Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) -- Gelechiidae
GO TO ALL: Bio-Control Cases
When P. gossypiella invaded the lower Colorado Desert of Arizona and California in 1978, within 10 years the following damages resulted: (1) total cotton area dropped from 79,942 ha. to 37,130 ha., (2) total value of cotton dropped from $245,812,807 to $71,803,418, (3) insect control costs increased from $375.59/ha. to $639.98/ha., and (4) whitefly populations increased exponentially with pyrethroid insecticide use (Johnson et al. 1982) producing severe honeydew, yield loss and disease symptoms in cotton and surrounding vegetables (tomatoes, cucurbits, sugar beets and lettuce).
Pectinophora is a numerically small genus but based on its distribution and species richness, the center of endemicity appears to lie along the coastal rim of Australia extending from southeast Queensland to northern Western Australia. From Australia pink bollworm probably taken by humans to Indonesia and then further distributed to parts of Africa, India, Mexico and the United States.
It is believed that Pectinophora originated in Australia or in neighboring islands to the northwest of the continent on a malvaceous plant other than domesticated cotton. Generally ignored in all discussions of pink bollworm movement is the positional relationship of Indonesia. This region seems geographically pivotal and important in understanding pink bollworm movement. Indonesia has not been an important cotton producing region and therefore it has been largely ignored in an analysis of pink bollworm problems. Nevertheless, movement of pink bollworm into the Indonesian Archipelago from Northern Australia seems obvious. The earliest record of pink bollworm on Java dates from 1903 (Kalshover 1981). More recently, pink bollworm was observed on Bali, Lombok, Flores and Timor; this would suggest that it is widespread in Indonesia (G. Gordh, unpub. data).
The shift of pink bollworm from Australia to Indonesia seems probable in that: (1) the movement could have been affected by trade, probably by indigenous peoples (the Bugis or Makassar of Sulawesi) before Dutch colonization or (2) pink bollworm naturally invaded the islands of Indonesia at an earlier time in geological history (Miocene-Pleistocene). Once on the islands of Indonesia, pink bollworm was sustained on some of the numerous species of malvaceous plants in that region. Two host plants commonly used by pink bollworm, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Thespesia populnea, are widespread in Indonesia.
In this hypothetical scenario, subsequent trade between India and the Indonesian Archipelago, probably during the Hindu expansion, moved pink bollworm into India. In India, pink bollworm remained at insignificant levels on endemic alternative host plants, such as Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus spp., Thespesia populnea, etc. During this period of residence in India, pink bollworm may have been transported to Africa by traders.
When American cotton was imported into India, pink bollworm quickly shifted hosts. Movement to Egypt probably occurred from India via transport of seed. Movement elsewhere within Africa probably occurred from the spread of pink bollworm in Tanzania northward into Kenya and thence along the coast into Somalia. Movement to Brazil and Mexico came through transport of infested seed originating in Egypt. Movement to Malaysia, China and Hawaii came through transport of infested seed originating in India. Pink bollworm has been described from India in 1843 and subsequently recovered in Hawaii (1901), East Africa (1904), Malaysia and Burma (1906), Egypt (1907), Australia (1911), Mexico (1911), Brazil (1913), Texas (1917), China (1918) and California (1965).
Spread in Egypt and the United States
The history of pink bollworm in Egypt is tied to the production of cotton. During historical times cotton was woven into fabric before it was cultivated in Egypt (Ballou 1919). Cotton production probably began in the 13th or 14th century. Production was increased and the industry stimulated about 1820. Then cotton in Upper Egypt was produced as a perennial crop; cotton in Lower Egypt was produced as an annual crop. The first cotton seeds used for commercial plantings in Egypt were obtained from ornamental gardens near Cairo. This so-called Jumel cotton was cultivated for many years as a three-year perennial. Subsequently Sea Island cotton was imported from Georgia and Florida in the United States, and Peruvian cotton was imported from brazil. During the latter half of the 19th century Ashmuni and Mit Affifi were the common varieties produced.
Pink bollworm was first noted in spinning mills near Alexandria in 1906-07 (Pearson 1958). Willcocks (1916) first detected pink bollworm in field plots during November-December 1910. The moth may have been present in Egypt as early as 1903. Accounts of pink bollworm in Egypt around 1879 have not been confirmed. That is the year in which the cotton worm, Prodenia litura, was discovered in Egypt. Records of pink bollworm in Egypt around 1879 may refer to cotton worm. Alternative host plants for pink bollworm in Egypt include Bamia, Hibiscus esculentus, teel, Hibiscus cannabinus, and hollyhock, Althea rosea (Willcocks 1916). The source of the infestation has been traced to badly ginned cotton received from India (Willcocks 1916). It was noted that Caravonica cotton seed had been introduced into Egypt from Queensland, but no pink bollworms were detected. By 1912 pink bollworm was the most common pest of cotton in Lower Egypt.
Pink bollworm was first intercepted in the United States at Hearne, Texas on September 10, 1917 by Mr. Ivan Schiller (Hunter 1918). Infestations in Texas developed from Mexican cotton seed taken to Texas for oil extraction. Subsequent infestations may have resulted from bales of ginned cotton swept from the wharves of Galveston during hurricanes of August 1915 (Hunter 1918). Presumably the cotton bales washed ashore near cultivated cotton.
Pink bollworm was first detected on wild cotton in southern Florida during 1932, but origin of the infestation cannot be documented. The pest was detected on cultivated cotton in northern Florida and southern georgia at about the same time, and persisted until eradicated during 1936. Pink bollworm persists at very low levels on wild cotton in the Florida Keys (G. Gordh pers. commun.).
Pink bollworm was first reported in California during 1965 (Legner & Medved 1979). Problems with this insect in the southwestern United States since 1965 have centered in New Mexico, Arizona and the California lower desert. More substantial acreage of cotton growing in the Central Valley of California have experienced sporadic infestations which are controlled by releases of sterile pink bollworm males.
During the past 80 years, 160 species in 43 genera of parasitic Hymenoptera have been collected with or reared from pink bollworm infested cotton (Gordh 1989). The genera Apanteles, Bracon, Brachymeria, Chelonus and Elasmus among the parasitic Hymenoptera contribute numerous species of potentially useful pink bollworm parasitoids. Efforts to permanently establish 14 imported parasitic Hymenoptera on the pink bollworm in the lower Colorado Desert of California and Arizona during 1969-78 we thwarted by widespread insecticide application, even though field reproduction of eight species was recorded. Inundative releases of parasitoids produced varying levels of pink bollworm reduction, the best performance being attained with egg-larval parasitoids, Chelonus spp. (Braconidae). A Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus (Cameron) obtained from the presumed native range of pink bollworm in northwestern Australia was most effective, giving an adjusted 69.9% infested boll reduction by August 24 at the equivalent release rate of 2,667 females/ha. (Legner & Medved 1979). Extensive collections in northwestern Australia in 1991-92 revealed that Apanteles oenone and a Dirhinnus sp. were very active on P. gossypiella (J. Altmann, unpub. data). Nutritional studies have been conducted by Legner & Thompson (1977)
Insecticide applications eventually eliminated attempts to biologically control pink bollworm in the United States. Insecticides represent the primary control measure which has been successful in limiting damage of pink bollworm in commercial cotton. However, during more than 40 years of application, insecticides have not solved the problem anywhere in the world: each growing season finds pink bollworm present and developing resistance to toxic compounds.
All of the common predators in cotton fields are capable of feeding on pink bollworm eggs and first instar larvae (Jackson 1980). Biological control programs were initiated at the University of California during the late 1960's. Field work during this period focused on survey of predators occurring naturally in the lower desert. Laboratory studies were summarized by Orphanides et al. (1971); field studies were summarized by Irwin et al. (1974). These studies show that several groups of arthropods attack pink bollworm naturally, including mites, predaceous Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Neuroptera. The egg stage is most vulnerable to attack by predators because it is relatively exposed when compared to larvae and pupae. Most predators lack morphological modification of the legs and mouthparts necessary to penetrate bolls to feed on pink bollworm larvae. The dermapteran Labidura riparia (Pallas) attacks all immature stages of pink bollworm including the pupa (Orphanides et al. 1971). However, the predator is not a dominant element in a predatory complex. Hemiptera are abundant in cotton in southeastern California, and at least five species in five genera of Hemiptera have been recovered from pink bollworm. Hemiptera seem to express the broadest range of attack, feeding on eggs, larvae, cocooned larvae and probably pupae. Irwin et al. (1974) found that Nabis, Geocoris and Orius all demonstrated effectiveness in field studies. Coleoptera are well represented with four species in four genera attacking pink bollworm. Most beetles focus on eggs and early instar larvae as prey. Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is the only neuropteran reported attacking pink bollworm in California, and seems to prefer eggs and early instar larvae (Orphanides et al. 1971). There is little data about the consumption of pink bollworm by predators under natural field conditions.
The alfalfa/cotton ecosystems are basically composed of eight genera of numerically important primary consumers, six genera of predators and associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids in New Mexico (Gordon et al. 1986). A number of parasitoid species and most predaceous arthropods are non host specific (Huffaker & Rabb 1984). Ehler & van den Bosch (1974) suggested that most common predators in cotton fields are opportunists that switch between primary consumer and other predaceous prey species depending on availability. Although animal populations may be associated for a number of reasons, predation is one of them, and the measurement of interspecific association may be used to reduce the total possible testable combinations (Smith 1980). Ellington (1988) analyzed 17 predator/primary consumer and predator/predator genera from 862 cotton samples for co-occurrence from 1981-84 and 1987. There were 273 significant co-occurrences above three (3-14). A switching parasitoid or predator can stabilize an otherwise unstable host/parasitoid interaction (Murdock 1969, Royama 1971). A primary consumer like pink bollworm entering an ecosystem with a high density, species rich arthropod complex, may experience a damped density response.
Arthropod Complexity in Cotton
The cotton ecosystem is very complex. In Arkansas about 600 species of predators representing 45 families of insects, 9 families of spiders and 4 families of mites may be associated with cotton (Whitcomb & Bell 1964). In the San Joaquin Valley, California, 300-350 arthropod species may be found in cotton (van den Bosch & Hagen 1966). This complex arthropod group may be composed of three trophic levels: primary consumers, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids and predators. Some 15-30 genera may be present in sufficiently high numbers to warrant evaluation. Included in this group are four superfamilies of minute, parasitic Hymenoptera which are responsible for the biological control of many key phytophagous species and are often unfortunately the first arthropods to be removed by insecticide application because they have lower genetic variability and exhibit lower detoxification capacities (Croft 1990).
Potential For Biological Control
The gelechiid moth genus Pectinophora contains three species: P. gossypiella (Saunders), P. scutigera (Holdaway), and P. endema (Common). All three species occur in Australia: P. gossypiella occurs in the Northern Territory and Western Australia; P. scutigera and P. endema occur in Queensland.
Life history data is provided by Fullaway (1909) and Busck (1917) for pink bollworm in Hawaii. Similar information is provided by Gough (1916, 1920) and Ballou (1918) for pink bollworm in Egypt and Hunter (1918) and Loftin et al. (1921) for pink bollworm in Mexico. Russo (1940) provided an extensive description of anatomy for all stages of development, based on studies in Somalia. Holdaway (1926) discussed the bionomics and biology of spotted pink bollworm in relation to pink bollworm. He concluded that the spotted species was native to Queensland and that its primary host plants were Hibiscus tiliaceus and Thespesia populnea; commercial cotton was a secondary host. Common (1958) reviewed the species of Pectinophora associated with cotton in Australia, described P. endema from eastern Australia, and provided a key to the species.
All species of Pectinophora are potential pests because they feed upon the buds, flowers and seed capsules of malvaceous plants. The list of hostplants for pink bollworm is extensive and has been summarized by Li (1936) and Noble (1969). Pectinophora gossypiella and P. scutigera are pests of cotton; P. endema attacks hibiscus in Australia but not cotton. Pectinophora gossypiella became a commercial problem because its larval stage frequently enters diapause while in seed capsules, which enabled the pest to become widespread. In contrast the spotted bollworm does not enter larval diapause within seed capsules and therefore has not become widespread (Sloan 1946). In Queensland P. scutigera is not an especially important pest of cotton, but can cause damage to late maturing bolls and reach more serious levels of infestation when cotton is grown near other host plants.
During the past 80 years, 160 species in 43 genera of parasitic Hymenoptera have been collected with or reared from pink bollworm infesting cotton (Gordh 1989), most of which are probably casual. The Hymenoptera are divided into at least 13 superfamilies which contain about 80 families and more than 100,000 identified species. Within this numerically large and biologically diverse group, species which attack pink bollworm are restricted to the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea, Chalcidoidea and Chrysidoidea.
Although several genera of ichneumonids have been reported attacking pink bollworm, no group prevails. In contrast, the genera Apanteles, Bracon and Chelonus among the Braconidae contribute numerous species of parasitoids. Gordon Gordh (1992) reported that only two genera of Trichogrammatidae have been taken from pink bollworm eggs, but it is doubtful that these collections were actually from that host. Trichogramma is cosmopolitan in distribution and presently contains more than 12 species. Biological information developed on the genus indicates that host specificity is not common. Gordh stated that the genus is substantially larger than presently recognized and probably contains many species which potentially attack pink bollworm eggs. The problem with this is that true pink bollworm, P. gossypiella sequesters its eggs under the calyx and other plant structures in a manner that is not generally available to parasitoids in the Trichogrammatidae.
The genus Trichogrammatoidea has generally been ignored in biological control work. This genus contains about 30 species and is predominantly Indo-Australian in distribution. A few records exist for the new world, but these probably represent expansions of the natural geographical distribution by species transported in commerce. Most recently two species have been recovered from Pectinophora scutigera in Queensland, Australia, which deposits its eggs in an exposed position on host plants. Gordon Gordh reported that they also readily attack P. gossypiella (G. Gordh, unpub. data), but this information is undoubtedly wholly from data secured in confinement cages in the laboratory, where indeed trichogrammatids are easily mass cultured (J. Altmann & E. F. Legner, personal observations).
History of Biological Control Effort
Biological control efforts were undertaken in Egypt during 1928-35, with the introduction of Bracon mellitor (Say) from Hawaii, Bracon kirkpatricki (Wilkinson) from Kenya and the Sudan, and Bracon lefroyi (Dudgeon & Geough) from India (Kamal 1951). No practical results were reported although the latter species became established.
In the United States importations to Texas during 1932-35 were made of Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael) from Europe, and B. mellitor from Hawaii. Chelonus blackburni (Cameron) from Hawaii and Exeristes roborator F. from Egypt. Additional strains of these species as well as B. nigrorufum (Cushman) and Chelonus pectinophorae (Cushman), were made from Korea during 1937-44. Although large numbers were released, they were not established. Failure to do so was attributed to concurrent heavy insecticide usage. Final attempts to establish parasitoids from India were made in 1953-55. Bracon brevicornis, B. gelechiae (Ashmead), Chelonus heliope (Gupta), and Apanteles angaleti (Muesebeck) importations also failed, reportedly due to intensive pesticide treatment and low winter temperatures (McGough & Noble 1955, 1957; Noble 1969, Noble & Hunt 1937).
Bracon kirkpatricki and C. blackburni were introduced in southern Arizona during 1917-74, with only minor impact on P. gossypiella being recorded (Bryan et al. 1973, 1976; Fye & Jackson 1973). It is significant that most of these parasitoids were known from other hosts than P. gossypiella, and that they were colonized under unfavorable circumstances. Therefore, when biological control efforts began in California in 1969, explorations were extended to acquire not only previously tested species, but specific ones as well (Legner & Medved 1979).
In the biological control effort in California, parasitic Hymenoptera that were successfully reared from P. gossypiella were obtained during explorations in India, eastern Africa, southern Europe, Australia and Hawaii. The parasitoids were cultured from 5-20 founders and colonized in cotton fields infested with P. gossypiella in southeastern California and western Arizona. The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) was used for mass propagation, with no known deleterious effects on the biology of the parasitoids (Legner & Thompson 1977). Specific experiments were designed to measure the ability of a particular parasitoid to permanently establish in cotton fields, and its regulative impact on the pink bollworm population (Legner & Medved 1979). Eight out of 14 parasitic species introduced in the area reproduced in the field, but no species was ever recovered in the summer following the year of release, even though field reproduction in the release year was often significant and overwintering possibilities existed (Fye & Jackson 1973, Legner 1979).
During the year in which releases were made, parasitoid recovery was greatest in autumn months following peaks in host abundance, which was probably due to a combination of parasitoid reproduction and more favorable environmental conditions for development in the cooler autumn period (Legner & Medved 1979). Significant regulative impact against P. gossypiella by several parasitic species was detected (Legner & Medved 1979), but as no carry-over to the second year was possible, compounded control with time was not observable. It was concluded that in the absence of widepread insecticide applications, annual early season parasitoid releases over large areas of cotton might result in a drop of pink bollworm density if continued for several years, with decreasing numbers of parasitoids required for control in succeeding years as pink bollworm densities drop through parasitization.
A lack of genetic heterogeneity in imported parasitoids also could have restricted their influence especially as founder cultures never exceeded 20 individuals. A further search in the presumed endemic range of pink bollworm in northwestern Australia and southern Indonesia (Common 1958, Wilson 1972), might yield additional effective species and strains. However, a permanent self-perpetuating regulation may be difficult to attain as natural restrictions on the early germination of cotton at the higher latitudes in springtime may cause an asynchrony whereby emerging overwintering parasitoids cannot find hosts upon which to develop successfully (Legner 1979 ).
A search for natural enemies in the endemic range of P. gossypiella in northwestern Australia was supported by the University of California in 1981-82 (Sands & Hill 1982), and US/AID in 1981-83. Two species of Elasmus (Westwood), E. broomensis and E. bellicaput (Girault) were found. Elasmus broomensis was determined to be a primary parasitoid and considered as a useful agent for biological control (Naumann & Sands 1984). Additional species found were Apanteles oenone Nixon and Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus. As part of the survey, 21 species of Lepidoptera including 5 Gelechiidae) were reared from the seed capsules of Malvaceae. The possibility of hyperparasitic activity by the Elasmus was eliminated experimentally.
Genetic Incorporation Into Cotton of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin
The gene for a larvicidal toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis was incorporated into the genome of commercial cotton and an array of other plant species that are grown commercially for food and fiber. The degree of pest control never reached economically acceptable levels, and resistance of Lepidoptera to the toxin as of 2017 has very high, as would be expected from any non-living killing agent. The levels of control from many previous widespread field applications of Bacillus thuringiensis were never spectacular, so that the poor performance was not surprising.
Additional detail on biological / integrated control, biology of hosts natural enemies and pheromone disruption may be found in the "References" section.
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Anonymous. 1960. Cotton growing countries of the world, the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic. Liverpool Raw Cotton Annual. p. 71-167.
Anonymous. 1981. Half monthly report No. 704, for the 2nd half of July 1981. Cotton Bureau, Aleppo Min. Agr. Agrar. Ref. S.A.R. 12 p.
Abdel, K. 1971. Studies on different predators of certain economic pests. M.S. Thesis, Plant Protection Dept. of Agric., Assiut University, Egypt.
Abdel-Fattah, M. I., M. M. Hosny & G. El-Saadany. 1980. The spacing and density of cotton plants as factors affecting populations of the bollworms, Earias insulana Boisd. and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt 60: 85-94.
Abdel-Rahim, W. A., S. M. I. Metwally & F. El-Dakrousy. 1980. Effect of certain physical and chemical characteristics of cotton varieties on susceptibility to infestation by pink and spiny bollworm. Plant Prot. Dept., Tanta Univ., Kaft-el-Sheikh, Egypt. p. 727-31. (RAE, A: 69: 5118).
Abou-Zeid, N. A., M. S. I. El-Dakroury, A. H. El-Heneidy & M. S. T. Abbas 1978. Biology of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. parasitising Heliothis armigera Hb. in Egypt (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agric. Res. Rev 1978: 31-36.
Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & A. I. Merdan. 1978/1979. The control of the cotton bollworms, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and Earias insulana (Boisd.). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt, Econ. Ser. 11: 35-9.
Abul-Nasr, S., E. D. Ammar & S. M. Farrag. 1979. Rates of infestation by Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders and Earias insulana Boisd. on flowering sites of the cotton plant (Lep.). Deutsche Entomologische Z. 26: 165-72.
Adkisson, P. L., L. H. Wilkes & S. P. Johnson. 1958. Chemical, cultural and mechanical control of the pink bollworm. Texas Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 920.
Adkisson, P. L. & J. C. Gaines. 1960. Pink bollworm control as related to the total cotton insect control program of Central Texas. Texas. Agric. Expt. Sta. MP. 444.
Afify, A. M. & A. I. Merdan. 1969. On tracing the response of some Egyptian cotton worms in different larval ages to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Z. angew. Ent. 63: 263-7.
Agarwal, R. A. & K. N. Katiyar. 1979. An estimate of losses of seed kapas and seed due to bollworms on cotton in India. Indian J. Ent. 41: 143-8.
Ahmad, T. & G. Ullah. 1939. Ecological studies on the spotted bollworms of cotton and their parasites. I. The preimaginal development and viability of Earias fabia and Microbracon lefroyi under different conditions of temperature and humidity. Indian J. Ent. 1: 17-47.
Allah Noor. 1984. Integration of biological and chemical control methods in management of cotton bollworms in India. Pap. Nat. Seminar on Integr. Pest Management, Nagpur, 5-7 Jan. 1984.
Al-Azawi, A. F. 1964. Studies on the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. on the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. and other lepidopterous insects. Entomophaga 9: 137-45.
Alfiere, A. 1929. The introduction of a parasite (Microbracon kirkpatricki (Wilk.)) of the pink bollworm into Egypt. Soc. Roy. Ent. d'Egypte Bull. (1928): 52-6.
Awate, B. G. & L. M. Naik. 1981 Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against bollworms (Earias spp and Pectinophora gossypiella S.) on cotton in Maharashtra State. Cotton Development 11: 65-6.
Awate, B. G., L. M. Naik & G. Y. Parlekar. 1977. Possibility of introducing exotic parasite Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead in the integrated control of cotton bollworms. Cotton Development 7: 21-2.
Balasubramanian, G., M. Biasubramanian & R. Kulandeivelu. 1981. Prediction of bollworms' damage in cotton in relation to weather factors. Madras Agr. J. 68: 657-9.
Ballou, H. A. 1918. The pink bollworm (Gelechia gossypiella) in Egypt. J. Econ. Ent. 11: 236-45.
Barbandy, A. R. 1973. Cotton insects in the Deir-ez-Zor province. Min. Agr. Agrar. REf. S.A.R., Rept. 40. 32 p. [in Arabic].
Bartlett, K. A. 1937a. Introduction and colonization in Puerto Rico of pink bollworm parasites. Puerto Rico Agric. Expt. Sta., Agric. Notes 77. 5 p.
Beeden, P. 1974. Bollworm oviposition on cotton in Malawi. Cotton Grow. Rev. 51: 52-61.
Beingolea, O. G. 1980. Cotton protection through integrated pest control. Sonsultancy Rept., TCP/SYR/001, FAO, Rome. 30 p.
Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.). 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Bishara, I. 1936. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Min. Agric. Egypt Tech. Bull. 163.
Bishara, I. 1954a. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Part II. The cotton sticks problem. Min. Agric. Egypt Tech. Bull. 268.
Bishara, I. 1954b. Some pink bollworm studies in Egypt. Part III. Fighting the early pink bollworm moths. Min. Agric. Egypt. Tech. Bull. 269.
Bottrell, D. G. & P. L. Adkisson. 1977. Cotton insect pest management. Annu. Rev. Ent. 22: 451-81.
Brazzel, J. R. & D. F. Martin. 1957. Oviposition sites of the pink bollworm on the cotton plant. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 122-4.
Broodryk, S. W. 1971. Some ecological observations on Earias spp. [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]. Rhod. J. AGr. Res. 9: 41-3.
Broza, M., G. D. Butler, A. Venetzian & A. Shavit. 1990. Bacillus thuringiensis on cotton seed oil as control agents in an integrated pest management program for cotton in Israel. Isr. J. Ent. 23: 149-56.
Bryan, D. E., R. E. Fye, C. G. Jackson & R. Patana. 1973. Releases of bracon kirkpatricki (Wilkinson) and Chelonus blackburni Cameron for pink bollworm control in Arizona. USDA ARS Prod. Res. Rept. 150. 22 p.
Bryan, D. E., C. G. Jackson, R. Patana & E. G. Neemann. 1971. Field cage and laboratory studies with Bracon kirkpatricki, a parasite of the pink bollworm. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 1236-41.
Busck, A. 1917. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. J. Agric. Res. 9: 343-70.
Butani, D. K. 1974. Insect pests of cotton XVII-- Effects of cotton varieties, cultural practices and fertilizers on infestation by pink bollworms. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 29: 237-40.
Butler, G. D., Jr. & P. L. Tirchie, Jr. 1971. Feed wheast and the abundance and fecundity of Chrysopa carnea. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 923-34.
Cabello-Gardia, T., P. Vargas-Piqueras, T. & P. Piqueras-Vargas. 1985. Estudio con olfactometro de la influencia de la planta y del insecto huésped en la actividad de bçsqueda de Trichogramma cordubensis Vargas y Cabello, T. sp. nr. bues (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). Bol. Serv. Def. Contr. Plagas Insp. Fitopatol. 11: 237-41.
Campion, D. G. & M. M. Hosny. 1987a. Biological, cultural and selective methods for control of cotton pests in Egypt. Ins. Sci. & Applic. 8: 803-5.
Chakravarthy, A. K. 1982. Bollworms infestation in relation to the phenology of Arboreum cotton. Ph.D. Thesis, Punjab Agr. Univ., Ludhiana. 165 p.
Chakravarthy, A. K., A. S. Sidhu Joginder-Singh & J. Singh. 1985. Effect of plant phenology and related factors on insect pest infestations in arboreum and hirsutum cotton varieties. Ins. Sci. & Appl 6: 521-32.
Chatterjee, P. N. 1941. Note on some parasites of Shisham defoliators at Allahabad and Dehradun, India. Indian J. Ent. 3: 157-70.
Cherian, M. C. & H. S. Kylasam. 1941. Preliminary notes on teh parasites of the spotted and pink bollworms of cotton in Coimbatore. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci B-14: 517-28.
Cherian, M. C. & V. Margabnadu. 1943. Preliminary trials with Trichogramma parasites for the control of cotton boll worms. Madras Agr. J. 31: 107-11.
Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1982. Host-searching kairomones alter behavior of Chelonus sp. nr. curvimaculatus, a hymenopterous parasite of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Environ. Entomol. 11: 452-455.
Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1983. Field applications of host-searching kairomones to enhance parasitization of the pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 76: 254-255.
Chiri, A. A. & E. F. Legner. 1986. Response of three Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species to kairomones in scales of six Lepidoptera. Canad. Entomol. 118: 329-333.
Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.
Common, I. F. B. 1958. A revision of the pink bollworms of cotton [Pectinophora Busck (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] and related genera in Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 6: 268-306.
Critchley, B. R., D. G. Campion, L. J. McVeigh, P. Hunter-Jones, D. R. Hall, A. Cork, B. F. Nesbitt, G. J. Marrs, A. R. Jutsum, M. M. Hosny & A. Nasr, El-Sayed. 1983. Control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Egypt by mating disruption using an aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone formulation. Bull. Ent. Res. 73: 289-99.
Critchley, B. R., D. G. Campion, L. J. McVeigh, E. M. McVeigh, G. G. Cavanaugh, M. M. Hosny, A. Nasr, El-Sayed, A. A. Khidr & M. Naguib. 1985. Control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Egypt by mating disruption using hollow-fibre, Laminate-flake and microencapsulated formulations of synthetic pheromone. Bull. Ent. Res. 75: 329-45.
Croft, B. 1990. Arthropod biological control agents and pesticides. John Wiley & Sons, New York
Curl, L. F. & R. W. White. 1952. The pink bollworm. Insects, The Year Book of Agriculture. U. S. Dept. Agric, Washington, D.C.
Delattre, R. 1947. Insectes du cotonnier nouveaux au peu connus en Côte d'Ivoire (II). Coton Fibr. Trop. 2: 97-100 (Rev. Allpl Ent. A-38: 461.).
Deshpande, B. P. & N. T. Nadkarny. 1936. The spotted bollworm of cotton, Earias fabia Stoll and Earias insulana Boisd., in south Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Indian Coun. Agr. Res. Sci. Monogr. 10: 1-208.
Dhawan, A. K., A. S. Sidhu & G. S. Simwat. 1988. Assessment of avoidable loss in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum) due to sucking pesta and bollworms. Ind. J. Agr. Sci. 58: 290-2.
Dutt, G. R. & M. S. Patel. 1943. The cotton bollworms (Earias fabia Stoll, Platyedra gossypiella Saund. and Heliothis obsoleta Fabr.) in the central provinces and Berar. Indian J. Agr. Sci. 13: 1-17.
Ehler, L. E. & R. van den Bosch. 1974. An analysis of the natural biological control of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in California. Canad. Ent. 106: 1067-1073.
El-Heneidy, A. H. 1976. Studies on the insect fauna of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) fields. M.S. Thesis, Dept. Econ. Ent. & Pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Cairo University, Egypt.
El-Heneidy, A. H. & M. S. T. Abbas. 1984. Population dynamics of certain insect predators associated with aphids in maize fields in the Giza region. Beitrage Landwirtsch. 22: 407-13.
El-Heneidy, A. H., M. S. T. Abbas & M. S. El-Dakroury. 1978. Seasonal abundance of certain predators in untreated Egyptian clover and cotton fields in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 62: 89-95.
Ellington, J., K. Kiser, B. Lewis & G. Ferguson Faubion. 1988. Cotton insect research in New Mexico. Intern. Cotton Pest Work Committee, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.
El-Nawawy, A. S., O. Lamie, E. A. Kadous, A. A. Ayasha, S. El-Deeb, A. Salama, M. Abbessy & A. Hossny. 1978. Control of spiny and pink bollworms in A. R. Egypt. Rept. Fac. Agr., Tant Univ., Egypt. p. 667-76. (RAE,A 68: 222).
El-Saadany, G., M. P. El-Shaarawy & S. A. El-Rafaee. 1976. Determination of the loss in cotton yield as being affected by the pink bollworm P. gossypiella (Saund.) and the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.). Z. angew. Ent. 79: 276-81.
Evans, R. B. 1978. Cotton in Syria. Foreign Agricultural Service, U. S. Dept. Agr. 27 p.
Faissayre, M. 1977. Contribution to knowledge of the entomolophagous complex on cotton crops in south-western Madagascar. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 32: 35-8.
Fenton, F. A. 1952. Field Crop Insects. MacMillan Co., New York. 405 p.
Ferrière, C. 1929. On three new chalcid parasites of Platyedra. Bull. Ent. Res. 20: 255-59.
Fletcher, T. B. & C. S. Misra. 1920. Cotton bollworms in India. Rep. Proc. 3rd Ent. Mett. Pusa. p. 433-72.
Fullaway, D. T. 1909. Insects of cotton in Hawaii. Hawaii Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 18. 27 p.
Fye, R. E. 1979. Cotton insect populations. USDA Tech. Bull. 1592.
Gerling, D. 1971. Occurrence, abundance and efficiency of some local parasitoids attacking Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in selected cotton fields in Palestine (Israel). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64: 492-99.
Ghobrial, A. & V. Dittrich. 1980. Early and late pest complexes on cotton, their control by aerial and ground application of insecticides and side effects on the predator fauna. Z. angew. Ent. 90: 306-13.
Gonzalez, D., D. A. Ramsay, T. F. Leigh, B. S. Ekhom & R. van den Bosch. 1977. A comparison of vacuum and whole-plant methods for sampling predaceous arthropods on cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 66: 750-60.
Gough, L. H. 1916. The life history of Gelechia gossypiella from the time of the cotton harvest to the time of cotton sowing. Minist. Agric. Egypt, Tech. Si. Serv. Bull. 4 (Entomology). 16 p.
Gough, L. H. 1917. The rate of increase of the pink bollworm in green bolls in the period July to November 1916. Tech. Bull. Min. AGric. Egypt 13. 26 p.
Gough, L. H. 1920. The pink bollworm in Egypt. Report on the Proceedings 3rd Ent. Meetings, Pusa 2: 472-532.
Gough, L. H. 1922. On the dispersion of the pink bollworm in Egypt. Tech. Bull. Min. Agric. Egypt 24. 20 p.
Gutierrez, A. P., G. D. Butler, Y Wang & D. Westphal. 1977. The interaction of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), cotton and weather: a detailed model. Canad. Ent. 109: 1457-68.
Hafez, M. & A. Abd E-Hamid. 1965. On the feeding habits of the aphid lion, Chrysopa vulgaris. Sch. Agric. Res. Rev. 43: 37-46.
Hamed, A. R., F. A. Hassanein & M. S. T. Abbas. 1983. On the abundance of certain predators in cotton fields in Egypt. Proc. 5th Arab Pesticide Conf. Tanta Univ, Sept. 1983 vol 2: 324-28.
Hamed, A. R. 1984. History of biological control of cotton pests and recent activities in Egypt. Report of the 2nd African Inter-Country IPC Steering Committee session, Cairo, Egypt, May 26-29.
Hammad, S. M., A. M. El-Minshawy & A. Salama. 1965. Studies on Microplitis rufiventris Kok. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypt 49: 215-19.
Hanna, H. M. & N. E. F. Hamad. 1976. Lunar periodicity and flight activity of nocturnal Lepidoptera at different levels. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 59: 17-27.
Hargreaves, H. 1948. List of recorded cotton insects of the world. Commonw. Inst. Ent., London. Rept. p. 1-50
Hassanein, M. H., H. Hafez & G. A. M. Rizk. 1970. The susceptibility of certain cotton varieties to bollworm infestation. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 53: 261-9.
Hill, D. A. 1975. Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 516 p.
Holdaway, F. G. 1926. The pink bollworm of Queensland. Bull. Ent. Res. 17: 67-83.
Hosny, M. M. & A. G. Metwally. 1967. A new approach to the problem of pink bollowrm control in U.A.R. (Based on an early partial treatment of cotton fields around villages). U.A.R. Ministry of Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1: 37-54.
Hosny, M. M., G. Saadany, R. Iss-Hak, E. A. Nasr, G. Moawad, M. Naguib, A. A. Khidr, S. H. Elnagar, D. G. Campion, B. R. Critchley, K. Jones, D. J. McKinley, L. J. McVeigh, C. P. Topper & R. Iss-Hak. 1983. Techniques for the control of cotton pests in Egypt to reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides. Proc. 10th Intrnatl Cong. Plant Protect., Brighton Eng., 20-25 Nov. 1983. 1: 270.
Huffaker, C. B. & R. L. Rabb. 1984. Ecological Entomology. John Wiley & Sons.
Hunter, W. D. 1918. The pink bollworm with special reference to the steps taken by the Department of Agriculture to prevent its establishment in the United States. USDA Bull. 723. 30 p.
Hussain, M. A. 1925. Annual report of the entomologist. Rep. Dep. Agr. Punjab 1923-24. 1: 55-90.
Hussain, M., A. Askari & G. Asadi. 1976. A study of Bracon lefroyi [Hymenoptera: Braconidae] from Iran. Ent. News 87: 299-302.
Ibrahim, A. A. 1974. Studies on biological control of Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. in A.R.E. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt. 282 p.
Ibrahim, A. M. 1963. An indication of the effect of widespread use of pesticides on the population of some predators in cotton fields. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypt 46.
Irwin, M. E., R. W. Gill & D. Gonzalez. 1974. Field-cage studies of native egg predators of the pink bollworm in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 67: 193-96.
Jackson, C. G. 1980. Entomophagous insects in the United States. In: H. M. Cerham (ed.), Pink Bollworm in the Western United States.
Jackson, C. G. 1986. Effects of cold storage of adult Anaphes ojijentatis on survival, longevity and oviposition. Southwest Ent. 11: 149-53.
Jayaratnum, T. J. 1941. A study of the control of coconut caterpillar Nephantis serinopa (Meyr) in Ceylon with special reference to its eulophid parasite, Trichospilus pupivora Férr. Trop. Agr. 96: 3-21.
Johnson, M. W., N. C. Toscano, H. T. Reynolds, E. S. Sylvester, K. Kido & E. T. Natwick. 1982. Whiteflies cause problems for southern California growers. calif. Agric. Vol. 36.
Jutsum, A. R., G. J. Marrs, R. F. S. Gordon, d. G. Campion, B. R. Critchley, L. J. McVeigh, A. Cork, D. R. Hall, B. F. Nesbitt, M. M. Hosny & E. A. Nasr. 1983. Control of crop pests with microencapsulated insect pheromones. Proc. 10th Internatl. Cong. Plant Prot., Brighton, Eng., 20-25 Nov, 1983. 1: 266-7.
Kalshoven, L. G. E. 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia. P. T. Ichtiar Baru - Van Hoeve, Jarkarta. 701 pp. (in Dutch).
Kamal, M. 1935. Recent advances in the control of the pink boll-worm (Platyedra gossypiella) by natural enemies. 6th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. 2: 567-81. & Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 20: 259-93 (Rev. Appl. Ent. A-25: 331).
Kamal, M. 1936. Recent advances in the control of pink bollworm (Platyedra gossypiella Saunders) by natural enemies. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 20: 259-93.
Kamal, M. 1951a. Biological control projects in Egypt, with a list of introduced parasites and predators. Bull.Soc. Fouad Ler. d'Entomol. 35(44): 205-20.
Kamal, M. 1951b. The biological control of the cotton leafworm (Prodenia litura F.) in Egypt. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 35: 221-70.
Katiyar, K. N. 1977. Impact of flowering sequence on the incidence of bollworms in some varieties of cotton. Indian J. Ent. 39: 324-32.
Katiyar, K. N. 1977. Impact of flowering sequence on the incidence of bollworms in different varieties of cotton. Entomologists Newsl. 7: 31.
Katiyar, K. N. 1982. Relationship between time of flowering and bollworm infestation in cotton. Indian J. Ent. 44: 373-92.
Katiyar, K. N. & D. K. Butani. 1978. Incidence of bollworms vis-a-vis development of cotton bolls. Indian J. Ent. 40: 245-53.
Kaushik, U. K., V. S. Rathore & N. K. Nood. 1969. Incidence of bollworms and losses caused to cotton in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Ent. 31: 175-7.
Khalifa, A. 1979. Breeding for bollworm resistance in cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Cotton et Fibres Tropicales 34: 309-14.
Khalil, F. M., A. A. Naher, F. Abdul-Kawi & H. Mostafa. 1976. Effect of pesticides on population densities of predators of cotton pests. Agr. Res. Rev. 54: 63-70.
Khan, Q. & V. P. Rao. 1968. Insects and mites pests, p. 217-301. In: Cotton In India, a Monograph 2. Ind. Cent. Cot. Comm., Bombay.
Khandage, V. S., K. M. Pokharkar & L. M. Naik. 1980. Studies on the efficacy of Trichogramma brasiliensis A., egg parasite and Apanteles angaleti M. larval parasite in controlling cotton bollworms. Andhra Agr. J. 27: 41-2.
Khan, M. H. & P. M. Verma. 1945. Studies on Earias species (the spotted bollworms of cotton) in the Punjab. Part III. The biology of the common parasites of E. fabia Stoll, E. insulana Boisd. and E. cupreoviridis Walker. Indian J. Ent. 7: 41-63.
Kokujev, N. 1914. Hymenoptera parasitica nova fauna turanica a. V. I. Platnkov cellecta. Revue Russe d'Entomologie, St. Petersburg 13: 513-14.
Lal, M. M. 1913. Preliminary report on cotton bollworms in the Punjab. Rep. Dept. Agr. Punjab. 6 p. (Rev. Appl. Ent. a-6: 334).
Lefroy, H. M. 1906. An outbreak of cotton pests in the Punjab. Bull. Agr. Res. Inst. Pusa No. 2: 1-18.
Legner, E. F. 1979. Emergence patterns and dispersal in Chelonus spp. near curvimaculatus and Pristomerus hawaiiensis, parasitic on Pectinophora gossypiella. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 72: 681-6.
Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved. 1979. Influence of parasitic Hymenoptera on the regulation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, on cotton in the lower Colorado Desert. Environ. Ent. 8: 922-30.
167. Legner, E. F. & S. N. Thompson. 1977. Effects of the parental host on host selection, reproductive potential, survival and fecundity of the egg-larval parasitoid, Chelonus sp. near curvimaculatus Cameron, reared on Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) and Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). Entomophaga 22: 75-84.
Li, F. 1936. Pink bollworm problem. Ent. Phytopath. 4(16-17): 322-34.
Li, T. S., C. Z. Li & J. G. Wei. 1984. Biology of Polistes antennalis Perez and its use in the control of lepidopterous insects in cotton fields. Nat. Enem. Ins. Kunchong-Tiandi 6(2): 101-3, 70. [in Chinese].
Loftin, U. C., K. B. McKinney & W. K. Hanson. 1921. Report on investigations of the pink bollworm of cotton in Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 918: 64 p.
Mahalle, V. P., R. D. Ghodka & J. S. Saxena. 1976. Economic injury level of cotton bollworms. Indian J. Ent. 38: 27-32.
Mani, M., R. Nagarajan, N. S. Dognathan & V. D. Gurusway-Raja. 1976. Varietal susceptibility to cotton mite and bollworms. Cotton Development 6: 16.
Manoharan, V. & M. Balasubramanian. 1982. Relative toxicity of some insecticides to adults of Chelonus blackburni Gam. Entomol. 7: 227-28.
McGough, M. & L. W. Noble. 1955. Colonization of imported pink bollworm parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 48: 626-27.
McGough, M. & L. W. Noble. 1957. Summary of work at Brownsville, Texas, with imported pink bollworm parasites and an aphid predator. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 514.
Metcalf, C. L., W. P. Flint & R. L. Metcalf. 1962. Destructive and Useful Insects. Ed. 4. McGraw-Hill, New York. 1087 p.
Metwally, A. G. 1961. Studies on the pink bollworm. M.S. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt.
Mohammad, A. & Y. Mohammad. 1972. Parasites of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella Saund. and spotted bollworm, Earias spp. of cotton at Lyallpur. Pakist. J. Agr. Sci. 9: 70-5.
Monim, A. & S. Talhouk. 1969. Insects and mites injurious to crops in Middle Eastern countries. Paul Parey, Hamburg & Berlin.
Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1956. Some braconid parasites of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. Portici 33: 57-68.
Murdock, W. W. 1969. Switching in general predators experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecol. Monogr. 39: 334-35.
Murugesan, S. & S. Parameswaran. 1978. Comparative efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis and certain insecticides on cotton bollworms infestation. Cotton Development 8: 27-9.
Nagaraja, H. & S. Nagarkatti. 1970. Three new species of Trichogramma [Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae] from India. Entomophaga 14: 393-400.
Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & G. A. Gangrade. 1956. The biology and rate of reproduction and the morphology of the immature stages of apanteles Muesebeck [Hymenoptera: Braconidae]. Beitr. Ent. 6: 296-320.
Narayanan, E. S. 1962. Bionomics, biology and method of control of some important insect pests of cotton in India. Rept. Indian Cent. Cotton Comm., Bombay. 44 p.
Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & G. A. Gangrade. 1956. The biology and rate of reproduction and morphology of the immature stages of Apanteles angaleti Muesebeck. [Hymenoptera: Braconidae]. Beitr. Ent. 6: 296-320.
Narayanan, E. S., B. R. Subha Rao & T. S. Thontadarya. 1962. Effect of temperature and humidity on the rate of development of the immature stages of Apanteles angaleti Muesebeck [Braconidae: Hymenoptera]. Proc. Nantn. Inst. Sci. India B-28: 150-63.
Nasr, E. A. & A. K. Azab. 1970. Susceptibility of different cotton varieties to bollworms infestations. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte 53: 459-74.
Naumann, I. D. & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their taxonomy and biology. J. Austral. Ent. Soc. 23: 25-32.
Niles, G. A. 1980. Breeding cotton for resistance to insect pests, p. 337-70. In: F. G. Maxwell & P. R. Jennings (eds.), Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects. John Wiley, New York.
Noble, L. W. 1969. Fifty years of research on the pink bollworm in the United States. USDA Agric. Handbk. 357. 62 p.
Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1937a. Method of rearing Microbracon kirkpatricki Wilk. and Microbracon mellitor Say. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. ET-99. 2 p.
Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1937b. Imported parasites of pink bollworm at Presidio, Texas, 1932-1936. J. Econ. Ent. 30: 842-44.
Noble, L. W. & W. T. Hunt. 1942. Method of rearing the pink bollworm parasites Chelonus and Microbracon. J. Econ. Ent. 35: 597.
Noble, L. W. & O. T. Robertson. 1964. Methods for determining pink bollworm populations in blooms. J. Econ. Ent. 57: 501-03.
Nyiira, Z. M. 1970. A note on the natural enemies of lepidopterous larvae in cotton-d bolls in Uganda. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 1461-2.
Ohlendorf, W. 1926. Studies of the pink bollworm in Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 1374. 64 p.
Orphanides, G. M., D. Gonzalez & B. R. Bartlett. 1971. Identification and evaluation of pink bollworm predators in southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 421-4.
Ouye, M. T. 1962. Effects of antimicrobial agents on micro-organisms and pink bollworm development. J. Econ. Ent. 55: 854-57.
Owen, W. L. & S. L. Calhoun. 1932. Biology of the pink bollworm at Presidio, Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 25: 741-51.
Patel, R. C. 1980. Role and feasibility of natural enemies in integrated pest management of cotton. Andhra Agr. J. 27: 35-40.
Patel, R. C. & D. N. Yadav. 1980. Biological control of cotton pests. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds. PAU, Ludhiana, India. 6 p.
Pawar, A. D. & J. Prasad. 1985. Evaluation of some exotic parasites in biocontrol of cotton bollworms in Haryana. Ind. J. Plant Prot. 13: 21-4.
Pearson, E. O. 1958. The insect pests of cotton in tropical Africa. Empire Cotton Growing Corp. and Commonwealth Inst. of Ent. London. 355 p.
Prasad, J., A. D. Pawar & P. Singh. 1986. Role of exotic and indigenous parasites Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma acheae Nagaraja & Nagarakati, Chelonus blackburni Cameron and Bracon kirkpatricki (Willinson), for the control of cotton bollworms in Hissar (Haryana) India, p. 190-94. In: S. C. Goel (ed.), Pest. Res. & Environ. Poll., Muzaffarnagar, India: Sanatan Dharm College.
Qadri, A. H. 1933. Rhogas aligharensi sp. n. (a pink bollworm parasite). Curr. Sci. 2: 209.
Rao, K. J., T. S. Thontadarya & K. Rangadhamaiah. 1979. A note on the survival and parasitism of the egg-larval parasite, Chelonus blackburni Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on some lepidopterous hosts. Curr. Res. 8: 48-50.
Rao, V. P., M. A. Ghani, T. Sankaran & K. C. Mathur. 1971. A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in south east Asia and the Pacific region. Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. 6. 149 p.
Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, A. D. Deshpande, U. T. Thombre, N. R. Seera, D. S. Tayade & B. B. Gaikwad. 1978. Studies on the mass multiplication field release and recovery of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashm. an egg parasite of cotton bollworms at Parbhani. J. Res. Maharashtra Agr. Univ. 3: 103-8.
Raodeo, A. K., P. P. Kausale & M. B. Sarkate. 1980. Possibilities of biological control of cotton bollworms. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests & Weeds. PAU, Ludhiana, India. p. 69-74.
Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, D. S. Tayade & G. G. Bilapate. 1983. Population dynamics of cotton bollworms in Marathawada. Cotton Development 13: 10-23.
Raodeo, A. K., M. B. Sarkate, P. K. Kaunsale, G. G. Bilapate & K. S. Shinde. 1983. Possibilities of biological control of cotton bollworms [Earias vittella, Earias insulana, Pectinophora gossypiella, Heliothis armigera, Chelonus blackburni, w/ Bracon kirkpatricki]. Cotton-Dev. Bombay: Dir. Cot. Dev., July 1983, Vol. 13: 31-4.
Room, P. M. 1979. A prototype on-line system for management of cotton pests in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales, Australia. Prot. Ecol. 1: 245-64.
Room, P. M. & K. G. Wardhaugh. 1977. Temporal distribution of insects other than Heliothis spp. feeding on cotton in the Namoi Valley of New South Wales, Australia. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 16: 165-74.
Rude, C. S. 1937. Parasites of the pink bollworm in northern Mexico. J. Econ. Ent. 30: 838-42.
Russo, G. 1940. Contributo alla conoscenza degli insetti dannosi al cotone nell'Africa orientale Italiana. I. Lepidotteri. Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr., Portici 3: 105-220.
Salama, H. S. & M. S. Foda. 1984. Studies on the susceptibility of some cotton pests to various strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Z. angew. Pflanzenk. Pflanzens. 91: 65-70.
Salama, H. S., M. S. Foda & A. M. El-Sharaby. 1981. Potency of spore-endotoxin complexes of Bacillus thuringiensis against some cotton pests. Z. angew. Ent. 91: 388-98.
Sands, D. P. A. & A. R. Hill. 1982. Surveys for parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Australia. CSIRO Aust. Div. Ent. Rept. 29. 18 p.
Sangwan, H. S., S. N. Verma, A. K. Sharma & R. P. Singh. 1972. Establishment of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead at the seed research station, Karnal (Haryana). Entomologist's Newsletter 2: 69-70.
Sangwan, H. S., S. N. Varma & V. K. Sharma. 1972. Possibility of integration of exotic parasites Trichogramma brasiliensis (Ashmead) for the control of cotton bollworms. Indian J. Ent. 34: 360-1.
Sarkate, M. B., A. K. Raodeo, N. R. Seeras & M. D. Jawale. 1978a. Field release and recovery of Chelonus blackburni Cameron an exotic egg larval parasite of cotton bollworms. Res. Bull. Marathwada Agric. Univ. 2: 15-16.
Sarkate, M. B., A. K. Raodeo, N. R. Seeras & M. D. Jawale 1978b. Note on the recovery of Chelonus blackburni Cameron (Braconidae; Hymenoptera), an exotic egg-larval parasite of cotton bollworms. Curr. Sci. 47: 473.
Satpathy, J. M. & N. S. Rao. 1972. Biology and bionomics of Brachymeria nephantidis Gahan [Hymenoptera: Chalcididae], a pupal parasite of coconut caterpillar (Nephantis serinopa (Meyrick). Indian J. Agr. Sci. 42: 524-28.
Sekhon, B. S. & G. C. Varma. 1983. Parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella [Lep.: Gelechiidae] and Earias spp. [Lep.: Noctuidae] in the Punjab. Entomophaga 28: 45-54.
Sengonca, C. 1982. The principal cotton pests and their economic thresholds in the Kilikien Plain in southern Turkey. Entomophaga 27: 51-6.
Shalaby, F. F. 1968. Morphology of immature stages and bionomics studies on Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). M. S. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt.
Sharma, S. K., S. D. Mathur, R. M. Khan & B. N. Mathur. 1971. Evaluation of some modern insecticides for the control of insect pests of cotton by means of aerial spraying and their effect on parasites and predators. Z. für Pflanzenkrankheiten, Pflanzenpathologie u. Pflanzenschutz 78: 286-95.
Shorey, H. H. & R. L. Hale. 1965. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine nocutid species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 522-24.
Singh, J., T. H. Singh, H. S. Kaley & K. Singh. 1974. Influence of cotton plant morphology on bollworms incidence. Cotton Development 4: 15-19.
Singh, J., R. Arora & A. S. Sidhu. 1987/1988. First records of predators of cotton pests in the Punjab India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc. 84: 456.
Sloan, W. J. S. 1946. The status of heat treatment of plant cotton seed for the control of pink bollworm, Pectinophora scutigera Hold., in Queensland. Qlds. J. Agric. Sci. 3(1): 80-5.
Sohi, G. S. 1964. Pests of cotton. Entomology in India. Ent. Soc. India, New Delhi. p. 111-14.
Srinivasan, P. M., M. M. Basheer, P. A. Ibrahim & A. Janagarajan. 1965. Control of bollworms in rain-fed and irrigated cotton. Madras Agr. J. 52: 487.
Stam, P. A. 1983. Cotton pest management in the Syrian Arab Republic. Tech. Rept., FAO/UNEP/0108/76/03. FAO, Rome. 135 p.
Stam, P. A. 1987. Integrated pest control on cotton in Pakistan. End of Assignment Rept., FAO/UNDP, PAK/83/003, FAO, Rome. 87 p.
Stam, P. A. & A. Tunc. 1983. Prospects of integrated pest management on cotton int he Cukarova region in Turkey. TEch. Rept., FAO/TUR/83/003, FAO, Rome. 44 p.
Sukhoruchenko, G. I., O. D. Niyasov & A. Alekseev. 1977. The effect of modern pesticides on the beneficial and injurious insect pests of cotton. Ent. Obozr. 46: 3-4.
Sundaram, N. & K. Natarajan. 1977. Relative susceptibility of cotton varieties for jassic, thrips and bollworms. Cotton Development 7: 34-6.
Surulivelu, T. 1980. Investigations on the utility of certain exotic parasites for the pest management of cotton bollworms. Proc. 3rd All India Coord. Res. Proj. on Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds, PAU, Ludhiana, India.
Swamiappan, M. & M. Balasubramanian. 1980. Studies on mass multiplication and potentiality of Chelonus blackburni Cam. a braconid parasite of cotton bollworms. Entomol. 5: 73-5.
Talhouk, A. S. 1969. Insects and mites injurious to crops in Middle Eastern countries. Z. angew. Ent. 21: 239 p.
Taylor, T. H. C. 1936. Report on a year's investigation of Platyedra gossypiella (Pink bollworm) in Uganda, March 1935 to April 1963. Rep. Dept. Agr. Uganda 1935-36. Part 2. p. 19-39. (Rev. Appl. Ent. A-25: 355).
Tawfik, M. F. S., S. I. El-Sherif & N. A. Bbozeid. 1976. Population fluctuations of the rove-beetle Paederus alferii Koch. (Col., Staphylinidae) in maize, cotton and clover fields in Giza. Z. angew. Ent. 80: 75-83.
Taylor, T. H. C. 1936. Report on a year's investigation of Platyedra gossypiella (pink bollworm) in Uganda (March, 1935 to April, 1936). Rep. Dept. Agr. Uganda 1935-36, Part 2. p. 19-39.
Thangavelu, K. 1982. Some observations on light trap cateches of cotton bollworm moths. Cotton Development 12: 55-7.
Thimmaiah, G. 1979. Evaluation of cotton varieties for bollworms infestation. Curr. Res. of Univ. (Agric. Sci.) 8: 86-8.
Thontadarya, T. S. & K. Jai Rao. 1984. Integrated management of cotton pests with parasitoids as one of the components. Pap. Nat. Seminar Integr. Pest Manage., Nagpur 5-7 Jan, 1984.
Tuhan, N. C., A. D. Pawar & R. S. Arora. 1987. Use of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead against cotton bollworms in Srigangangar, Rajasthan, India. J. Adv. Zool. 8(2): 131-4.
van den Bosch, R. & K. S. Hagen. 1966. Predaceous and parasitic arthropods in California cotton fields. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 820.
Varma, G. C. 1979. A new record of Trichogrammatoidea sp. near guamensis Nagaraja (MS) [Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera] an egg parasitoid of Earias species. Cott. Dev. 8: 43.
Varma, G. C., S. Bindra & S. Singh. 1976. A preliminary study on the control of cotton bollworms with Trichogramma brasiliensis. Cotton Dev. 6: 16-18.
Varma, G. C., B. Maninder & B. S. Sekhon. 1980. Biological control of cotton bollworms in the Punjab, p. 59-66. In: Proc. 3rd Workshop of All India Coord. Res. Proj. Biol. Contr. of Crop Pests and Weeds, PAU, Ludhiana, India.
White, G. F. & L. W. Noble. 1936. Notes on pink bollworm septicemia. J. Econ. Ent. 29: 122-24.
Whitcomb, W. H. & K. Bell. 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Ark. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 690.
Wilkinson, D. S. 1931. Four new species of Ichneumonidae. Bull. Ent. Res. 22: 393-97.
Willcocks, F. C?. 1916. The Insect and Related Pests of Egypt. Vol. I. The Insect and Related Pests Injurious to the Cotton Plant. Part 1. The Pink Bollworm. Sultanic Agric. Soc., Cairo. 339 p.
Willcocks, F. A. & S. Bahgat. 1937. The insects and related pests of Egypt. Insects and mites injurious to the cotton plant. Sultanic. Agric. Soc., Cairo 1(2). 791 p.
Wilson, A. G. L. 1972. Distribution of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), in Australia and its status as a pest in the Ord irrigation area. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 38: 95-9.
Wilson, A. G. L. & L. R. Greenup. The relative injuriousness of insect pests of cotton in the Namoi Valley, New South Wales. Aust. J. Ecol. 2: 319-28.
Wilson, A. G. L., R. D. Hughes & N. Gilbert. 1972. The response of cotton to pest attack. Bull. Ent. REs. 61: 405-14.
Williams, C. B. 1926. Seasonal variation in pink bollworm attack on cotton in Egypt in the years 1916-1924. Tech. Bull. Min. Agric. Egypt. 12 p.
Wright, W. E. & M. I. Nikitin. 1964. A survey of insects in cotton in New South Wales. Aust. J. Sci. 27: 178-9.
Zaki, F. N. 1985. Reactions of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westw. to certain insect sex pheromones. Zeit. angew. Ent. 99: 448-53.