citrus pests in Israel.  J. Econ. Ent. 60:  1422-27.

 

Rosen, D. & P. DeBach.  1978.  Diaspididae.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds.  U.S.D.A. Agric. Handbk. No. 480, Washington, D.C.  545 p.

 

Wood, B. J.  1963.  Imported and indigenous natural enemies of citrus coccids and aphids in Cyprus, and an assessment of their potential value in integrated control programmes.  Entomophaga 8:  66-82.