Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) -- Pseudococcidae
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The long-tailed mealybug is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world where it attacks many kinds of plants, including avocado, citrus and mango. Flanders (1940) believed that because of its scarcity and high parasitism in Australia, it was native to that continent. Shortly after its appearance in southern California in 1933, biological control was begun based on data secured earlier by Flanders (1940). The parasitoids Anarhopus sydneyensis Timberlake from Australia in 1934, Hungariella peregrina (Compere) from Brazil in 1935 and Anagyrus fusciventris Girault from Hawaii in 1936, were introduced. All three established, but A. sydneyensis became dominant (Flanders 1940).
In 1943-45 additional outbreaks occurred in south California. DeBach (1949) and DeBach et al. (1949) showed that six parasitoids and eight predators now attacked the long-tailed mealybug. The most abundant parasitoids in decreasing importance were Anarhopus sydneyensis, Hungariella pretiosa, Coccophagus gurneyi and H. peregrina. Anagyrus fusciventris was not found. Abundant predators were brown lacewing, Sympherobius californica Banks, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the green lacewing, Chrysopa californica Coquillett. Although parasitoids were most important during springtime, predators were believed to be the greatest mortality factors (Kennett et al. 1999).
When P. longispinus invaded avocado in California, Flanders (1944) reported that A. sydneyensis and H. peregrina gave complete biological control. In Israel where biological control importations of A. sydneyensis and H. peregrina were made in 1953, only H. peregrina established (Rivnay 1968).
For further details on biological control effort and biologies of host and natural enemies, please see the following (Clausen 1915, DeCastella & French 1929, Compere & Flanders 1934, Flanders 1940a, 1940b; Joubert 1943, DeBach & Fleschner 1947, Bartlett & Lloyd 1958, Bennett & Hughes 1959, Browning 1959, McKenzie 1967, Rosen 1967).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Bartlett, B. R. & D. C. Lloyd. 1958. Mealybugs attacking citrus in California-- a survey of their natural enemies and the release of new parasites and predators. J. Econ. Ent. 51: 90-3.
Bennett, F. D. & I. W. Hughes. 1959. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bull. Ent. REs. 50: 423-36.
Browning, T. O. 1959. The long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus adonidum (L.) in South Australia. Austral. J. Agric. Res. 10: 322-39.
Clausen, C. P. 1915. Mealybugs of citrus trees. Calif. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 258: 19-48.
Compere, G. 1934. Anarhopus sydneyensis Timb., an encyrtid parasite of Pseudococcus longispinus (Targ.) recently introduced into California from Australia. J. Econ. Ent. 28: 966-73.
DeBach, P. 1949. Population studies of the long-tailed mealybug and its natural enemies on citrus trees in southern California, 1946. Ecology 30: 14-25.
DeBach. P. & C. A. Fleschner. 1947. Biological control of the long-tailed mealybug. Calif. Citrog. 33: 22-4.
DeBach, P., C. A. Fleschner & E. J. Dietrick. 1949. Population studies of the long-tailed mealybug and its natural enemies on citrus in southern California, 1947. J. Econ. Ent. 42: 777-82.
DeCastella, F. & C. French. 1929. Mealy bug (Dactylopius longispinus), a potential vine pest. Victoria Dept. Agric. J. 27: 427-33.
Flanders, S. E. 1940. Biological control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus. J. Econ. Ent. 33: 754-59.
Flanders, S. E. 1940a. Biological control of the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus. J. Econ. Ent. 33: 754-59.
Flanders, S. E. 1940b. Biological control of long-tailed mealybug on citrus and avocado. Calif. Citrog. 25: 146: 154-55.
Flanders, S. E. 1944. Control of the long-tailed mealybug on avocados by hymenopterous parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 37: 308-09.
Joubert, C. J. 1943. The introduction into the Union of South Africa of some natural enemies of mealy bugs. J. Ent. Soc. So. Africa 6: 131-36.
Kennett, C. E., J. A. McMurtry & J. W. Beardsley. 1999. Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
McKenzie, H. L. 1967. Mealybugs of California. University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles. 526 p.
Rivnay, E. 1968. Biological control of pests in Israel (a review 1905-1965). Israel J. Ent. 3: 1-156.
Rosen, D. 1967. Biological and integrated control of citrus pests in Israel. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1422-27.